2A3 Kondensator 406mm / Capacitor-2P - self-propelled artillery
The Kondensator 2P is a Soviet 406mm gun with an range of 28 km. It was built in the late 1950s as an answer to the US 280mm atomic cannon. Its twin, the Oka was armed with an 420 mm breech loaded mortar. They were both built on an T-10 chassis. The main purpose of the gun was the destruction of large industrial and military objects of the enemy. This could be used as a conventional and nuclear missiles.
Creation of a self-propelled high-capacity 406-mm cannon began in 1954. According to the decree of the USSR Council of Ministers dated 18 November 1955, work began on the mortar carrier 2B1 "Oka" and self-propelled gun 2A3 "capacitor-2P".
The gun was designed to destroy large military and industrial targets of the enemy with the help of conventional and nuclear missiles. The special undercarriage for the gun was created on the basis of the T-10M, taken virtually unchanged from the tank design and the power plant. According to the classification GBTU chassis had the designation "Object 271".
Artillery unit, as well as mechanisms for loading and guidance developed under the leadership of I.I.Ivanova in SDB-34. In 1957 the Leningrad Kirov plant was collected the first prototypes and sent for field shooting. The large recoil when shooting the 2A3 "Capacitor-2P" was partially compensated with hydraulic shock absorbers. The gun in the vertical plane is induced by a hydraulic drive, and in the horizontal by rotation of the entire system. In order to improve the accuracy of traverse rotation mechanism was connected with a special electric motor. The final installation of the weight was 64 tons. The projectile weight was 570 kg, with a maximum firing range of 25.6 km.
Tests were conducted on the Central artillery range at Leningrad. The testing revealed a number of shortcomings of the artillery system, including guns rolled back a few meters, the destruction of equipment and others. After each test the installation was finalized, and the detected shortcomings were eliminated.
Initially, the tests were accompanied by numerous breakdowns. During the shot, the force of recoil of the CM-54 gun of the 2A3 "Condenser-2P" installation was such that the self-propelled gun rolled back several meters on the caterpillar track. At the first shots imitators of nuclear shells damaged sloths who could not withstand the great forces of recoil of such a powerful weapon. Later, there were reported cases of failure from the gearbox mountings, the equipment of the installation was falling apart.
After each shot, the material part was examined, weak points and details were revealed, and new technical solutions were adopted for solution. As a result, the design of the self-propelled plant was continuously improved, its reliability was enhanced. The tests also revealed the low maneuverability of the system.
However, it was not possible to fully reverse the rollback, and after the shot the unit drove back several meters. The angle of the horizontal aiming of the gun was also very small. Due to the significant mass and size characteristics for the preparation of the firing position, the 2A3 "Condenser-2P" gun required a lot of time, the accuracy of the firing required not only to accurately guide the gun, but also to carry out the preparatory work on the position carefully. Special equipment was used to load the gun; loading was performed only in a horizontal position.
In 1957, the SAU 2AZ took place in the parade on Red Square and made a furor among domestic inhabitants and foreign journalists. Some foreign experts have suggested that the cars shown on the parade are just props designed for an intimidating effect. However, this was a real artillery, fired at the range.
Work on eliminating defects and improving design were up until 1960, after which they were stopped by the decision of the USSR Council of Ministers. Four 2AZ "capacitor-2P" self-propelled guns were built. But serial production was not followed, as more effective missiles began to appear.
|Performance characteristics||2A3 406mm "Kapacitor-2P" self-propelled gun|
|Length with gun forward||20m|
|housing width||3.80 m|
|Ground Clearance||460 mm|
|Maximum road speed||65 km / h|
|Cruising on the highway||200 km|
|engine's type||In-12-6B diesel supercharged|
|Engine power||552 kW (751 hp) at 2100 rev / min|
|Specific power, l. p. / t||11.7|
|Suspension||Individual torsion beam|
|weaponry||406-mm gun SM-54|
|Sights||TPR-51, "angle", the C-71-5, ZIS-3|
|shooting range||25.6 km|
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