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Iran - Air Force

The US-trained Iranian Imperial Air Force was widely regarded as second only to Israel's in the Middle East - more than a match for Iraq and a serious adversary for even the Soviet Union. At its peak the Imperial Iranian Air Force, that of the Shah, had more than 450 modern combat aircraft, including then state of the art F-14A Tomcat fighters and about 5,000 well-trained pilots. On the eve of the Iranian Revolution in 1979 the Air Force, numbering close to 100,000 personnel, was by far the most advanced of the three Iranian military services and among the most impressive air forces in the developing world. Reliable information on the Air Force after the Revolution was difficult to obtain, but it seemed clear that by 1987 a fairly large number of the existing fleet had been cannibalized for spare parts.

A total of 14 air bases were operational: Ahvaz, Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, Chan Bahar, Dezful, Doshan Tapeh (Tehran), Ghaleh Morghi (Tehran), Hamadan, Isfahan, Mashhad, Mehrabad (Tehran), Shiraz, Tabriz and Zahedan. Soviet and Chinese-made aircraft, obtained following the Iranian Revolution were distributed throughout the country to fufill mission roles of ground attack, transport, training and interception. Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, Dezful, Hamadan, Tabriz and Mehrabad became the centers for ground attack squadrons. Shiraz was the home of the interceptor squadron. It also provided training along with, Mehrabad, Doshan Tapeh and Isfahan. Shiraz also housed the transport squadron.

Air Force headquarters was located at Doshan Tapeh Air Base, near Tehran. Iran's largest air base, Mehrabad, outside Tehran, was also the country's major civil airport. Other major operational air bases were at Tabriz, Bandar-e Abbas, Hamadan (Shahroki Air Base), Dezful (Vahdati Air Base), Shiraz, and Bushehr. Since 1980 air bases at Ahvaz, Esfahan (Khatami Air Base), and Bandar Beheshti had also become operational. The Air Force's primary maintenance facility was located at Mehrabad Air Base. The nearby Iran Aircraft Industries, in addition to providing main overhaul backup for the maintenance unit, was active in manufacturing spare parts.

Before the Revolution, the Air Force was organized into 15 squadrons with fighter and fighter-bomber capabilities and a single reconnaissance squadron. In addition, 1 tanker squadron, and 4 medium and 1 light transport squadron provided impressive logistical support. By 1986 desertions and depletions led to a reorganization of the Air Force into 8 squadrons again with fighter and fighter-bomber capabilities and 1 reconnaissance squadron. This reduced force was supported by 2 joint tanker-transport squadrons and 5 light transport squadrons. Some 76 helicopters and 5 surface-to-air missile (SAM) squadrons supplemented this capability.

From its inception, the Air Force also assumed responsibility for air defense. The existing early warning systems, built in the 1950s under the auspices of Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), were upgraded in the 1970s with a modern air defense radar network. To complement the ground radar component and provide a blanket coverage of the Gulf region, the United States also agreed to sell Iran 7 Boeing 707 airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft in late 1977. Following the Revolution, Washington canceled the AWACS sale, claiming that this sensitive equipment might be compromised. Finally, the Air Force's 3 SAM battalions and 8 Improved HAWK battalions were reorganized in the mid-1980s (in a project involving more than 1,800 missiles) into 5 squadrons that also contained Rapiers and Tigercats of British origin. Washington's sale of HAWK spare parts and missiles in 1985 and 1986 may have enhanced this capability.

Today the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force is representative of a handful of countries worldwide that have a moderately sized force utilizing some elements of technology that enhance their lethality and/or survivability. It is a hodge-podge of aircraft and capabilities resulting from multiple conflicts and previous military acquisitions. Its composition, including previously exported US fighters, is somewhat unique in regards to the potential threat facing the US. Another significant portion of their fleet is remnant of the Gulf War in 1991, with multiple Iraqi aircraft acquired as defectors during the conflict. None of these aircraft included any maintenance or replacement parts and are questionable in their operation.

Iran is in constant contact with the Russian military industry and is suspected of attempting to acquire modern fighters. In addition to Russia and Belarus, Iran trades military technology with China, North Korea and even Brazil, potentially bolstering their older air force with newer equipment. Not much is known openly about these capabilities and it is difficult to believe what is released. However, it was clear as of mid-2014 that Iran had not received any new fighter aircraft and had not produced any internal to Iran.

While Iranian territory is large, it is usually concluded that most of their fighters are deployed around their strategic centers of gravity, specifically around Tehran and Esfahan. A potential aerial battle might take place on the outer perimeters of this central region, consisting of the number of the Iranian forces that are operational.

Formation of Air Force in Iran

An examination of the memories of the old officers suggests that Iran's ground forces in the year 1298, the late Qajar rule, received the first dual-front support of the English plane while their pilots were also British. That was when, with the support of Mirza Kuchik Khan, the Russian Bolsheviks came to the disintegration of Gilan, and the British, fearing this and the advance of the Russian forces to Tehran and elsewhere, decided that with two planes, the 10,000-strong force of the central government of Iran to suppress the enemy.

Then, with the coup d'tat of March 1299, with Reza Khan Sardar Sepah and the formation of a unified force, Reza Khan was thinking of buying a few aircraft to support his ground forces, followed by a Russian plane in Tehran's sky of 1301 which saw the aircraft's parts Was brought to Tehran by a fund and connected to Qajar lands. In the following, Reza Khan decided to plan for the office of the Air Force in his uniform organization at the Branch of the Operation Circle, so that for the first time in the Iranian Army the name of the airline became part of the organization and in fact the core of the Iranian Air Force was formed.

In the airline's office, an air force that supports ground-based operations is planned to implement its plans. In order to implement the plan, the government of Iran, by sending its ambassador to Washington to buy several airplane machines and establishing an airline and training department, The US government negotiated on January 26, 1301, but the negotiations with the government did not make a difference, and the Iranian government was forced to buy the first aircraft of the same year from the German company Yonkers, and next year, the Gilan and Mazandaran Brigades had two other planes of the same type He bought the names of Gilan and Mazandaran and sent them to Tehran, and a few months later Four Volunteers from Russia were purchased from Russia.

Thus, by the end of 1302 Hijri, the Iranian Air Force had seven aircraft, whose pilots and mechanics were German and Russian. Following on to the expansion of the air force in August 1303, the first student delegation of Iran, consisting of ten people to study piloting, went to Russia. In addition, one of the officers who was in June of the same year to study in various military disciplines France was trained in aeronautics.

In late 1303, a German company, Junkers, established a branch in Iran, and launched several aircraft for passenger transportation in the lines of Tehran, Mashhad, Shiraz, Anzali and Bushehr, where the Iranian army gradually began to suppress internal turbulences The planes and pilots used the company as a paid day. In 1304, the Iranian government purchased twenty other aircraft from France, Germany, and Russia, and at the same time it was mission of the Iranian colonel who was outside Iran to fly to Tehran with a newly purchased aircraft from France, and he With that plane, he flew from the military airport of Villa Coppoli, and after landing in a few cities, his route finally landed at Tehran Moghaveh Airport.

In 1305, after the return of Iranian officers from Russia, deployed for aeronautical training and flight in 1303, aviation department was set up with two technical units and, in general, twenty aircraft. In addition to having special numbers, these planes were also called different names such as Eagle, Tayho, Karkas, Shahin, Homa, Gurgae, Quebec and Nightingale.

The following year, after the newly trained officers returned from France to Iran, several other aircraft were also purchased, and the airline received the airline battalion and a training group. Then the second and third group of Iranian students also returned from France, and since the cadre of the airliner and airliner had taken off on Balansbah, an officially appointed office, called the Military Castle, was established. From now on, the development of the airline of Iran was given more attention and students and other officers were sent to pilot schools and technical schools of Russia and France. Ten years after the establishment of the Air Force, the first Iranian activities in the field of air force and the provision of fields of activity in this area felt the need to establish a technical school (mechanic school), and it was planned that twenty air mechanics from the Netherlands To be taught at the technical school that was opened in October, this was postponed for some reason, and was finally established in September 1311 at the Pilot School. Four air officers were recruited from Sweden to teach piloting personnel, which increased their number, and with their work in this field and expansion of this, an aeronautical school was set up to train some technical officers on the Tehran Dashan hill.

In this way, in the year 1311, the Iranian airline organization was: a training group, a battalion and a bombing and exploration battalion, which were subordinate to the party's forces, and, in spite of this, the organization was separated from the ground by a new plan for air warfare. An independent aviation organization composed of a regiment, command and headquarters (consisting of 3 pillars and a headquarters office).

In 1312, with the expansion of the Iranian air force and the growing purchase of warplanes from abroad, the government decided to take steps to purchase airplanes, or at least to reduce their purchase costs, than to establish airplane factories. In the same way, orders were given to European countries such as Germany and the United Kingdom for the purchase of machinery and supplies of equipment, and these machines and equipment, which arrived in Iran in 1314, were installed in the Dashan hill, and they were called Shahbaz Aircraft Plants.

These factories in August 1317 launched the first aircraft flew against Reza Shah.

On December 25, 1314, according to Article 1 of Decree No. 2366, the title of the Iranian military airline changed from air force to air force and was formally notified. Then the Mashhad air regiment and the Ahwaz airliner were established in 1315 and 1316 respectively, and the Iranian national airline started its activities in Iran in 1318 to conduct pilot training in Iran.

By August 19th, when the end of the first Pahlavi regime, the Iranian Air Force has 283 airplanes, command and command and control forces, the units of air units including five regiments (Tabriz, Mashhad, Tehran's bombing regiment, Tehran-Ahang-e Charghi and Ahang-e-Sharqi) and the school But at the same time, with the invasion of Allied forces in Iran, the first blow came from the occupation of the country on this force, which was given to the Ministry of War from October 12, 1320, and became the fifth agency of the ministry.

Iranian Air Force during Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi: On the 15th of October, 1320, it was announced that the airline in charge of the relevant domestic affairs was formerly independent and would continue to serve the army as one of the Ministry of War's departments. From that year until 1326, the Air Force did not have significant activity until that year the technical school formed its ninth course and accepted 90 students and technical courses of the officer technical school, special technical classes, technical school and aeronautical school It was formed until 1336.

In 1336, the Air Force headquarters changed to the Air Force Command, and in 1339 an organization called Educational Assistance was established to complete the technical education of students in the training brigade. Then, in 1346, the Bridges Training Course was called the Air Traffic Training Center, which began training six military training, officer, language, electronics, aircraft maintenance, and training specialties in the Air Force.

In 1347 following the increasing presence of advanced aircraft supersonic F-5 and F-4 , the air force to recruit new box as a technician to carry out repair and maintenance of aircraft pay penetrated the Salhadrkhvast order and purchase aircraft F-14 from the America On the agenda, 72 of these planes landed at the Mehr Abad Air Force in February 1974.

In 1979, the Iranian Air Force was seeking to increase the number of its fighters from 447 to 500, which placed Iran in the category of Western countries and above the Middle East.

Army Air Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran

With the advent of the signs of the collapse of the Pahlavi regime in 1979 due to the faults that arose in the air force at that time, including its intra-organizational dissatisfaction, the air force broke up during the revolutionary events earlier than other forces of the Pahlavi regime and joined the revolutionary waves. In particular, the forces of this force played an important role in guiding the air force to the revolution.

After the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, initially the hasty appointments that took place at the command of the Air Force led to a wave of protests and strikes, leading to relative stability following the start of the Iraq war against Iran. With the onset of the war, the most urgent issue that came to mind was the issue of countering and preventing the flight of more Iraqi aircraft to Iran.

On the very first day of the beginning of the war with the courageous commanders of the air force such as Martyr Mohammad Javad Fakori, the air force was able to respond to the violations of Iraqi forces by flying 200 aircraft and passing 140 of them into Iraqi frontiers. From their next flights into Iran's airspace. On the other hand, at that time preparing aircrafts, repairing aircraft and supplying spare parts were also issues that the air force faced, and the support of the superpowers from Iraq and sanctions against our country were also two other major challenges. Been.

West scholars have pointed out that the Iranian Army's air force in the post-revolutionary period has succeeded in activating many of its aircraft, which were thrown out of spare parts by using spare parts for a number of other units.

The pre-revolutionary air force had more than 450 advanced warplanes, including the most advanced fighter planes of that time ( F-14 Tomcat ) , and had about five thousand piloted pilots, and in 1979, compared to the Navy, It was much more advanced and unrivaled among the airships of the Third World, with about 76 helicopters and 15 ground-to-air missile squadrons completing this capability, with 166 F-5s , 190 Phantoms and 77 Tomcats part of These aircraft were.

However, the Army Air Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, with its well-trained and efficient soldiers (from pilots to duty soldiers), from the very early stages of the war began with the planning and implementation of several operations, to consider the importance of landing planes The Iraqi and air superiority gained the opportunity to achieve the following goals :

1. Provide the opportunity to organize dispersed forces and carry out initial defense planning . 2. Surface forces are transferred from the front to operational areas . 3. Reducing the combat power of the enemy reduces its air cover . 4. The enemy's combat capability to reduce potential air strikes will be reduced to the critical points of the country .

In order to achieve the desired goals, the air force, taking advantage of the aerial advantage and taking the initiative in the operation of the wave of attacks, fired its bombers into armored units, pedestrians, mechanized and artillery units and tactical assemblies, amphibians, military pillars, as well as connecting axes Enemy forces. As a result, the Iraqi Army, which sought to reach out to the deadlock, went on to battle cities and attack residential areas and attacked them with Scud missiles .

But one of the most important and important aspects of the air force's actions during the holy defense is the role of the air force in offshore operations, which in particular its triumph and honor was created on December 7, 1979, along with the Army's navy and the destruction of seven hijackers, Seven missile frigates, one Iraqi tuna ship, and sending them to the gulf of the Persian Gulf in the history of the sacred defense . In the wake of the Air Force's warfare in Abadan defeat operations, using airborne aircraft and aerial photography, and tactical identification prior to operations over occupied and rearward fronts, and obtaining comprehensive information on abilities and limitations, concentration and concentration of forces, The composition and arrangement of Iraqi forces, displacements and movements, provided by the commanders of the war for the implementation of the operation, which was carried out with full success in October 1981.

At that time, during Operation Al-Quds, which was carried out in order to liberate Bostan and the Temazh valley in the Bostan-Sousanger area, at first, air force pilots carried out dozens of suites to bombard front lines each day, and then plan tactical information missions To provide fire support for air, to cut off lines and to separate troops, and to maintain close air support from the surface forces and to destroy the enemy's rallies to create gaps in the strong lines of contact, as well as to provide airborne defense from the Aqaba, and the depth of the operational areas, Medium and high up for the next operation .

In the well-known operation of Fatah al-Mubin, the air force was also involved in air defense, and missile sites 4 and 5, and the Dehlavan radar station, which were at the disposal of the Iraqi Army, were released, and the Iranian Air Force was able to target 27 Iraqi aircraft. And drop down. Following up on the operation of Jerusalem, due to the talent and the new Iraqi forces' composition, the need to utilize a wider range of offshore facilities and air defenses from Iran was well understood by adopting appropriate operational measures and tactical change of the Iranian Air Force arrangements The Iraqi army was defused, and Khorramshahr was freed by carrying out close support operations for Iranian pilots.

In general, the Army Air Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran was able to provide valuable services to the forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran through the brutality, prowess and vigilance of its soldiers during the holy defense and the donation of martyrs, veterans and many others to protect the homeland and religion of Islam. .

Attack on the Iraqi Atomic Energy Facility Osirek With the onset of the war imposed by Iraq, the Air Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, like other military forces, fought in battle and was among the first forces to defend the country and the people. The air force played an important role during the holy defense with successive attacks on air bases, ammunition and tanks factories, and laboratories. At the outbreak of the war, the air force chose several targets for bombing, and most of them were part of the main Ba'athist archetypes of Iraq and heavily protected them. One of the most important goals that Iraq strongly protected from and claimed to be an impenetrable barrier was the Osirak Atomic Energy Facility. In one of the far-off areas of Iraq, the Ba'athists even said that this facility could play a major role in the future of war. This facility was very important for Iraq and for Saddam Hussein. At that time, France, which was recognized as one of the most important allies in Iraq, sent its experts to Iraq to launch the plant more quickly. Saddam set up Osirek's nuclear facility with the help of French experts and intended to launch nuclear tests there. He was pursuing only one purpose to construct the facility, which was to build an atomic bomb. This article has been announced by Saddam many times. In his studies, he publicly announced that Iraq would be the first Arab country to build an atomic bomb and achieve its technology. All neighboring countries knew well that the existence of an atomic state like Iraq, which had a bloodthirsty dictatorship like Saddam Hussein, was a great danger for all the countries of the region. It was clear to all the countries of Iran, in particular, that Saddam would not be subjected to any crimes by accessing the atomic bomb. Most foreign experts also believed that if Saddam had access to an atomic bomb, he would certainly have to wait for another global catastrophe. Given the special importance of this facility for Iraq, the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force decided to overthrow the facility. The preliminary design work was carried out and the initial maps were finalized. Due to the high importance of this facility for Iraq, it was heavily protected. There were all kinds of ground-to-air protection around the Osirak facility, including the Sam 6 missile site, 2 km south-east of the facility, the French Roland 2 missiles at 500 meters and 30 to 40 anti-aircraft guns And 57 mm, all guided by radar. The Roland 2 missiles provided by Iraq were precisely the ones used by the French themselves and no export samples were provided to Iraq, due to the fact that these missiles did not have Iraq to protect Osirak. , But the main purpose of the protection of the building and the French staff working at the facility. The main problem of the air force pilots of the Islamic Republic of Iran was the same missile as the Rowland 2 missiles. The ECMs installed on Iranian phantoms only had the ability to disrupt the Sam 2, 3, and 6 missile systems, and the air force did not have any device to disrupt the operation of the Roland II missiles. For this reason, two principles have to be followed in this operation: first, the lightness of the fighters and the speed of the attacks. All stages of the design of the operation were carried out quickly. Due to the sensitivity of the operation and its complexity, some of the best pilots were selected. According to the above, the pilots should try to keep up the strong defense of this area with the help of God Almighty to perform this operation at very low altitude with the maximum possible speed and using personal skills. It was supposed to refuel airplanes because of the large number of aircraft. For this purpose, a Boeing 707 bunker is scheduled to be deployed near the border with TomTech dual-barreled escort so that phantoms can refuel, and tomcats will protect the tanker so that the enemy foes will not attack it. Then the phantoms are divided into two groups. The first group will increase its elevation to cross the border to see Iraqi radars and distract them from the second group. At this time, the second group should lower its altitude and attack the Osirek at maximum speed. Elevating the height for the first group was very dangerous, because with the increase in altitude, the probability of targeting the first group by ground-to-air missiles increased by 80%, but brave pilots accepted the dangers. The first group would have bombed Baghdad's power plant. The possibility of returning fighter aircraft was very low, so all the selected pilots were notified of the matter and noted that if they did not want to announce that anyone would replace them. But Shojaa Delan, a sharp-headed air force, was not willing to change their place. The Hamdan Shooting Base, one of the most important airbases in Iran, was the agent of the operation. The night before the operation, they were awake by the order of the technical authorities until the morning. They were tasked to operate four F-4 fighter jets in the dark of the night and in keeping with the protection principles. Each plane was equipped with six 500-pound MK82 bombs and two Sparrow radar airguns . Also, the locations of the powerful 20-millimeter machine gun cartridges loaded the phantom M61 with a maximum shotgun. The last required checks were also carried out, and the factors of all the fighter's capabilities were also overcome. The day of the operation came. At the first hours of the morning of the eighth of October, 1359, four armed phantoms belonging to the 33rd Battalion Battalion of Hamedan's Third Base were stationed at the beginning of the flight. With the permission of the tower of care, in under a few seconds all four of them moved in the heart of the sky and moved to the frontier. At the same time, a 707 bomber flew with the Escort of two Phantom long-armed Tomcat strikes and went to the Phantom metropolis. At the static point, the phantoms deal with the fuel tanker and the refueling is done. After the second group crosses the border, the first group immediately lowers its altitude and is quickly deployed to Baghdad's power plant in Iraq, while the second group was on the way to the Osirak facility. The second group had a long and hard way. Due to the high speed of the phantoms and also the low-altitude flight, airplanes could hit each other at night with electricity cables and natural hazards. Eventually, this route went up and the phantoms reached the Osiraq facility. Around 4 kilometers of the facility, the Phantom prepared for a final blow, so they quickly increased their altitude, and in an accurate position with an accurate dash, all 12 of their bombs dropped off the target. The total time that phantoms were on the site did not reach 6 seconds, so neither of the facilities at the facility even had the opportunity to shoot the planes. At the same time and at another point in the first group, the first group has succeeded in destroying it with a blast attack on the power plant near Baghdad. The operations of this group were carried out so thoroughly that the city of Baghdad did not attack the power until a few days after that. After the operation, the Iraqis claimed that the Iranian phantom attack was unsuccessful and the damage was very low. But he realized the depth of the catastrophe that occurred to him. In another hilarious claim, it claims that the attack was Israeli, and they did it by changing the color of their phantoms in the form of Iranian phantoms. One of the old Phantom pilots describes this operation as follows: "If the damage to an air strike was low by 12 bombs of 500 pounds on a small target, such as Osirek, our aircraft during the war such as chicken broods only rocked the Iraqis. But all these words only represented one thing, and the heavy losses came to Oysirake." After a few days after the end of the operation, the Air Force decided to take photographs of the area to get damages from the area. A Phantom Phantom was set up to identify the "Arraf 4" on the area and make the necessary photographs. Check the damage to Oysirake. Thus, a phantom identification "Araf 4" was escorted to the target by the escort of two phantoms armed with air-to-air missiles. After entering the Iraqi soil, escort phantoms are changing their position to attract the attention of Iraqi radars to keep Phantom afar off without interruption. Identifying the phantom, while not carrying any ammunition, was moving down the high altitude with ultrasonic velocity towards Oysirake, and eventually entered the area at very low elevations from the south of Osirek, and quickly crossed the Osirak facility. . At the moment the phantom cameras were detected, they were recording photos after the operation. Phantom identification immediately circulates and moves to Iran at all speed. Near the border, they were waiting for him by two armed phantoms, and the phantom was identified with their escort to the health of Hamedan Air Base. After the advent of the photos, the reality was re-exposed, and the damage was very heavy. In the course of several days, French experts had witnessed the re-entry of Iranian airplanes in the region, which, according to Iraqi officials, was an inedible fortress. After this operation, many of these experts leave the country halfway through their fears and return to their country, and thus another gold leaf will be recorded in the Air Force's Air Force Record of the Islamic Republic of Ira destruction of 48 Iraqi aircraft at H3 It was announced by the flight crew leader that the probability of martyring in the operation is high, so each of the pilots is not ready for any reason, so that the alternate will be placed on the main list, everyone is ready to make a statement. Following the execution of the prayer and air purification, the operation began. The war began, and the air force of the Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran, on 1 st of October 1359, and only one day after the start of the war, brought a strike to the Iraqi Air Force. During this operation, 140 air strike bombers in Operation Kuman 99 bombarded most of the Iraqi Air Base, except the Al-Waleed Base. How many months did the war go? At that time, the Ba'athist government in Iraq was plunged into a swamp that had never thought of getting into it. She was doing great work and bombarding the military areas daily from the eyes of Ba'athis. At this time, the city of Abadan was surrounded by three sides, and the Iraqi ground forces could, with their air support, achieve their main objective, namely the occupation of Abadan Was to arrive. Meanwhile, the Iraqis, who had not forgotten the memory of the 140-strong attack on the first day of the war, thought that, perhaps on the eve of this operation, their air bases would be targeted at the airspace of the Islamic Republic of Iran's Army Air Force. So they decided to transfer all their main aircraft to a point where no Iranian desperate squadron could reach and target it. So, with the necessary coordination, on January 21, 1359, Iraq transferred part of its operational planes to the Al-Walid Basin in western Iraq, near the Jordanian border. This base is divided into a base and two sub-stations, called "H3", and had a powerful defense. At the same time, Saddam Hussein made a speech on the Iraqi TV screen, which was partly like this: I have a firewall and Iran can not penetrate into any territory at all. Shortly thereafter, the Iranian Air Force announced the transfer of Iraqi aircraft, and the Brigadier General Martyr Jawad Fakuri, commander of the Air Force, had proposed at the meeting of the Air Forces commanders on February 15, 2009, that the plan was to launch the operation The Air Force's plans began to work on it, and after a while it was considered impossible to do so. At the same time, the plan was rejected by the Air Force, but plans were also proposed: First plan: 16 phantoms to fly; 14 main and 2 reservations; 6 tankers with them; 3 tankers inside Iran And three tankers at the western end of Iraq, and to protect each tanker, two F-14s will fly, which will create a massive number of aircraft. The second plan: There are 12 phantoms to fly, 10 main and 2 reserve, four tankers with the same conditions, in which the number of fighters and tankers was reduced, but the phantom status was susceptible to the shortage of tanker tankers. And the likelihood that two phantoms would be lost was abundant. Meanwhile, the late Brigadier General Bahram Hooshir prepared a plan to confess with the martyr Fakori in which he arranged 10 armed phantoms with eight main and two flight reservations, and also for the misleading enemy on arrival Phantoms invade Kirkuk 2 F-5s into Iraqi territory. The attack's launching location was also the second base of Tabriz. After reading this plan, the martyr Fakori considered it practical and agreed to it. But this operation was canceled twice because of infiltration of the infiltration and information of Iraq. Therefore, at a meeting, the martyr Fakouri was scheduled to announce the failure of the plan. The meeting was held in the second half of March. The meeting was about the status of the battlefields, the deployment of Iranian and Iraqi forces, and .... After the end of the meeting, Martyr Fakori, Brigadier General (then colonel), summoned Fraz ... Bratpour, who was the deputy commander of the operation of one of the air bases, and informed him of the crucial and vital mission of the series. To personally take the flight command. Ten Phantom (eight main and two reserve) armed forces fly in full protection from the Shahid Nogheh Hamadan base and flock to Lake Urmia. The planes hit a bunker tanker at the altitude at the post, after arriving at the Turkish border, they arrived in Iraq, where they collided with two tankers that left the international route, and after Refueling at Alwalid bases is bombarded and retreated. The plan was carried out in full swing and it was supposed to be carried out at dawn on the fifteenth day of April. An important point in designing this operation was the lightness of the fighters and the swiftness of the attack. At the morning of April 15, 1981, the selected pilots were summoned to the command post without prior notice, and a briefing was promptly described, and all cases and how they were carried out were described for all pilots, and it was assumed that phantoms To be divided into two categories. Finally the promised day arrived. At the morning of April 15, 1981, the selected pilots were summoned to the command post without prior notice, and a briefing was promptly described, and all cases and how they were carried out were described for all pilots, and it was assumed that phantoms To be divided into two categories. The leader was one of the ranks of Colonel Bratpour and the leader of the other Brigadier (Colonel of that time) Farhadpour. At the end of the briefing, the flywheel leader stated that the probability of a martyr in the operation is high, so that each of the pilots is not prepared to announce any alternative to the main list, everyone is ready to make a statement. After performing the prayer prayers, the operation began with the illumination of the air. The operation was predicted so accurately that aircraft of each flight group were identified the night before. Following the announcement of the number of planes from the maintenance battalion, the pilots were placed one after the other in the cabin, while the maintenance personnel themselves did not know the details of the operation. In this way, 10 F-4s were flying in full-time radio silence. During the operation, only twice the radio's silence broke. One when flying, each aircraft announcing their number after getting out of the gang, and once again after the completion of the refueling operation, they announced a rummage. After flying phantoms, they traversed the lake of Urumieh, and when weather was cloudy, they collided at the altitude with two 747 gas tankers and the first refueling stage was completed successfully after 20 minutes. Then the phantoms flew to the frontier. At the same time, two F-5s flew from the Tabriz Air Base to Kirkuk's refinery and, in a successful attack, bombed the refinery. At that time, the phantoms were near the border and At 7:57 am, they reached the zero point of the border, divided into 2 categories, and returned 2 reservations. (Totaling 8, 6 Phantom and 2 Phantom Di arrived in Iraq). At the same time, the Iraqi air force commander reports that a number of unidentified airplanes have been seen on the Turkish border, saying that the planes belong to Turkey. The phantoms crossed the 4-foot quadrant of 500 feet from each other, at low altitudes from the Zakho border town and entered Iraqi territory. At that time, they reached their lowest elevation and continued their route on the Turkish border. At the end of the northwest of Iraq, the phantoms were at a distance of 90 miles from the target with two 707 tankers, which, in the sense of the airport in Larnaca, Cyprus, and in the sense of an airport in Turkey, turned themselves into it. They collided and floated at a height of 20,000 feet, then lowered themselves back up to about 30 meters and landed at the very first landmarks that were quoted at this moment. Bratpour himself (Operation Leader) fired their fighter navigation devices and when the position of the devices is shown with a role E compares the real situation that he was talking to with the rear cabin, who was a radar control officer, and says: Bratpure Brigadier: Apparently, my navigation device is in error. Can you tell where your device is? Rear Cockpit: (Calmly Tells) Tel Aviv. BrentPort: So let's go there! Cockpit Cockpit: (with Shirazi dialect)! In any case, after crossing the last landmark, Bratpour finds the main road, and with his mark, each of the four phantoms is separated from one, forming the third group. Meanwhile, one of the pilots saw a defensive stance that had not been foreseen in the initial map and it was attacked and destroyed by the fact that it would not be disturbed on the way back. The first group, under the command of Brigadier General Farhadpour, attacks the base at 8/45/8. The second group attacks at the second base at 8.50 pm. The third group, under Brigadier General Bratupur's command, is attacking the third base, while the third group still did not reach the main base, the other two groups ended up because they were far from the base. The smoke from the blast of planes and caches filled up all space and fired the enemy and enemy missiles on either side to overthrow the phantoms. Bratupur, in view of this situation, decides to launch a rush to the right of the opposite side instead of being attacked by a predetermined route to the third base, which would thus be overwhelming. The enemy's base was very good camouflage, even in the color of the ceilings of the nest, and the equipment was well covered. When the third group was headed by Brigadier General Bratupur, the Iraqis, who did not think the Iranian pilots had the courage and ability to attack it, were completely surprised. Those who were doing routine work first thought that their own plane was coming to them, and because of the change they had given, their anti-aircraft balloon tubes marked the opposite side and their so-called firewall was on the side Another was Phantoms reach the top of the base, diving and releasing all their bombs and turning the base into a hell of a fire so that in some places, due to the low altitude of the phantoms, the fire tabs can also be raised to the planes' height. Receipt. Those who were doing routine work first thought that their own plane was coming to them, and because of the change they had given, their anti-aircraft balloon tubes marked the opposite side and their so-called firewall was on the side. Another was Phantoms reach the top of the base, diving and releasing all their bombs and turning the base into a hell of a fire so that in some places, due to the low altitude of the phantoms, the fire tabs can also be raised to the planes' height. Receipt. Those who were doing routine work first thought that their own plane was coming to them, and because of the change they had given, their anti-aircraft balloon tubes marked the opposite side and their so-called firewall was on the side Another was Phantoms reach the top of the base, diving and releasing all their bombs and turning the base into a hell of a fire so that in some places, due to the low altitude of the phantoms, the fire tabs can also be raised to the planes' height. All the bombs on planes and nests were thoroughly crumbled and destroyed almost all predetermined targets, then phantoms moved away from the place by turning the opposite. At this stage, one of the planes is hurt by a pilot-in-command of the martyr pilot "Mahmud Khidraei", who will quickly get rid of him. At the same time, Bratupur on the Iraqi-Jordanian international road sees a truckload of military cargo that allegedly loaded from the port of Aqaba on the Jordanian soil and entered Iraq. Immediately dive to the trailer with a plane and targets it with a machine gun and explodes it. Then immediately lower the height and fly to them after contact with the conventional frequency with the fuel tankers. At this moment, fueling tankers in the same area (western part of Iraqi soil) were patrolling at low altitudes and out of sight of the enemy's radar to wait for the phantoms to complete the third phase of refueling. Bratupur will for a moment notice the fuel of his plane and sees that he has reached the minimum and does not see the tankers, which was because he was on the way back to destroy the trailer. On the other hand, in order to break the radio's silence and not to distract the enemy and other planes, he trusted God on the way the fighter planes would reach the tankers from there, and would continue to do so until this Which eventually sees a tanker tanker remotely. At that moment, the aircraft's fuel had reached its minimum, and they did not look at them to lick the tankers. Finally, with the help of God, all phantoms reach the refueling point and refuel with cold blood and caution. After refueling was completed and all the bunkers were refueling, the tankers immediately arrived in Turkey and returned to Iran from the Ankara-Tehran international route. Phantom planes returned from the northern part of Iraq, on the borderline, and from the same initial route to the country at a speed. The enemy, moments after this deadly attack, immediately took on a large number of interceptor hijackers, so that he would be able to intercept and overthrow the Iranian phantoms and not allow any phantom returns in any order. Bratpour, Brigadier General, said that he saw two of them, and fortunately they could not track our planes. While the Phantom planes were approaching the border, F5 and F-14 aircrafts were awaiting them near the border and were waiting for the phantoms to reach out to their aid. As phantoms approached the border, another air strike was carried out at the common borders so that phantoms could easily enter Iran's soil. Fortunately, the phantoms were able to cross the border and bring everyone to the fourth refueling station, and the Iraqi efforts to overthrow them failed. After refueling, all phantoms returned to the Shahid Nogheh Hamadan base. The storing personnel who were informed about the attack at the last minute of phantom return were excited about how the operation was, and because they did not know about details, they turned to the deputy commander of the base and worried about the group's health. They were flying. Base personnel who were staggered by the courageous operations of the pilots were impatiently awaiting the return of all the pilots a minute. Eventually, the wheels of the first phantom group touched the runway, and the flying and maintenance battalion staff, with tearful eyes that showed the pilots again, would welcome them with shouting and sacrificing sheep. After the operation, it was found that the damage was more than predicted: - 48 bomber hijackers (including MiG-21, MiG-23 Sukhoi-20, Sukhoi-22, Tupolev-16 and Mirage) have been damaged or seriously damaged. And 3 large aircraft hangars, 2 radar and several airplane hangars are generally destroyed. After this pride, the Iraqi air defense commander was dismissed by Saddam. He was later executed, but Iraqi sources announced his suicide. This operation had a great impact on the morale of the Islamic warriors, so that several months later, successful operations of "Samen al-Amaem" were carried out, followed by the successful operation of the "Holy Spirit" and "Jerusalem" with full success and again with the proper support of the Air Force Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Three days after the operation, on November 1, 1966, without any ceremonies, all the pilots participating in the operation went to Imam Khomeini (RA). The light of joy and satisfaction in the face of Imam (RA) was clearly seen, as one of Imam's close friends said: "Until now, they had not seen them happy." Given that during the Holocaust, Americans did not even provide spare parts for their own aircraft, the attack on the H3 could be considered one of the largest and most decisive air operations in the world, where brave pilots We were able to create an epic with something like about 5 hours of flight, four times refueling and over 1,000 kilometers in absolute air silence, which not only Iraqi leaders and allies, but also none of the Western experts thought it. Canceled orders F-16 Falcon 134th Fighter Squadron - General Dynamics F-16C Block 30E Fighting Falcon 86-0353.jpg United States of America Multipurpose Fighter Block 30 160 orders for construction with 140 right orders Revoked during the Islamic Revolution. Orders were handed over to the Israeli Air Force. F-14 Tomcat F-14A Tomcat of VF-84 in flight in 1986.jpg United States of America Air superiority F-14A One remained in the United States Revoked during the Islamic Revolution. F-18 Hornet Boeing FA-18F Super Hornet at take off Danish Air Show 2014-06-22 aligned.jpg United States of America Multipurpose Fighter F-18L Land version the base 200 to 250 seats Due to the opposition of the congress and the occurrence of the Islamic Revolution, it was canceled. Augusta-Boeing ch-47 Shenoko Boeing-Vertol CH-47C 4-201 Imp Iran AF Issy 06.06.71 edited-2.jpg Italy Transportation helicopter Augusta Italy Production 27 of 53 uncontrolled enclosures Revoked during the Islamic Revolution. F-4 Phantom 2 An IRIAF F-4E takeoffs.jpg United States of America The fighter Bomber 31 out of 38 were not delivered Revoked during the Islamic Revolution. Boeing III Century E-3aawa.jpg United States of America AWACS 7 seats Revoked during the Islamic Revolution. Orders were handed over to the Saudi Air Force.

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One Billion Americans: The Case for Thinking Bigger - by Matthew Yglesias

Page last modified: 01-07-2019 19:03:53 ZULU