Type 01 Chengdu-class frigates
The Chengdu-class frigates were modified Riga-class ships obtained from the Soviet Union. Type 01 frigate, also known as China Type 6601 frigate, NATO code: Chengdu Class, is a Riga class frigate self-assembled in China in the 1950s using technology and materials provided by the Soviet Union.
Type 01 frigate, known as Chengdu class artillery frigate in the west, is a kind of anti-shipping offshore light surface warship with strong attack power and certain anti-submarine and air defense capabilities. Chengdu class standard displacement is 1200 tons, power is two steam turbines, the maximum speed is 28 knots, equipped with three 100mm single-tube main guns, two 37mm double-tube naval guns, two sets of triple 533mm torpedo launch tubes and 24 Tube rocket-type deep-launch launcher. From 1971 to 1975, China modified the 01 frigate, dismantled the torpedo launch tube of the bulge, and installed a double-mounted Upstream -1 (SY-1) anti-ship missile (SAM).
In 1949, when the Chinese Navy was formed, there were no decent large surface warships. On June 4, 1953, China and the Soviet Union signed the "June 4th Agreement" on naval technical assistance . The Soviet Union provided China with artillery torpedo frigates (NATO code: Riga Class Frigate). Technical drawings of 5 types of ships and a batch of materials and equipment. Under the guidance of the Soviet expert group, Shanghai Hudong Shipyard undertook the construction of four Riga-class frigates. The design materials and equipment provided by the Soviet Union were used, and local modifications were made according to the Chinese sea conditions, and they were renamed Type 01 frigates.
The first ship of Type 01 frigate was assembled and built at Shanghai Hudong Shipyard. Construction started on April 15, 1955, and was completed and delivered to the Navy on May 30, 1957. A total of 4 ships of the same class have been completed and delivered, with the names of "Kunming", "Chengdu", "Guiyang" and "Hengyang". By 1994 all the ships were retired from service.
Four Type 01 frigates initially served in the East China Sea Fleet of the People's Liberation Army Navy from December 1959. On the 1st when the East China Sea Fleet exercised in the Zhoushan waters, an accident occurred when the submarine No. 418 submerged and crashed with the "Hengyang" ship.
On July 11, 1964, the "Hengyang" ship intercepted Taiwan's "Jiangsu Province Anti-Communist Salvation Army 19 Column 1 detachment" special service ships "Man Qingsheng 1" and "Man Qing Sheng 2 "in the sea east of Wujing. It sank one of Taiwan's ships and damaged another (which later sank). After the Battle of Xisha on January 19, 1974, four Type 01 frigates belonging to the 6th detachment of the East China Sea Fleet were transferred to the South China Sea Fleet through the Taiwan Strait to enhance the strength of the South China Sea Fleet.
In the early 1980s, the ship’s ship numbers were changed, and the ship ’s ship number was changed from 205 to 208 to 505 to 508. On August 1, 1986, the ship ’s name was renamed “Pingxiang”, 508 ship's name was renamed "Xichang".
In February 1988, when China confronted the Vietnamese Navy during the construction of a marine observatory in Yongshu Reef in the Nansha Sea, the patrol formation sent by the Chinese Navy ’s South China Sea Fleet included 508 ships. In addition, the 01-type ship also participated in the investigation of the sinking incident of the Leap Forward. By 1994, the ships of the Type 01 frigate had retired successively.
In the 1950s, Type 01 frigates were more advanced medium-sized surface ships. Through the construction of Type 01 frigates, China's shipbuilding industry initially had the ability to build modern ships. Hudong Shipyard (formerly British Commercial Mahler Machinery Shipyard) originally could only build some small boats. From 1954 to 1959, nearly 40 million yuan in infrastructure construction was completed. By the time the Type 01 frigate was completed, the Hudong Shipyard had a factory area of 500,000 square meters and a shoreline of 1200 meters with a complete shipbuilding system.
The construction of the 01-type frigate also cultivated human resources and became the main force for the development of Chinese frigates. For example, Yu Boliang, who presided over the 01-type design and construction, then chaired the development of the 65-type frigate. When the Type 01 frigate was in service, it was during the initial period of the Chinese Navy. Together with the Type 07 destroyer imported from the Soviet Union, this type of warship had reserved the personnel for large and medium-sized modern surface ships for the Navy, and ensured that the ship force could have sufficient intermediate commanders. Compared with the frigates of various countries in the world at the same time, the firepower of the 01 frigate was relatively comprehensive and powerful.
The completion and service of Type 01 frigates enabled China to build its own frigates. It is also the ancestor of many of the existing frigates of the Chinese Navy. At the same time, it first had ship-borne missiles in the Chinese Navy.
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