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China Type 63 Amphibious Tank - Design

The tank has a strong firepower, good mobility especially amphibious capability and adequate armor protection, mainly used to force a crossing rivers and coastal landing and anti-landing operations; destroy enemy beachhead defenses, destroy the enemy's effective strength and weapons equipment, coordinated infantry combat, the implementation of fire support, suitable for many rivers, lakes, swamps and rice fields in combat areas such as water network and reconnaissance missions.

The tanks in the overall design takes into account the various characteristics of amphibious combat tanks and reasonable solution to the land and water tanks in the conflict did not ask to meet on land and water use requirements. The tank took a longitudinal engine, powertrain rear, fighting part of the middle, driving control portion is arranged in the front part. On land use, in addition to weak armor protection and verandahs boat slightly larger size, but with light tanks on land fighting performance.

To meet the performance requirements of water, taken in the overall design displacement as large as possible, on the whole vehicle parts design and selection of outsourcing melodious reduce weight as much as possible and use a large hollow road wheels and other measures to increase buoyancy. Through the rational design and weight of the center of gravity of the linear configuration and design of the water jet propulsion in the water tank with airworthiness and has good maneuverability. After commissioning and water proof vehicle in the water shooting better driving stability, stability and anti Sage shooting ability. Vehicles equipped with anti-surfers first and higher; Vehicle is equipped with motorized pumps, electric pumps and hand pumps drainage device may ensure driving safety on the water tank.

The Type 63 LAT has an all-welded rolled-steel hull divided into three main compartments with the driver at the front, fighting compartment in the center, and the engine and transmission at the rear. The turret is in cast-steel sections welded together. The Type 63 has a four-man crew consisting of the tank commander, driver, gunner and loader. The tank commander sits on the left side of the turret with the gunner on the same side in front and the loader to the right. The Type 63 is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by two water jets of Soviet design.

The hull is similar to the PT-76 apart from a nearly horizontal glacis plate and different engine grills. There are three separate vertical slot side inlets on the Type 63, in contrast to the single large inlet with inset vertical baffle plates on the PT-76.

The Type 63 LAT has a fully amphibious capability, six rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear, idler at the front and no track return rollers, a shallow glacis plate, a trim board folded back onto the glacis plate that is erected at the front of the hull before entering the water and a single-piece driver's hatch cover that has three periscopes mounted forward of the hatch. The Type 63 can cross a 2.9-meter trench, mount a 0.87-meter vertical step, climb a 60-percent grade and can ford amphibiously.

Also, the Type 63 has a infrared driving light on the right side of the hull front, a commander's hatch that opens forward and a loader's hatch that opens to the rear, a dome-shaped ventilator mounted in the turret roof to the rear of the commander's and gunner's hatches, optional fuel tanks that can be fitted on top of the hull to increase operational range and a Chinese designed laser rangefinder (fitted on some models) over the rear part of the 85mm gun. This is identical to the laser rangefinder found on some Chinese Type 59 MBTs.

The Type 63 has a 85-mm gun, probably identical to that installed in the Type 62 light tank. A normal ammunition load for the main armament is 47 rounds. The 85mm gun can fire AP, APHE, HE, and HEAT rounds, though the turret has a ventilator dome with a snorkel fitting. Secondary armament consists of a 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun, a 7.62mm Type 54 (Soviet M1938/46 DShKM) heavy machine gun mounted at the loader's station for anti-aircraft defense and another 7.62mm machine gun mounted coaxially to the main armament.

The tank uses four-stroke V-12 cylinder water-cooled diesel engine, model 12150L-2, rated power is 294kW (400 hp). Water cooling system onshore adopt tube-fin-type radiator and exhaust gas cited emitting apparatus, saves power, layout rational; Beach Water take advantage of watercourse mezzanine-style heat exchangers, band brake and side reducer, Water propulsion device and pumping devices and other components. When traveling overland power transmission line from the engine through the main clutch, transmission, steering clutch on both sides, the side reached the capstan reducer. Water from the engine when driving through the main clutch, transfer case, universal joints spread around the sides of waterjets. Main clutch is a dry multi-plate friction.

The tank with synchronizer shift mechanism using fixed-axis mechanical gearbox, divided into two parts. The front for water propelling gear, transfer case to the left and right sides of the power came, and with an inverted institutions, can drive shaft propeller impeller forward and reverse; rear onshore transmission, including 5 forward gears and one reverse gear, third, fourth, fifth gear synchronizer with inertia, the second tranche with a simple synchronizer, first gear and reverse gear connected with the sliding sleeve shifts. The entire gearbox water, land two parts transmission mechanism can also be used independently of each other simultaneously, you can make tracks and waterjets work simultaneously in order to tank water and ashore. Steering device using dry friction multi-plate clutch. Side of the reducer is a cylindrical gear reduction.

Mobile device using an independent torsion bar suspension, single pin fine-pitch metal shoes. High assassination herringbone pattern shoe track shoe adhesion performance, improved tanks in the rice fields, marshes, shoals and other places out of the water tank through capacity and capability. There are six pairs of large diameter hollow single hanging plastic rim road wheels, the first and sixth road wheel scroll spring mounted at the limiter, the rest with rubber stopper. Tracked by the tightness of the crank and double spiral track adjuster to adjust.

Water propulsion device using axial flow waterjets, each side of the drive is equipped with a water jet propulsion and waterways, at the rear of the mouth with water can control the opening and closing of the water gate. To achieve water reversing, reversing rear body sides opened a waterway, close the rear two water gates on both sides of the water spout from the vehicle to the vehicle in front of the ramp ejected rearward thrust generated in a short time you can achieve deceleration, braking or pour down. When closing the door to the side of the water flexible steering. Waterjets can be manipulated to make it FenDongXiang forward and reverse. Forward the tanks in the water running, is inverted so that the water in the watercourse pour spout, in order to get rid of waterways imported plants and debris on the grill, to prevent clogging.

Armored vehicle body armor of a special welded steel plate has good appearance and protection, first vehicle deck is relatively thick and there is a certain angle. Front armor plate on the ramp with anti-surfers, to prevent the water tank when driving the vehicle first gushing, when traveling on land can be put down anti-surfers. Turret body is trained by the six curved sides and a roof deck armor plate welded hemispherical turret body. Front turret with gun mounting holes parallel machine gun shooting holes and sight hole, the top turret and turret tower door.

The tanks in the domed turret body is equipped with a 62-85Tc-style 85mm tank gun, used with needle roller trunnion mounted on the turret body trunnion hole, the direction of fire of 360 , tilt range -4 ~ +22 . The use of electric steering gear may CVT, can quickly tune guns, high-speed transfer of firepower, but also low precision targeting, but also to achieve vehicle length manipulate turret. Vehicle carries 40 rounds of artillery shells. The gun is equipped with a 59 on the right side by side type 7.62mm machine gun, left with a Type 63 tank gun sight, control tower is equipped with a 12.7mm machine gun Type 59.

Observation instrument has an installed in the tower on the 61-style vehicle length mirrors, two mounted on both sides of the 71 tanks tower commanding viewers. Configuring a turret on each side 59 periscope for the gunner loader use. Driving with the windows 3 61 Amphibious Tank driving mirrors, night or in foggy night vision available 62 tanks, is also equipped with 61 Amphibious Tank mirrors, driving on water use.

Electrical equipment's power section includes four 65-in battery, an adjustment with TJY-1 type relay collaborative work ZFC-3000 DC generator and a filter. Series and parallel connection of the battery type, parallel group, group series, the total voltage of 24V, the battery capacity is 280Ah. Communications equipment for the A-220A tanks radio and A-221A vehicle intercom.




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Page last modified: 01-08-2021 14:07:07 ZULU