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LPD Makassar / Banjarmasin Classes

Landing Platform Docks [LPDs] are emerging as key military items for Southeast Asian countries for enhancing naval defense capabilities. The LPD is designed to transport troops into a war zone by sea using landing craft. It embarks, transports and lands soldiers and landing craft and can also be used for landings by helicopters.

The Makassar class is a class of 4 Landing Platform Docks designed for the Indonesian Navy by Daesun Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. of South Korea and based on the earlier Tanjung Dalpele class. The USD$150 million dollar contract was signed in December 2004 and the first two units were built in Busan, South Korea. The remaining two was built at Indonesia's PT PAL shipyard in Surabaya with assistance from Daesun. The contract for the 3rd and 4th LPD to be built in Indonesia was signed with PT PAL on March 28, 2005. On 19 October 2006, the first of the two Indonesian-built units, was laid down in a ceremony by Admiral Slamet Subiyanto, Chief of Staff, Indonesian Navy.

Daewoo International Corp, a major Korean trading company, announced 21 December 2004 that it had signed a $150-million contract to provide four warships to the Indonesian navy in what is viewed as a major step in boosting its presence in the naval technology business in Southeast Asian countries. The four warships - three common landing platform docks (LPDs) and a command ship - will be exported to Indonesia. These warships were created so that Indonesia can be more advanced and independent in fulfilling its military equipment. They would be exported to Indonesia from January 2005 for use by its navy in warfare and practice missions.

Daewoo International said the contract was a result of the know-how and capabilities it and its partners have built up in the military ship business. South Korea's Dae Sun Shipbuilding & Engineering has manufactured two of the LPDs and will give technological support to Indonesian firms for the building of the remaining two. Daewoo International had been playing a bridging role between South Korean shipbuilding firms and the Indonesian navy for exports of naval technology. The firm signed a contract worth $50 million in 2000 to provide a multi-purpose hospital ship and tug boats to the Indonesian navy. In 2003 it won a $60-million Indonesian military project to enhance submarine facilities and naval warfare capabilities.

South Korea's Dae Sun Shipbuilding & Engineering manufactured two of the LPDs and gave technological support to Indonesian firms for the building of the remaining two. Two of the ordered LPDs were built in Korea and were already operating in 2009, meanwhile two others are built by PT PAL Indonesia as a technology transfer project. The first two Makassar-class LPDs were based on the earlier Tanjung Dalpele-class. In 2008 the Navy received two LPDs from Daesun Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. of South Korea. 'KRI Makassar' and 'KRI Surabaya' were built in Busan, Korea, and commissioned in April 2007 and August 2007, respectively. These ships were created to meet the shortage of warships that are required by the Indonesian Navy.

KRI Makassar-590 has a length of 122 meters, width 22 meters, 4.5 meters draft, deadweight 7300 tons. Operating speed of 14 knots, cruising speed of 12 knots and can reach a maximum speed to 16 knots. This ship can carry 507 troops personnel, 13 combat vehicles types of tanks, two helicopters and a number of other military equipment. Equipped with cannons, two helicopter pad (helipad), the Combat Information Center (CIC), communication systems as a liaison with the type of combatant ships to protect the landing of troops and combat vehicles and the control of landing helicoter.

LPD Banjarmasin Class

The third and fourth LPD built by PT PAL Indonesia were built specially with 100-mm guns and equipped with fire control system which enable an effective self defence. Both units by PT PAL have been modified to act as flag ships with command and control systems, 100mm gun and air defense systems. PT PAL Indonesia has produced merchant ships of up to 50,000 DWT (Deadweight tonnes) and warships, with their length ranging from 14 meters, 28 meters and 57 meters and Fast Patrol Boats of many versions for Indonesia.

In March 2008 Indonesia welcomed the new arrival warship TNI AL, the KRI-590 Makassar made and purchased from South Korea. On 28 August 2008 PT PAL Indonesia launched a Landing Platform Dock (LPD) worth 19.9 million US dollars ordered by the Defence Ministry for the Indonesian Navy. "The LPD is the third of four ordered with Daewoo International Corporation and built by PT PAL Indonesia," defence equipment director general Air Marshal Eris Herryanto said. The LPD launch was delayed nine times. "PAL Indonesia`s readiness to accept the order was based on our experience, since 1980 our industry has built 150 ships of different sizes and types," said PT PAL Managing Director, Hars Susanto, during the LPD launching.

On 29 August 2008 PT PAL Indonesia launched Landing Platform Dock (LPD) worth 19.9 million US dollars ordered by the Defence Ministry for the Indonesian Navy. The LPD is the third of four ordered with Daewoo International Corporation and built by PT PAL Indonesia. The ministry ordered four LPDs through the export credit facility with Daewoo International Corporation, by signing a Manufacturing and Purchasing Contract on 19 December 2003. The LPD launch was delayed nine times.

On 28 November 2009 the Indonesian Navy received a new Landing Platform Dock (LPD) ship, which was named KRI Banjarmasin, from state shipbuilding firm PT PAL. The ship was handed over to the Navy by the Defense Ministry during a ceremony in Surabaya. The ceremony was attended by Defense Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro, the Indonesian Military (TNI) chief of staff Vice Adm. Didik Heru Purnomo and Navy chief of staff Vice Adm. Agus Suhartono. KRI Banjaramasin, which has pennant number 592, was the first of the two Indonesian-built 125-meter LPDs by PT PAL for the Navy.

The latest vessel is said to have cost around $30 million. KRI 592 Banjarmasin is able to load more helicopters, from three to five helicopters. In addition, the ship speed is also higher than the South Korean-made warships, namely from 15 knots to 15.4 knots. Another advantage possessed Banjarmasin KRI 592 is a form of building on a more "stealth design" that can reduce the 'radar cross section' so it is not easily captured opponent's radar. Vibration of the ship is also very low so that adds comfort in a cruise ship crew. Independent development Banjarmasin KRI 592, PT PAL gained advantage of technology transfer. Therefore, the first warship artificial RI has special anti-radar technology.

Makassar Nomenclature

The reason for choosing KRI Makassar as the name because the city of Makassar as a maritime city which has a history for the Navy. The Macassars, like all the neighboring tribes, were much addicted to traffic and a seafaring life. They built their proas very tight, bv connecting their planks together as coopers do the parts that form the head of a cask. Between the pieces they put the bark of a particular plant, which swells; after which they fitted timbers to the planks. They had their bow lowered, or cut down in so awkward a manner, that, being often under water, a bulk-head was raised abaft the stem to keep off the sea. In size they seldom exceeded fifty tons, and were rigged with a tripod mast, made of three stout bamboos, carrying a high pointed sail.

Formerly a powerful kingdom, Macassar was situated on the south-west coast of the island of Celebes, which prior to its conquest by the Dutch, comprehended all the coast from the bay of Boni to Tanette. The power of this state was at its highest about the middle of the seventeenth century, when its princes not only governed great part of Celebes, but lad likewise rendered Loma, Mandelly, Bima, Tambora, Dompo, and Sangar, tributary j and had conquered Booton, Bungay, Gapi, the Xulla Islands, aud Sumbhawa. They also possessed Salayr, which had been given to Macassar by Baab Ullah. At that period the sovereigns of Macassar were in strict alliance with the inhabitants of Bali, and coined the first gold coins, which were probably the gold maas, of the value of sixty Dutch stivers.

The kingdom of Goa or Makassar had extended its power over almost the whole of Celebes in the middle of the 17th century by its weapons. With an eye to her interests in the Molucca Archipelago, and faithful to her principles of state policy, the Dutch at last established themselves as protector of the kingdoms subject to Goa. Bloody wars followed, which in 1669 finally put an end to the predominance of Makassar. The possessions of Ternate in the north and east of Celebes, were restored to that kingdom. Different districts and smaller states on the west and south coasts of the island were ceded to the Company. The other kingdoms, by the conclusion of treaties, were unitrd by it in a general confederacy under its protection; whereby the kingdom of Boni was established as a counterpoise to the power of Goa, and placed in the same position as the last.

The ceded district of Makassar was declared the chief possession, to the town of which the name of Vlaardigen was given and to the fort that of Rotterdam. The kingdom of Boni, thus raised from its state of depression, by degrees so increased in importance, that the difficulties since experienced are principally to be ascribed to its presumption. Makassar was, in terms of the capitulation of Java, delivered up to the English government in 1812. The pretensions of Boni compelled the British inter-government to send an expedition against that kingdom in 1814 which only had a momentary influence. In consequence of the London convention of 1814, Makassar returned under the Dutch government in the end of 1816, but in a state of disorder and misgovernmcnt, that finally in 1824 and 1825 required to be put an end to by stringent military measures.

Macassar Oil was the trade name for an unguent that made its appearance in England early in the 19th century, manufactured by a Mr Rowland of Hatton Garden in London, who invented an unguent for the hair. He claimed it was based on sweet oils imported from Macassar or Makassar, a seaport on the island of Celebes (now Sulawesi) in what is now Indonesia. Rowland. It took its name from the district of Macassar, where it was first produced, being pressed from the fruit, or seed, of the Schleichera trijuga, the East Indian kusum tree. This fixed vegetable oil was used by the natives for cooking, illuminating and for medicinal purposes.

The name was then given to a pomade made of almond, olive or peanut oil, to which other substances were added to give color and perfume. It was basically oil from the seeds of a tree that these days is believed to be Schleichera oleosa, with the addition of olive oil and other oils, but was almost certainly never anywhere near Macassar (the tree grows in Nepal and India). The original Macassar oil became so well known that Byron spoke of it as "Thine incomparable oil, Macassar," and Lewis Carroll alludes to it in the Song of the Man sitting on the Gate in 'Alice Through the Looking-glass.'

So general was its use that in England a covering was specially made to throw over the back of a chair or sofa as a protection from the grease in the hair; and to these coverings the name Anti-macassar was given. Anti-macassars were at first made of white cotton in crochet-work. They were stiff, hard and uncomfortable; but in the third quarter of the 19th century they were simpler and were more artistically worked in colored wools or crewels, or colored silks in pretty patterns. The Lady's Newspaper (1852) describes anti-macassar materials as "crochet cotton," "pink and drab crochet twine," etc. All the Year Round (1879) "the anti-macassar on the arm chair"; and Miss Braddon's 'Vixen' (1879) "To sit alone by the fireside and work anti-macassars in crewel" shows that the word was still familiar in England to a comparatively recent period. In the United States the word "tidy* was used to describe the article.

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