Hopper dredges are self-propelled seagoing ships of from 180 to 550 ft in length, with the molded hulls and lines of ocean vessels. They are equipped with propulsion machinery, sediment containers (hoppers), dredge pumps, and other special equipment required to perform their essential function of removing material from a channel bottom or ocean bed. Hopper dredges have propulsion power adequate for required free-running speed and dredging against strong currents and excellent maneuverability for safe and effective work in rough, open seas. Dredged material is raised by dredge pumps through dragarms connected to drags in contact with the channel bottom and discharged into hoppers built in the vessel. Hopper dredges are classified according to hopper capacity: large-class dredges have hopper capacities of 6000 cu yd or greater, medium-class hopper dredges have hopper capacities of 2000 to 6000 cu yd, and small-class hopper dredges have hopper capacities of from less than 2000 to 500 cu yd. During dredging operations, hopper dredges travel at a ground speed of from 2 to 3 mph and can dredge in depths from about 10 to over 80 ft. They are equipped with twin propellers and twin rudders to provide the required maneuverability.
Operation of a seagoing hopper dredge involves greater effort than that required for an ordinary ocean cargo vessel, because not only the needs of navigation of a self-propelled vessel but also the needs associated with its dredging purposes must be satisfied. Dredging is accomplished by progressive traverses over the area to be dredged. Hopper dredges are equipped with large centrifugal pumps similar to those employed by other hydraulic dredges. Suction pipes (dragarms) are hinged on each side of the vessel with the intake (drag) extending downward toward the stern of the vessel. The drag is moved along the channel bottom as the vessel moves forward at speeds up to 3 mph. The dredged material is sucked up the pipe and deposited and stored in the hoppers of the vessel. Once fully loaded, hopper dredges move to the disposal site to unload before resuming dredging. Unloading is accomplished either by opening doors in the bottoms of the hoppers and allowing the dredged material to sink to the open-water disposal site or by pumping the dredged material to upland disposal sites. Because of the limitations on open-water disposal, most hopper dredges have direct pumpout capability for disposal in upland confined sites. Before there were environmental restrictions, hopper dredges were operated with the primary objective of obtaining the maximum economic load; i.e., removing the maximum quantity of material from the channel prism in the shortest pumping time during a day's operation.
Hopper dredging is accomplished by three methods: (a) pumping past overflow, (b) agitation dredging, and (c) pumping to overflow. The use of these methods is controlled to varying degrees by environmental legislation and the water quality certification permits required by the various states in which dredging is being accomplished. The environmental effects of these methods must be assessed on a project-by-project basis. If the material being dredged is clean sand, the percentage of solids in the overflow will be small and economic loading may be achieved by pumping past overflow. When contaminated sediments are to be dredged and adverse environmental effects have been identified, pumping past overflow is not recommended. In such cases, other types of dredges may be more suitable for removing the contaminated sediments from the channel prism. If hopper dredges are not allowed to pump past overflow in sediments that have good settling properties, the cost of dredging increases. The settling properties of silt and clay sediments may be such that only a minimal load increase would be achieved by pumping past overflow. Economic loading, i.e. the pumping time required for maximum production of the hopper dredge, should be determined for each project. These determinations, along with environmental considerations, should be used to establish the operation procedures for the hopper dredge.
Agitation dredging is a process which intentionally discharges overboard large quantities of fine-grained dredged material by pumping past overflow, under the assumption that a major portion of the sediments passing through the weir overflow will be transported and permanently deposited outside the channel prism by tidal, river, or littoral currents. Agitation dredging should be used only when the sediments dredged have poor settling properties, when there are currents in the surrounding water to carry the sediments from the channel prism, and when the risk to environmental resources is low. Favorable conditions may exist at a particular project only at certain times of the day, such as at ebb tides, or only at such periods when the streamflow is high. To use agitation dredging effectively requires extensive studies of the project conditions and definitive environmental assessments of the effects. Agitation dredging should not be performed while operating in slack water or when prevailing currents permit redeposit of substantial quantities of the dredged material in the project area or in any other area where future excavation may be required.
Hopper dredges are used mainly for maintenance dredging in exposed harbors and shipping channels where traffic and operating conditions rule out the use of stationary dredges. The materials excavated by hopper dredges cover a wide range of types, but the hopper dredge is most effective in the removal of material which forms shoals after the initial dredging is completed. While specifically designed drags are available for use in raking and breaking up hard materials, hopper dredges are most efficient in excavating loose, unconsolidated materials. At times, hopper dredges must operate under hazardous conditions caused by fog, rough seas, and heavy traffic encountered in congested harbors.
Because of the hopper dredge's design and method of operation, the self-propelled seagoing hopper dredge has the following advantages over other types of dredges for many types of projects. It is the only type of dredge that can work effectively, safely, and economically in rough, open water. It can move quickly and economically to the dredging project under its own power. Its operation does not interfere with or obstruct traffic. Its method of operation produces usable channel improvement almost as soon as work begins. A hopper dredge usually traverses the entire length of the problem shoal, excavating a shallow cut during each passage and in-creasing channel depth as work progresses. The hopper dredge may be the most economical type of dredge to use where disposal areas are not available within economic pumping distances of the hydraulic pipeline dredge.
The hopper dredge is a seagoing self-propelled vessel designed for specific dredging projects. The following limitations are associated with this dredge. Its deep draft precludes use in shallow waters, including barge channels. It cannot dredge continuously. The normal operation involves loading, transporting material to the dump site, unloading, and returning to the dredging site. The hopper dredge excavates with less precision than other types of dredges. Its economic load is reduced when dredging contaminated sediments since pumping past overflow is generally prohibited under these conditions and low-density material must be transported to and pumped into upland disposal areas. It has difficulty dredging side banks of hardpacked sand. The hopper dredge cannot dredge effectively around piers and other structures. Consolidated clay material cannot be economically dredged with the hopper dredge.
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