ATAKR "Ulyanovsk" - Design
The ship had a high-enclosed hull made of steel along the longitudinal recruitment system. The hull was divided into 20 watertight compartments. The superstructure (the "island") was located on the starboard side. The reservation system included a boxed protection of the ammunition cellars and anti-torpedo defense of the PKZ with a depth (in this case - a width) of 5 m. The latter consisted of three longitudinal bulkheads, one of which - the middle one - was armor. True, the PKZ calculated to counter the explosion of 400 kg of TNT, while the Americans, designing the aircraft carrier "Nimitz", proceeded from the value of 600 kg of TNT.
Along the left side there is a through passage from the bow to the stern, with flame retardant closures, in the fighting conditions the passage is dissected, and in each waterproof compartment there is an individual withdrawal shaft. To store the ammunition under the deck, there was a hangar measuring 175 x 32 x 7.9 meters.
Up to 70 aircraft and helicopters could be based on the aircraft: MiG-29K - 20 units, Su-33 - 25 units, Yak-44 - 8 units, Ka-27PL - 15 units, Ka-27PS - 2 units. On the flight deck, they were lifted using 3 lifts with a payload of 50 tons (2 on the starboard side and 1 on the left), opposite to each side opening on the hangar deck, rotary wheels were arranged to turn the aircraft after they had been rolled . In the aft part the optical system of landing of the OSB "Luna" was located. The power plant is nuclear, with 4 reactors of 305 mW and with 4 steam turbines of 50,000 hp each. (Total - 200 000 hp).
Drivers were 4 fixed-pitch screws with a diameter of 4.8 m at 300 revolutions. The full speed was 29.5 knots, the economic one is 18 knots. On auxiliary steam boilers, the ship could move 10 knots. The range of navigation and seaworthiness was unlimited. Systems of sedation were not foreseen (there were only long bilge keels). The capacity of the power plant was 27000 kW - 10 turbo-generators of 1500 kW, 8 diesel generators of 1500 kW. The stock of jet fuel was 5000 tons.
The crew is 2300 people, the air group is 1100 people, the flagship headquarters is 40 people. Autonomy - 120 days. It was supposed to be the system of organization worked out on previous TAKR: seven combat units, four services and three commands: (BT-1 navigator, BCH-2 missile-artillery, BCH-3 mine-torpedo, BCH-4 communications, BCH-5 electromechanical, 6 aviation, BC-7 radio technical, services - medical, chemical, survivability and supply, command - control, commandant, boatswain). Systems of sedation were not foreseen (there were only long bilge keels).
Armament of "Ulyanovsk" as a whole was repeated at the "Admiral Kuznetsov", but in the process of construction it could be improved (in particular, the replacement of the Zrik "Dirk" with "Palash" was envisaged). The ship's armament was to consist of 16 anti-ship missile launchers "Granit", 4 SM-9 anti-ship missile launchers, 8 "Kortik" launchers (later "Palash"), 2 RSU-12000 jet bombs, 8- And six-barreled 30-mm artillery systems AK-630M.
The radio equipment consisted of: TIRE-TRIP DIPLOMANT, Mars Passat multifunctional complex, Podberezovik three-coordinate radar, Podkat-M low-flying target detection radar, Andromeda navigation system, Centavr space communication system, Flight Control Radar "Resistor" and the system of targeting the fighters "Gazon", the station REB "Sozvezdie-BR", GAS "Zvezda-M1".
The ship was intended to provide combat stability to the fleet's units in the operationally important sea and ocean areas, as well as to destroy the enemy's naval groupings in cooperation with other naval forces. With the advent of atomic TAVKR "Ulyanovsk" domestic shipbuilding reached the world level. At that time, the ship had no analogs in the world. According to aviation-technical means, it was claimed to be quite comparable with the then-constructed US aircraft carrier George Washington, and because of the presence of strike missiles and anti-aircraft weapons, it surpassed it. According to combat effectiveness, designers said the TAVKR would have been quite comparable to American AB type "Nimitz" and much superior to the French "Charles de Gaulle."
"Ulyanovsk" at the shipyard in Nikolaev had an area of several dozen hectares. Stapel has two cranes with a height of 24-storey house and a load capacity of 900 tons each. Stapel is divided into two zones. This is done so that a ship with a length of more than 300 meters can be built simultaneously, with large modules and installation carried out in parallel.
Atomic heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "Ulyanovsk" in 1989-91 on the slipway was mounted as follows: the main length of 260 m was built on the right half, and its nose, 65 m long, was built side by side, on the left. Cranes installed large-block sections with a mass of 300-900 tons. To the assembly place of the modules, special automobile trailers brought in smaller parts of the aircraft carrier, weighing from 100 to 200 tons. The place for such an assembly is reserved for the construction of the "nose".
The development of the atomic steam generating plant of the APPU for the new aircraft carrier was carried out on the basis of the KN-3 reactors that were developed in production, which were installed on the Kirov-type nuclear cruisers, only of the forced type, with an active core resource extended to 12 years by using highly enriched uranium. Since August 1988, employees of the layout bureau started periodic maintenance of the manufacture and installation of reactor KN-3-43 at the construction plant. The ship's AEU with such characteristics in the world before it was not and still is not - the total capacity was 810 MW, which is almost twice as high as that of American aircraft carriers, the steam output would have reached 900 tons of steam at an average temperature of 475 degrees (!) . But in foreign fleets, deliberately lower the parameters of the working fluid, Using saturated rather than superheated steam. This increases safety and reduces accidents.
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