Project 1143.5 - Kuznetsov - Design
The flight deck area is 14,700 square meters and aircraft take-off is assisted by a bow ski- jump angled at 12 degrees in lieu of steam catapults. The 1982 decision of the MAP was entrusted with the development of technical proposals for the creation of a number of trampoline take-off aircraft of different types and purposes for the new TAKR. In the summer of the same year, a decision was made by the SME, MAP, the Navy and the Air Force to approve technical avenue 11435. In August 1982, the Nitka complex conducted flight tests of Su-27 and MiG-29 airplanes from an experimental springboard, which confirmed the practical feasibility of such take-off of aircraft of these types.
The idea of taking off the planes from a springboard was not new - it was first used by the British to take off with a short takeoff of its VTOL "Harrier". Traditional vertical take-off burned too much fuel, and take-off from a springboard made it possible to significantly increase both the weight of the suspended arms and the range of the aircraft. Only here the Soviet Yak-38 is similar to Harrier only externally - the English plane is much more perfect.
First of all, thanks to the unique compact single jack-lift engine with a deviated Rolls-Royce Pegasus traction vector. Because of the impossibility of creating an analog of such an engine by domestic Soviet industry, there were three (!) Engines on the Yakovlev design aircraft-one lifting and two lifting ones, serving in the flight with conventional ballast. Under such a scheme, the aircraft had almost no reserve for the payload. But without weapons, a military aircraft is useless. To at least something to place on the Yaks, the designers had to make it as easy as possible, and therefore, to weaken the design of the fuselage of the aircraft. As a result, unlike the English "Harrier", the Yak-38 was not designed for the loads that arise when taking off from a springboard - it could just fall apart.
In Crimea, the construction of the ground-based test and training complex "Nitka" was started, and for the most difficult task of creating a ship catapult, the Proletarsky Plant undertook. The question is, what did Ustinov think about, removing the catapult from the aircraft carrier and replacing it with a springboard and airplanes with shortened take-off and landing, if such aircraft could not take off from this springboard? Historians can only guess about this.
There is, incidentally, a lot of speculation around the domestic catapult, justifying, let's say mildly, the stupid decisions of the leadership of the Soviet Navy. For example, that the country simply was not able to create a steam catapult. This is really not true. Already on the "Nitke" began the construction of two catapults (recall, the production of "Proletarsky plant"). The first was intended for testing the air finishers, the second, directed towards the sea, for training pilots of ship aircraft. So, under the directive of Ustinov, they covered her. The first catapult was rescued by cunning, calling it in documents "the accelerating device for testing the air finishers."
The flight deck is equipped with arrester wires. Two starboard lifts carry the aircraft from the hangar to the flight deck. The ship has the capacity to support 16 Yakovlev Yak-41M (Freestyle) and 12 Sukhoi Su-27K (Flanker) fixed wing aircraft and a range of helicopters including four Kamov Ka-27-LD (Helix), 18 Kamov Ka-27 PLO, and two Ka-27-S.
The ship has a Granit anti-ship missile system equipped with 12 surface to surface missile launchers. The air defence gun and missile system includes the Klinok air defence missile system with 24 vertical launchers and 192 anti-air missiles. The system defends the ship against anti-ship missiles, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles and surface ships. The ship is equipped with an Udav-1 integrated anti-submarine system with 60 anti-submarine rockets.
Structurally, the ship consists of 24 blocks, weighing about 1,700 tons. Housing welded design with 7 decks and 2 platforms. During the construction of the ship used two cranes "Cane" Finnish production, capacity 900 tons each. The ship's hull is covered with a special radar absorbing coating. If the ship be divided into floors, their number will be 27 floors. Total inside ship holds 3857 rooms for various purposes, from which we mention: 4-cabin classes - 387 rooms, Kubrick - 134 rooms, dining rooms - 6 rooms, showers - 50 rooms. During the construction of the ship was used for more than 4 thousand kilometers of cable lines, 12 thousand kilometers of pipes for various purposes.
The ship received a through-deck area of more than 14,000 m2 with a springboard an angle of 14.3 degrees in the bow of the ship. On the edges and corners of the trampoline deck mounted profiled fairings. On the flight deck aircraft delivered 40-ton lifts (right side) on the bow and stern of the ship. Deck width - 67 meters. Plot the runway of 205 meters long and 26 meters wide at an angle of 7 degrees. Deck surface is covered with a special anti-slip coating and heat-resistant "Omega", and the portions of the vertical take-off / landing are covered with heat-resistant plates "AK-9FM". On the left and right sides of the launchers are two runways (length of the run-up to 90 meters), which converge at the upper end of the springboard.
The third runway is 180 meters long (the left side towards the stern). To ensure the protection of personnel and ensuring the aircraft taking off from the aircraft on the deck using deflectors with cooling. For landing on the deck of the aircraft used arresters "Svetlana-2" and the alarm threshold "Hope". Landing is carried out with the help of radio range navigation and optical landing system, "Luna-3". Closed hangar length 153 meters, width 26 meters and height of 7.2 meters could accommodate 70 percent of the regular air group. It also stored tractors, fire engines with special sets of tools.
The hangar is made semi-automatic system of chain transport regular aircraft, transport aircraft on the deck is performed by tractors. The hangar is divided into 4 compartments collapsible fire resistant curtains with electromechanical control, to ensure fire safety. Constructive protection topside ship shielded, internal protective barriers - composite structure by type steel / fiberglass / steel. The basic material selected high-strength steel (yield stress of 60 kgf / mm2). Tanks aviation fuel, fuel and ammunition protected by the local box-booking. For the first time in the construction of domestic ships used underwater structural protection. PKZ depth of about 5 meters. Of 3 longitudinal baffles, the second laminate was armored type. Unsinkable ensured in case of flooding 5 adjacent compartments of not more than 60 meters in length.
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