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A-684 Bucegi 98mm mountain gun Model 1995

The Treaty of Paris on reduction of conventional military forces Europe imposed for the country limiting the number of artillery pieces more than 100 mm to 1400. In this context, it was decided by the army leadership that since this howitzer had a caliber of less than 100 mm not to be covered by the Treaty.

The mountain cannons appeared in the endowment of the Romanian Army between the years 1883-1884, when 4 batteries were established equipped with 63 mm caliber cannons. The development of the howitzer began in the mid-1980s, the prototype being ready in 1988. The artillery piece was manufactured at the Resita factories, already having the experience of designing and manufacturing the " Jerry " mountain cannon 76 mm caliber model 1982. Small, light weapons were in widespread use in conflicts like those in the former Yugoslavia and the Caucasus.

The company Resita was established in 1972 to meet the needs of the country's defense policy and was equipped to manufacture military products, especially large and medium-sized artillery products. A significant number of artillery products have been approved and manufactured since its inception. The geopolitical changes that occurred after 1990 led to a general decline in the defense industry and special products, both domestically and internationally. This fact generated an overcapacity of production and, as a result, the plant was forced to focus on products and services from civil domain. However, the general profile of the plant is oriented towards the production of artillery weapons.

Cannon are classified, according to their use into mountain artillery, field artillery, siege artillery, and seacoast artillery. Mountain artillery is designed to be capable of being taken wherever troops may be ordered without retarding their movements. Each component may be transported either by traction, or, after dismounting, on pack mules, through any character of country. Fixed ammunition with metallic cartridge cases is alone used. A mountain gun has the same tactical duties to fulfil as a field gun. It is merely a field gun sufficiently mobile for mountain transport.

By the end of the 19th Century the value of organising a force of Mountain Artillery for service in a country where pack transport is, if not altogether compulsory, a necessary adjunct to any force, had been fully recognised by most of the Continental powers, and the advance made by France and Russia in this respect was very striking. the definition of Mountain Artillery had to embrace a more comprehensive meaning with Great Britain, than Mule Batteries operating in the mountains. With the British, all guns in mule, or camel, pack transport for service in any country, where wheeled artillery is from the nature of the soil, or conformation of the ground, impracticable, or which can only supplement guns in pack transport in valleys, &c., was included under the general signification of Mountain Artillery. By 1894 elephants were finally discarded for the carriage of mobile mountain guns in pack transport, after the last Burmah campaign as unsuitable, and it was then laid down, that when human transport can alone be employed for the carriage of guns, machine guns, and not artillery, should accompany the force.

Romania's "Bucegi" mountain gun for mountain troops was named after the Bucegi mountain range of the Roumanian Carpathians. Bucegi Mountains are one of the most exciting mountain groups in the Southern Carpathians. They offer many natural and architectural tourist attractions. Bucegi mountains have an altitude of 2505 meters, reaching the maximum peak in Omu Peak, being the highest peak in the Romanian Carpathians. Babele and the Sphinx. These are located on the Bucegi plateau and are said to be enveloped in mysterious energy. They are considered to be one of the most important symbols of Romania. The Pelsch River flows from Bucegi down to the plain as wild and stormy as if it would rush through the whole world; in perpetual replenishment the foaming waves bubbled, turning now here, now there, with a presumptuous desire for devastation.

The project dates from the mid 1980s (the prototype was completed with a caliber of 100 mm, in 1988). The howitzer was intended as a brigade-level artillery weapon for the VM, being intended to replace SKODA howitzers, 100 mm caliber, model 1939 (withdrawn in the early * 80s), being designed similar to the 76 mm JERRY.

Initially, the caliber was 100 mm, but was reduced to 98 mm after 1990 to avoid the limits imposed by the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Under the CFE treaty, the term "artillery" meant large calibre systems capable of engaging ground targets by delivering primarily indirect fire. Such artillery systems provide the essential indirect fire support to combined arms formations. Large calibre artillery systems are guns, howitzers, artillery pieces combining the characteristics of guns and howitzers, mortars and multiple launch rocket systems with a calibre of 100 millimetres and above. In addition, any future large calibre direct fire system which has a secondary effective indirect fire capability shall be counted against the artillery ceilings.

This treaty provided for the limitation of artillery pieces for Romania to a maximum of 1475 cannons of 100 mm or larger caliber. Due to economic problems in the early 1990s, the mountain howitzer came into operation on January 31, 1995. The mountain howitzer "Bucegi" was to replace morally and physically obsolete 100 mm Skoda howitzers. These 100 mm Skoda howitzers were withdrawn from use in the early 1980s due to wear and tear during World War II .

Under the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty, Treaty Limited Equipment [TLE] categories left out artillery below 100 mm calibre. After 1990, the Treaty of Paris imposed on Romania the limitation of muzzles of over 100 mm to 1475 copies. The leadership of the Romanian Army then determined to "modify" the initial caliber of the howitzer (100 mm) to 98 mm, in order to comply with the provisions of the treaty.

Yes, this howitzer "fitted" too well, disappearing completely from the endowment, in just 5 years. This howitzer entered the endowment of the VM units in small numbers, but also of the infantry and paratroopers (it seems that they did not manage to have such a cannon in their endowment, according to some sources), starting with January 31, 1995. (and withdrawn only after 5 years.

Pulling could be done with long jaws for small tilt angles, or with short jaws for vertical pulls, and during transport they could be folded. The BUCEGI howitzer could be towed with the DAC 4 4/6 6 truck, hypo with two horses, in parallel or on 3 trolleys (pipe trolley weighing 820 kg, swing trolley weighing 540 kg and trolley for ammunition of 890 kg), with horizontal "feather" type lock, semi-automatic.

BUCEGI, had the following characteristics: 98 mm caliber; howitzer length 4250 mm; length of brake pipe 2480 mm, 25.3 calibers; 40 degree horizontal firing range; vertical firing range from -5 / + 70 degrees; fight weight 1500 kg; initial projectile speed 470 m / s; projectile weight 13.2 kg; road speed 60 km / h; maximum range 10856 m. As it is known at present, Romanian VMs no longer have mountain cannons in current use, although they are useful to them, especially since JERRY and BUCEGI were very modern.

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Page last modified: 30-06-2021 12:05:01 ZULU