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Bihar - Geography

Bihar is situated in the Eastern part of India. It is land-locked state with Nepal in the North, West Bengal in East, Uttar Pradesh in West and Jharkhand in the South.Patna is the state capital.Bihar is the third most populous state in the country after Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Bihar is located between 2420'10" and 2731'15"N latitude and 8219'50 and 8817'40"E longitude in the eastern part of the country and situated at about 52.73 m height above sea level. It is an entirely land locked state and is surrounded by West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh in the West and the State of Jharkhand in the South. In the North, Bihar shares its boundary with Nepal. Humid West Bengal in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh in the West provides it with a transitional position in respect of climate, economy, and culture.

Bihar is the 12th largest state in terms of area in Indian union.The state is squeezed in between West Bengal, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, reaches upto the foothills of Himalaya in the north and is completely landlocked. It is bounded in the north by the sovereign of Nepal, on south by Odisha, on east by West Bengal and to its west by the state of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Bihar is situated at the eastern part of the country which lies midway between the humid West Bengal, in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh, in the west. It is bounded by country Nepal in the north and by the state of Jharkhand in the South. The Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganga which flows through almost in the middle from west to east. Bihar occupies geographical area of 94,163 sq. km and is extended for 483 km from east to west and 345 km from north to south.

Geologically, Bihar represents the northern front of Indian sub- continent. The geographical and geological feature of Bihar includes the belt of Himalayan foothills in the northern fringe of Paschim Champaran, the vast Ganga Plains, the Vindhyan (Kaimur) Plateau extending into Rohtas region and the small Gondwana basin outliers in Banka district. Nearly two third of Bihar is under cover of the Ganga basin composed of alluvium and masks the nature of basement rocks.

The river Ganga cuts the state into two unequal halves, flowing from west to east. Physiographically, north Bihar is almost entirely a level tract while south Bihar is hilly and undulating. Bihar has a number of rivers, the most important of which is the Ganga. The other rivers are the Sone, Poonpoon, Falgu, Karmanasa, Durgawati, Kori, Gandak, Ghaghara etc. The monsoon reigns supreme here and carries great weight in the overall human occupance pattern and economic development.

The topography of Bihar can be easily described as a fertile alluvial plain occupying the Gangetic Valley. The plain extends from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to a few miles south of the river Ganges as it flows through the State from the west to the east. Rich farmland and lush orchards extend throughout the state. The major crops are paddy, wheat, lentils, sugarcane, and jute (hemp, related to the marijuana plant, but a source of tough fibres for gunny bags). Also, cane grows wild in the marshes of West Champaran. The principal fruits are mangoes, banana, jackfruit, and litchis.

The sub-Himalayan foothills of Someshwar and Dun ranges in Champaran constitute another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass, and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the favoured areas. The hot and dry summer gives the deciduous forests. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta (Sal), Shisham, Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. This type of forests also occurs in Saharasa and Purnia districts.

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Page last modified: 24-10-2021 15:29:42 ZULU