Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq
Report to Congress
In accordance with the
Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2008
(Section 9010, Public Law 109-289)
Report to Congress
In accordance with the
Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2008
(Section 9010, Public Law 109-289)
Section 2-Iraqi Security Forces Training and Performance
2.2. Ministry of Interior
MoI forces consist largely of the Iraqi Police Service (IPS), the National Police (NP) and the Directorate of Border Enforcement (DBE). Pending passage of the FPS Reform Law, the MoI is preparing to absorb FPS personnel currently spread among other ministries.
Ministry of Interior Transition Issues
Ministry Capacity Development
Although the Minister of Interior remains committed to reforming the MoI, Coalition advisors continue to report steady, but sometimes inconsistent, improvement in the MoI’s ability to perform key ministerial functions such as force management, personnel management, acquisition, training, logistics and sustainment and developing and implementing plans and policies. Reducing corruption and improving professionalism are also focus areas. In 2007, the MoI Directorate of Internal Affairs opened 6,652 cases against ministerial employees. Of those cases, 6,159 were closed during the year. Upon adjudication of these cases, the MoI fired 1,112 employees, disciplined 438 and forced another 23 into retirement. The terminations and forced retirements constitute 17% of the total disciplinary action taken against ministry employees.
One area that has shown improvement is the MoI Contracting Directorate. The MoI Contracts Director is committed to improving the productivity of all MoI contracting offices and has documented its policies and procedures. During 2008, the MoI plans to implement an important training initiative focused on implementing the MoI’s procedures at the national and provincial level.
Another area that has shown improvement is strategic planning. With the support of the MNSTC-I Ministry of Interior Transition Team (MoI-TT) and the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development, the MoI has made significant progress in developing a strategic plan to consolidate its plans across the organization. This plan represents a significant boost for MoI strategic planning and coordination and addresses such issues as human resource strategy, administrative and training reform, equipment procurement, infrastructure investments and funding strategies. This plan includes coordinated goals and objectives for each directorate and a comprehensive 2008 budget and capital investment strategy for the MoI. The MoI-TT anticipates plan approval and implementation during 2008 and continues to work with its counterparts to improve the 2009 plan.
During this period, the MoI added personnel to the hiring rolls, but police force expansion has continued on an un-programmed basis. The MoI has no mechanism that correctly matches funding with valid requirements and growth projections. The Implementation and Followup Committee for National Reconciliation delayed the timely accession of new police recruits, but those processes are now clarified and have begun to produce faster results. The MoI’s effort to reconcile police payrolls by identifying and removing ghost employees is making progress. 2,500 of these employees were removed from rosters nationwide in December 2007. The Baghdad IPS expansion plan is meeting goals for recruitment, hiring and equipping. However, limited basic recruit training capability at the Baghdad Police College represents a continuing limitation on program execution. Expanded training bases are planned to mitigate this training limitation. As of January 1, 2008, 8,500 new Baghdad police were hired and the plan is on track to reach the hiring goal of 13,075 new police for Baghdad in March 2008.
The 2008 budget, approved on February 13, 2008, by the CoR, includes separate accounts for the Baghdad Police College, the Higher Institute, the NP, the FPS, the DBE and the Patrol Police. The MoI 2008 budget request to the GoI was US$7.8 billion, of which the Ministry of Finance (MoF) approved US$3.8 billion. Even though this represents a 51% reduction of the submitted request, it represents a 21% growth over the 2007 MoI budget.
On January 8, 2008, the Iraqi Council of Ministers approved the MoI’s transfer of US$420 million in excess CY2007 funds to the 2008 FMS account, allowing execution of these funds. The MoI is now working closely with the MoF to transfer those funds in order to ensure continued support and avert a gap in FMS equipment deliveries and subsequent fielding. With transfer of these 2007 FMS funds, the MoI will effectively achieve a 98% 2007 budget execution rate, compared to a 77% execution rate for 2006.
The use of manual systems to report ministry expenditures is a systemic problem for the MoI. In many cases, the MoI receives monthly reports well over two months late. This reduces the usefulness of the information for decision makers. Through the end of CY2007, on-time expenditure reporting has averaged only 65%. To improve performance for 2008, the MoI will insist upon electronic reporting from its spending units and undertake administrative measures to reinforce timely reporting. Additionally, the MoI’s nascent strategic planning structure will help sustain positive trends in budget execution. The MoI Finance Directorate, which has expressed interest in developing processes to conduct execution-year budget status reviews, will be a critical element within this new structure. This is a welcome indication of inter-ministerial cooperation. Such senior ministerial level emphasis will reinforce proper and timely budget execution.
The MoI’s “E-ministry” initiative—an Iraqifunded system that will link human resource (HR) and payroll actions—is designed to address most personnel accountability issues. “E-ministry” is the result of a MoI HR committee plan to reform ministerial HR systems, with particular focus on linking HR, payroll and training management. Currently, “E-ministry” is in Phase I of a three-phased fielding plan, and the MoI HR department has started populating its database. In December 2007, the MoI called for a complete standdown of “E-ministry” implementation until completion of off-site training in Amman, Jordan. This off-site training should be completed by February 2008, at which time the MoI will resume “E-ministry” implementation. The “E-ministry” program is projected to be operational prior to January 2009.
In December 2007, the MoI received large shipments from both the 2006 U.S. FMS program, as well as the initial delivery of a large ammunition and weapons contract brokered independently with China. These deliveries demonstrate that the MoI is increasing its capability to execute Iraqi-funded procurement methods, rather than relying on ISFF. Additionally, the MoI continues expanding its acquisition capability by contracting with Iraqi state factories for uniforms and is moving forward with a purchase of 1,373 additional vehicles.
Logistics and Sustainment
The MoI uses a civilian model for logistics and therefore does not have logistics units, nor does it track personnel by occupational specialty. Once hired, police receive additional training to assume administrative or logistical duties as required. The one notable exception is the recently conceived NP Sustainment Brigade. This brigade serves as a critical enabler to achieve the long-term vision for the NP to project police capabilities nationwide. With an authorized end strength of 2,500, the force generation of this brigade should be complete by the end of 2008. Currently, the brigade consists of a headquarters company with 721 personnel assigned. The Sustainment Brigade, with its organic mobility, will be capable of accomplishing a wide range of logistical missions: line haul transportation, deployable maintenance, supply receipt storage and issue for NP Divisions, combat health treatment and mobile fuel storage and distribution. The major equipment requirements for this unit are included on a signed LOR for a planned FMS case valued at US$37 million. The FMS LOA for the case is in development and is the subject of ongoing negotiations with the MoI.
In order to develop a pool of trained MoI mechanics, Coalition-funded ISFF maintenance programs include mechanic training as part of their schedule. Thirty-two mechanics graduated from the latest mechanics course that concluded January 10, 2008. Twenty-four personnel graduated from supervisory mechanics courses in December 2007 and January 2008. Because this is a nascent training program, MoI organic maintenance capability cannot yet sustain the level of maintenance required to keep vehicles operationally ready. As a result, two Coalition contracts are in place to maintain operational readiness rates at or above 85%. These maintenance contracts expire on March 28, 2008, and May 30, 2008, respectively.
Measured progress in contracting for goods and services is creating new challenges with storage capacity and supply distribution. Large deliveries received in December 2007 have challenged MoI throughput capacity. As a result, there is a backlog of some ISFF-funded items at the MoI central warehouse and the ISFF-funded Coalition general support warehouse. As distribution plans were developed and items issued to subordinate units, improvements in weapons, ammunition and vehicles on hand are expected in the next few months.
In order to begin addressing these backlog issues, a Coalition-funded contractor has started construction on eight new MoI warehouses. The construction projects should be completed by the end of March 2008. In order to increase throughput capacity, the MoI Director of Logistics has received authority to increase his workforce.
The Coalition has contributed approximately US$68 million for equipment, infrastructure, supplies and training to develop a MoI healthcare capability focused on NP and DBE forces. The Coalition purchased over 90 ambulances and constructed clinics at seven locations in the Baghdad area. Despite efforts to establish a MoI healthcare system amidst a nationwide shortage of healthcare professionals, the MoI currently has only 12 physicians, three dentists and approximately 270 medics, technicians and staff assigned to NP and DBE forces. The majority of MoI employees rely on services from the MoH for their healthcare.
Training and Development
There are currently 17 MoI training institutions throughout Iraq. Fourteen of the 17 are under full control of the MoI. The remaining three (Numaniyah, Camp Dublin and the Baghdad Police College) remain a shared responsibility. The Iraqi instructor cadre at the Baghdad Police College handles all basic officer and enlisted recruit training and continues to accept an increasing proportion of the specialized and advanced course load. International Police Advisors (IPAs) and MNSTC-I advisors serve an advisor, overwatch and quality control function. The National Police will assume responsibility for the Numaniyah training center in the spring of 2008.
Overcoming the MoI training backlog faces significant challenges. Consequently, the MoI and the Coalition have formed a joint working group to develop options for training base expansion. The MoI training base is capable of training 77,740 enlisted police and 4,828 officers per year, using a total student capacity of 24,810 at any given time. With the MoI Training Base expansion plan currently in progress through mid-2009, seat capacity will increase to enable yearly throughput of 117,100 enlisted personnel and 5,377 officers. The increased training will address three needs. First, increased capacity will help reduce the backlog of untrained police, allowing the MoI to reach authorized force levels in a reasonable timeframe. Second, operating a training institution in each province allows for wider recruiting efforts to ensure that training centers operate at or near capacity. Third, the increased capacity is required to handle anticipated force attrition rates associated with the expanded authorizations, as well as providing a broader range of professional training courses in the future.
The MoI training base expansion plan includes the construction of 12 new training centers and the expansion of seven existing training centers. These include new officer colleges in Mosul, Irbil and Basrah, new provincial training centers in Muthanna and Maysan Provinces and the expansion of facilities at the Baghdad Police College, Mosul Provincial Training Center and Habbaniyah. All training centers will eventually share a common curriculum to standardize training. Levels of violence hampered previous expansion efforts.
The MoI continues to maximize officer generation by recalling select former Iraqi Army and Police officers into the force. These recalled personnel become officers after completing a three-week Officer Transition Integration Program (OTIP). Since July 2007, the MoI has completed six OTIP courses, one six-month officer course and one nine-month course. Through these courses, 901 new officers joined the force. In addition to officer and basic enlisted recruit training, specialized training is ongoing in fields such as leadership and technical skills. The MoI Training and Qualification Directorate, working with the MoI HR Directorate, seek to link such professional training with career progression.
The MoI shows steady progress in training Internal Affairs and Inspector General Personnel. Across 2007, the MoI trained 344 Internal Affairs and 140 Inspector General Personnel across five training courses: basic internal affairs, interview and interrogations, anti-corruption, first-line supervisor and an internal affairs advanced course. Finally, Internal Affairs work is inherently dangerous. In November and December 2007, the MoI suffered four Internal Affairs officers killed and another three wounded. Throughout 2007, 14 Internal Affairs officers were killed with another 14 wounded. This remains a key focus area for both the Coalition and the MoI.
The MoI is also taking positive action to ensure accountability of current weapons distribution and to gain visibility of weapons issued prior to the establishment of standardized accountability procedures. In 2006, the MoI established procedures to account for pistols to the individual level. Concurrently, it established a national registry of all MoI-issued weapons and a system of administrative fines for lost weapons.
Embedded Advisory Support
There are 263 Police Transition Teams (PTTs) assigned to the Iraqi Police, covering police commands from local police stations up through the district and provincial levels. There are 28 border transition teams assigned to about two-thirds of the DBE units at the battalion level and above. There are 40 NP TTs assigned to over 80% of the NP units at the battalion level and above, and the MoI-TT has 96 advisors assigned to the various directorates in the MoI, composed of Coalition military, Department of State (DoS) civilians and contracted personnel. Approximately 17% of the required number of PTTs for MoI forces are not yet established due to the unavailability of Coalition Military Police units around which the PTTs can base.
Ministry of Interior Forces
Operational Planning and Execution
The Operations Directorate continues its successful participation in joint planning for major national events. Its contributions to the Hajj plan and the Police Day celebration led to incident-free events. In the case of the Hajj, successful planning enabled over 30,000 Iraqis to move throughout the country and fulfill their religious obligations without incident. Iraqi command personnel, Coalition members, Danish Police and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) trainers are refining command-and-control systems through assessment visits to Provincial Joint Command-and- Control Headquarters (PJCC). Four PJCCs were assessed during this period, while the remaining 14 will be assessed in 2008.
Iraqi Police Service
The Iraqi Police Service (IPS) consists of approximately 275,300 patrol, station and traffic personnel. The IPS mission is to enforce the rule of law, safeguard the public and provide local security. As noted in prior reports, the IPS challenges in executing this mission relate to militia and criminal influence, as well as the combat loss, normal wear, attrition, maintenance and theft of equipment. These factors, as well as growth of police authorization levels, will require improvements in equipment support, which underlines the importance of a responsive FMS program. In order to increase its number of trained personnel, the MoI decentralized the authority to conduct Baghdad Basic Recruit Training to the Provincial Director of Police (PDoP).
The National Police (NP) serves as a bridging force between the local IPS and the Army. Eventually, the NP will allow the Interior Minister to project police capabilities nationwide. NP leadership is engaged in addressing many of the challenges it faces. As a result, NP assigned strength has increased from 60% of 70% of authorization. Under its plan to increase the share of officers in its ranks, the NP received 193 new officer graduates from the nine-month Officer Course at the Baghdad Police College in late 2007, increasing the share of NP officers in the force from 39% to 44%. The NP is continuing its efforts to achieve ethno-sectarian balance within the force so that force demographics reflect the Iraqi population. For example, on January 21, 2008, 1,829 NP basic recruits graduated from the Numaniyah Training Center. These graduates included 48% Sunni, 46% Shi’a and a mix of Kurds, Turkmen and Christians.
The Coalition continues to support the MoI’s four-phased MoI NP Transformation Program intended to address the previously high degree of sectarian behavior in the NP and its limited progression in operational readiness. Phase II of the NP Transformation Program is complete. The first class of Phase III training concluded in late-December 2007, with 430 graduates completing the seven-week curriculum taught by the Italian Carabinieri. This training incorporates transitional policing skills that are not currently available in the NP. This training supports the efforts of the NP in becoming a multi-skilled, well-trained professional organization. The second battalion is currently in training with battalion-sized unit training rotations continuing through the spring of 2009. Phase IV of the NP transformation involves basing NP units in areas-of-operation outside Baghdad. Over time, as NP unit requirements diminish in Baghdad, the NP will “regionalize” within Iraq and establish permanent bases in select provinces. The Prime Minister has directed formation of a third NP division that will be based in Salah ad Din Province.
Directorate of Border Enforcement and Directorate of Ports of Entry
The Directorate of Border Enforcement (DBE) supports two key missions: Ports of Entry (PoE) policing to ensure the smooth transition of legal goods and persons and interdicting illegal traffic—including smuggling and movement of terrorists and foreign fighters— within and between PoEs. The DBE has five regional commands, each responsible for both PoE control and border overwatch and patrol within its area. This results in a border police force structure of 12 brigades and 44 battalions spread across the five DBE regions.
The MoI appointed a permanent Director of Ports of Entry in August 2007 following an 18- month period during which acting directors— all of whom were ineffective in developing and implementing plans—headed the PoE Directorate. The PoE Directorate is improving its management of 17 land PoEs, seven airports and five seaports. These improvements are part of a larger effort to disrupt the cross-border flow of foreign terrorists and facilitators and to provide the Iraqi border forces with an improved capability to enhance border and PoE security. Based on the recently passed 2008 budget, the proposed DBE CY2008 budget is approximately US$407.5 million (approximately US$401 million for operating expenses and US$6.5 million for capital expenditure). Phase II, which directs improvements at Zurbatiyah, Muntheria, Shalamsha and Al Sheeb is underway and scheduled to be completed in August 2008.
The Director General released the DBE threeyear plan in January 2008. He is in the process of manning and constructing additional border forts and annexes to establish a line-of-sight perimeter around Iraq. The envisioned endstate requires an increase to 712 border forts and annexes with a line-of-sight of five to six kilometers, as well as increasing DBE authorized strength from 38,000 to 46,000.
The DBE continues to make progress towards securing Iraq’s borders. Units demonstrate an ability to plan and execute all tasked operations. Civil customs inspectors have improved their inspection procedures. Despite these improvements, funding issues continue to hamper the DBE. Its units suffer from officer and NCO shortages, inadequate fuel supplies, lack of maintenance capability, poor logistical support, poor maintenance of facilities and equipment shortages. Many DBE personnel are locally recruited in the border areas and are sometimes complicit with smuggling efforts. Any un-programmed growth of border police within the DBE will exacerbate funding shortfalls for logistics and sustainment.
Facilities Protection Services
The current version of the Facilities Protection Service (FPS) Reform Law awaits CoR approval. The FPS Reform Law provides authority to consolidate all non-MoI FPS under the MoI, enhancing unity of effort, command and control and common standards. The MoJ Legal Advisor conducted another review of the law to consider modifications.
A joint MoI FPS-Coalition steering group meets weekly to discuss consolidation actions and issues while working groups address issues in the functional areas of HR, training, finance, logistics, communications and information technology. Coalition forces have assisted the MoI and FPS in developing a training plan to increase training capacity from 320 per month to over 1,000 per month. The first class under this program will began training in February 2008. Coalition advisors continue to work with the FPS on budget-related issues and increasing the MoI’s capacity to train FPS personnel as they assimilate into the MoI.
The MoI FPS directorate conducted an inventory of all personnel assigned to other Ministries and provincial FPS that will be consolidating under the MoI. This inventory included verification of a contract for each individual that will consolidate into the MoI. Based upon this inventory, the anticipated strength of the new FPS will be 107,970 (18,968 currently assigned to MoI FPS and 89,002 FPS from other Ministries).
National Information and Investigation Agency
The National Information and Investigation Agency (NIIA) is the lead intelligence apparatus of the MoI. The organization consists of a National Headquarters, 15 provincial bureaus, six regional bureaus, 56 district offices and offices at 11 PoEs. NIIA analysis and investigations enable intelligence supported police operations across MoI.
At the end of CY2007, NIIA had 4,700 of 7,000 authorized personnel on hand. Increased personnel numbers have measurably improved NIIA capabilities. An end-of-year shipment of 159 vehicles raised its vehicle fill from 62% to 84%. However, NIIA effectiveness remains hampered by inefficient logistics processes, weak command-and-control systems and a primitive training base. However, improvements in these areas are anticipated based on several ongoing initiatives and projects. The installation of the Iraqi Intelligence Network (I2N) throughout the Agency by the end of 2008 will provide a secure intelligence dissemination means and will facilitate command and control from the Baghdad headquarters to the provincial and border offices. The construction of the new headquarters and the Baghdad Bureau complex is on track, with completion anticipated in June 2008. To combat militia infiltration, foreign intelligence penetration and corruption, the NIIA is developing a Personnel Assurance Program that includes organic polygraph capability. Ongoing initiatives to improve manning, basing, equipping and training begun in 2007 will translate into improvements in NIIA’s intelligence and law enforcement capabilities in 2008.
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