Enemy Prisoners of War
|Chapters 3 and 4 implement STANAG 2044.|
The MP are responsible for evacuating EPWs from division CPs to CHAs and then to internment facilities (normally located in the COMMZ). This chapter addresses procedures for properly handling, processing, and safeguarding EPWs. The procedures outlined in this chapter are also applicable to RPs. (See Chapter 1 for complete definitions and AR 190-8 for more details.)
4-1. Corps MP commanders evacuate EPWs from CHAs to internment facilities promptly and safely. Their responsibilities include security, accountability, and support. They also account for equipment and documents and provide escort guards if an escort guard company is unavailable.
4-2. Escort guard companies are responsible for EPW operations in the TO, and they escort EPWs from CHAs to internment facilities. They are assigned to MP I/R battalions and brigades. However, if they arrive before MP I/R units, they are attached to MP CS brigades. To expedite prompt, full evacuation of EPWs, escort guards can be pre-positioned in CHAs so that they are continuously available.
4-3. The evacuation chain normally moves EPWs from a division forward CP to a division central CP, to a CHA, and then to an internment facility. When circumstances permit, such as taking advantage of available transportation, evacuation procedures may bypass one or more echelons below corps (EBC) facilities.
RECEIVING AND PROCESSING AREAS
4-4. Receiving and processing begin when EPWs arrive. However, due to limited manning, these functions are not operational 24 hours a day. An internment facility receives, secures, houses, and feeds EPWs until receiving and processing lines are operational. The EPWs are then brought forward, and the internment process begins.
4-5. Use a controlled-flow format to escort EPWs through the processing line. Normally, four EPWs are processed at a time and the average is eight per hour. These numbers may increase or decrease based on the capture rate and the nature of the operation. Secure unprocessed EPWs in a holding area.
4-6. Request interpreters from MI, PSYOP, allied forces, or local authorities as necessary. This may require identifying and clearing trusted EPWs or local nationals to interpret. Interpreters are usually necessary when entering data into the Internment/Resettlement Information System (IRIS).
4-7. The preparation and dispatch of DA Forms 2674-R are governed by AR 190-8, and they are prepared at each internment facility. Brigade or internment facility commanders may require feeder reports from various compounds to facilitate the preparation of internee strength reports.
NOTE: See STANAG 2044 for more information on reports and accountability as they apply to NATO TOs.
4-8. Table 4-1 outlines the internment process for EPWs. It shows who is responsible for each step and what actions they must accomplish. Based on METT-TC, the commander may tailor stations to meet the situation. Stations 1 through 4 are in the receiving line, and Stations 5 through 9 are in the processing line.
Table 4-1. Processing Actions at the EPW Processing Area
Follow accountability procedures.
Escort EPWs and their property.
Strip-search EPWs (by MP of the same sex) before entering the processing area unless prohibited by conditions.
Remove and examine property, place it in a container or a tray, mark it with a control number, and take it to a temporary storage area. (Some property may be returned in the processing line.)
|2||Personal hygiene||MP and processed EPWs (when possible)||Allow EPWs to shower,
shave, and get haircuts.
Disinfect EPWs using the guidelines established by the PVNTMED officer.
|3||Medical evaluation||Medical personnel and MP||Inspect EPWs for signs of
illness or injury.
Evacuate EPWs who need treatment at a medical facility.
Give immunizations or request immunization support from the supporting medical unit before internment or evacuation.
Initiate treatment and immunization records.
Place control numbers on medical records to reduce linguist support. (Names, service numbers, and ISNs are entered at Station 1 with the aid of an interpreter.)
Annotate medical records with the date and place EPWs were inspected, immunized, and disinfected.
Weigh EPWs and establish a weight register.
|4||Personal items||MP||Issue personal-comfort
items (toilet paper, soap, toothbrush, and toothpaste).
Issue clothing (clean and distinctive, like brightly colored jumpsuits if available) that is
Ensure that clothing is marked "PW" as required.
|5||Administrative accountability||Processing clerk (assisted by an interpreter, MI, or others) and MP||Ensure that ISNs are
assigned to EPWs. Note the capture tag numbers that ISNs
are replacing so that late-arriving property can be
matched to its owner.
Initiate personnel records, ID documents, and property receipts.
Use digital equipment to generate forms and records.
Prepare forms and records to maintain the accountability of EPWs and their property (STANAG 2044).
Prepare forms for repatriation or international transfer as specified in local regulations or SOPs.
|6||Photography and fingerprinting||MP||Fingerprint EPWs.
Identify and record the information on fingerprint cards.
Take two photographs (with instant film or digital technology). Have EPWs look straight ahead, and fill the frame with their face.
Use photograph name boards (black background with white characters). List ISNs and names (translated into English) at the bottom center.
Attach one photograph to the EPW's personnel record.
Give a completed, laminated ID card (which contains the second photograph) to the EPW.
|7||Personal property||MP||Inventory and record
property (in the presence of EPWs) brought from temporary
property storage areas.
Make separate lists for returned, stored, impounded, and confiscated property. List property to be returned to EPWs or stored during internment on a separate list.
Provide receipts for property placed in temporary storage.
Provide receipts for money placed in EPW accounts (AR 190-8 and DFAS-IN 37-1).
Return retained property that was taken from the EPW at Station 1.
|8||Records review||MP||Review processed records
for completeness and accuracy.
Escort EPWs back to processing stations to correct errors if necessary.
Let EPWs prepare notification-of-capture cards. If being interned at the same place as processing, let EPWs prepare notification-of-address cards. If EPWs are unable to write their own cards, have someone authorized by the commander to do it for them.
|9||Accountability transfer||MP||Sign for and take custody
of EPWs (can use movement manifest), their records, and
their impounded property if moving to another facility.
Evacuate or ship impounded property separately according to JTRs.
*The number of people used to perform tasks depends on the number of EPWs and the amount of time available. Other soldiers assigned to the unit may perform non-MP-specific tasks if necessary.
4-9. When EPWs arrive at the internment facility, segregate them from those who arrived earlier and those who are partially processed. Count the EPWs and match them against the manifest and the receipts for them and their equipment.
4-10. Field-process each EPW if the capturing unit or the CP did not field-process him (Chapter 3 ). Ensure that he receives the serial number from his capture tag (DD Form 2745). (The number is used to track him until he receives an internment serial number [ISN]).
4-11. Record his capture tag serial number and last name on an ID band. Use a banding kit to attach the band to his left wrist. Match his capture tag serial number with the number on his personal property, or if necessary, mark his capture tag serial number on his personal property.
4-12. Store personal property in a temporary storage area until EPWs are fully processed, and control access to the storage area. Ensure that EPWs receive food and water and, if necessary, first aid and medical treatment. Take them to the processing area as soon as the receiving process is complete. If they cannot be processed immediately, hold them in the receiving area.
4-13. After EPWs have completed the receiving portion of their processing, move them to the processing line, where they are formally processed into the facility. They are entered into the IRIS database, and the IRIC forwards the information to the national IRIC for dissemination to the protecting power. The processing element
Keeps segregated EPWs apart as much as possible during processing.
Expedites the processing of EPWs selected by MI teams for interrogation.
Replaces the control number on each EPW's wrist with his ISN.
4-14. Ensure that the following forms are included in each EPW's personnel file:
DA Form 1131-R. Use this voucher to verify the balance of funds.
DA Form 1132-R. List the EPW's personal property on this form.
DA Form 2662-R. Issue this card if the EPW does not hold one from his country.
DA Form 2663-R. Prepare this card for each EPW upon processing into the facility.
DA Form 2664-R. Initiate this form upon inprocessing and update it monthly.
DA Form 4137. Record confiscated currency on this form.
DA Form 4237-R. Prepare this form for each EPW processed into the facility.
DD Form 2708. Use this form to account for evacuated EPWs, regardless of the evacuation channel.
DD Form 2745. File Part B of this tag in the personnel record.
INTERNMENT SERIAL NUMBER
4-15. The national IRIC forwards blocks of ISNs to designated IRICs in the TO and CONUS as required. The ISNs are used to identify EPWs in US custody. Each ISN is a unique, individual number; no two are alike. An ISN consists of two parts:
The first part contains the letters "US," a number indicating the TO where the EPW came into US custody, and two letters representing the EPW's country of origin.
The second part is a series of six numbers that are assigned (in sequential order) to each EPW processed in the command. The numbers are followed by the letters "EPW," "CI," "RP," or "OD" to denote the EPW's category.
For example, the first EPW processed by the US Army in TO 9, whose country designation is AB, is assigned ISN US9AB000001EPW.
4-16. If the situation permits, the IRIC processes EPWs at division CPs and CHAs. Assign ISNs as early as possible. However, if an ISN is not assigned until Station 1 (see Table 4-1), use the capture tag number, the manifest number, or another control number until an ISN is assigned.
NOTE: See STANAG 2044 and AR 190-8 for additional information on ISNs.
Check identities of EPWs being transferred or repatriated against transfer rosters.
4-18. An EPW can remove his ID band, but doing so destroys the band so that someone else cannot use it without being detected. The MP cannot prevent EPWs from destroying bands; however, most EPWs accept the use of the band for ID purposes.
4-19. Record the EPW's ISN and last name on his ID band, and secure it to his left wrist. To enhance facility administration and operation, use various colored bands to further identify EPWs by category. For example, use
If EPW ID bands are unavailable, use a medical wristband or something similar.
4-20. When serious deterioration is detected or the ISN and name is obscured, replace the ID band with a new one. Conduct periodic, random checks to detect wear and tear and efforts to destroy the band. In addition, look for efforts to exchange bands between EPWs (removing the ID band results in damage that is easily detected). When firm ID is needed, such as transfer or hospitalization, carefully examine the ID band for evidence of having been removed. Conduct periodic, routine inspections of randomly selected ID bands in dining-facility lines, during compound inspections, and at other opportune times.
FLOW OF INFORMATION
4-21. Regard the information collected from EPWs as sensitive to protect them and the soldiers who are guarding them. If belligerent nations discover how many EPWs are in a facility or discover the location of a facility, it may be targeted to silence the sources of information. Maintain proper security throughout the information flow, and disseminate information through proper channels. The IRIC acts as a hub for information that CHAs and internment facilities produce. Report personnel records electronically on the IRIS or, if necessary, as a paper file.
4-22. The information flow begins when the EPW is captured and a DD Form 2745 is initiated. The ISN, which is assigned upon arrival at a CHA or an internment facility, is the key to tracking EPWs throughout the I/R system.
4-23. Information collected during processing (initial and full) and entered into the IRIS (CHA or internment facility) is sent to the IRIC. The IRIC collects the entire personnel file; it is normally electronic with a hard-copy backup. The internment facility reports the information to the IRIC, who disseminates it as appropriate. The strength report (DA Form 2674-R) is the only information passed up the internment facility's chain of command. Questions regarding the information or EPW flow in the TO are directed to the IRIC.
NOTE: Hasty processing can be initiated if normal processing cannot be done in a reasonable amount of time (normal processing is completed later).
4-24. During initial processing (at the point of capture), gather critical information from EPWs and assign ISNs. The minimum information needed during initial processing is the
4-25. The above information (along with the capturing country, the TO, the power served, the sequence number, and the EPW category) is enough to move the EPW into an internment facility where additional information is gathered. Much of the information is gleaned from the capture tag. The IRIC provides block ISNs, and other information is theater- and situation-driven. The initial processing is quick and effective.
4-26. Per AR 190-8, the national IRIC is responsible for collecting the following items to complete the intermediate processing:
The nation in whose armed services the individual is serving.
The name and address of a person to be notified of the individual's capture.
The location of war graves (grid coordinates) and particulars of the dead.
The list of personal articles of value not restored upon repatriation.
4-27. Remember, an EPW is only required to give his name, rank, and service number. However, collect additional information if possible. An EPW is considered fully processed when the personnel file is complete. This includes the fields completed during initial and intermediate processing and those listed below:
Serious offenses, punishments, and escapes (including dates).
Financial status at the time of first and second international transfers.
ASSIGNMENT TO INTERNMENT FACILITIES
4-28. Selectively assign EPWs to internment facilities that best meet their needs and the needs of the detaining power. To prevent problems, isolate EPWs from the general population if they hold violent, opposing ideologies. After EPWs are assigned to a facility, they may be further segregated due to nationality, language, and so forth. Normally, EPWs are segregated into the following categories:
4-29. The EPWs may be further assigned to separate compounds. Always intern females in compounds that are separate from males. Further separation of EPWs may be necessary depending on security issues. (See Chapter 6 for further information on I/R facilities.)
CLASSIFICATION AND REASSIGNMENT
4-30. The initial classification of an EPW is based on unsupported statements or documentation provided by them. Assignment to a specific compound within the internment facility is based on the assumption that the identity provided by the EPW is correct.
4-31. After an EPW is assigned to a facility, expect a continuing need for further reclassification and reassignment. Because the identity of the EPW was based on unsupported statements or documentation supplied by him, it may be necessary to reclassify him a second time as his identity becomes apparent. Agitators, enemy plants, or EPW leaders are eventually uncovered by their activities. They may be reclassified according to their new identity or ideology and reassigned to a more appropriate facility.
4-32. Anticipate the reclassification and reassignment of EPWs within the facility or to other facilities. The initial classification may be challenged by the EPW or MP assets. An individual may provide statements or documents that indicate he should be reclassified, or observations made by MP or MI may determine that an individual was incorrectly classified.
4-33. A tribunal is held according to Article 5, GPW. It determines the status of an individual who does not appear to be entitled to EPW status but
TRANSFER BETWEEN FACILITIES
4-34. A transfer may be a result of reclassification or another situation requiring the movement of an EPW. Transfer an EPW from one facility to another under conditions that are comparable to those for a member of the US armed forces when possible. Security measures are determined by MP and are influenced by the type of EPW being transferred, the mode of transportation used, and other pertinent conditions.
Publishes a transfer order and informs EPWs of their new postal addresses in time for them to notify their NOK and the IRIC.
Verifies the accuracy and completeness of EPW personnel records and provides records (in a sealed envelope) to MP accompanying the movement.
Verifies that EPWs possess their authorized clothing and equipment.
Prepares impounded personal property for shipment with escorting MP or separate shipment as appropriate.
Briefs escort MP on their duties and responsibilities, including procedures to be followed in case of an escape, a death, or another emergency.
Provides or arranges for rations, transportation, and notifications according to prescribed procedures.
Ensures that EPWs are manifested by name, rank/status, ISN, power served, nationality, and physical condition. Attach the manifest to the original receipt and forward it to the IRIC.
Prepares paperwork in English and other languages (if required) before transferring EPWs.
4-36. Each EPW can transfer personal property not exceeding 55 pounds. Chaplains and EPWs who have been serving as clergymen are permitted to transfer an additional 110 pounds to cover communion sets, theological books, and other religious material. If an EPW's personal property exceeds 55 pounds, he selects the items he is going to transfer and disposes of the rest according to established policies.
TRANSFER TO HOST NATION OR ALLIED FACILITIES AND INTERSERVICE
4-37. The permanent transfer of an EPW from the custody of US forces to the HN or other allied forces requires the approval of the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF). The permanent transfer of an EPW to FN control is governed by bilateral national agreements. An EPW can only be transferred from US custody to a power that is a party to the Geneva Conventions. A US representative visits the power's internment facilities and ensures that the power is willing and able to comply with the Geneva Conventions.
4-38. The temporary transfer of EPWs is authorized to accommodate surges in EPW population beyond US capacity. The TO commander develops measures to ensure accountability and humane treatment of EPWs who are temporarily transferred.
4-39. An EPW who is captured or detained by the US Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, or Coast Guard is turned over to the US Army at receiving points designated by the TO commander. Interservice transfers are effected as soon as possible following initial classification and administrative processing.
4-40. Repatriation is the process of returning an EPW to his country of birth or citizenship. An EPW who is not sick or wounded is repatriated or released at the end of hostilities as directed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). The keys to a successful repatriation process are control and accountability. Table 4-2 outlines repatriation procedures.
Table 4-2. Repatriation Procedures
4-41. To complete the transfer, the escort guard company forwards the official receipt of transfer to the IRIC. Upon notification from the IRIC that the transfer is complete, the losing internment facility forwards official records and unreleased confiscated property to the IRIC for final disposition. The IRIC
Notifies the national IRIC of the final status of released and repatriated EPWs.
Forwards EPW records and reports according to AR 25-400-2.
Disposes of confiscated property according to the national IRIC and applicable regulations.
4-42. The eligibility for repatriation or accommodation of sick and wounded EPWs is determined in a neutral country by a mixed medical commission. The commission is established by Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) according to AR 190-8 and the GPW. Sick and wounded EPWs are not repatriated against their will during hostilities.
CONTROL AND DISCIPLINE
4-43. Treat EPWs fairly and firmly. Ensure that orders are decisive, clear, concise, reasonable, capable of being obeyed, and given in an understood language. Promptly report refusals and failures to obey orders, and take appropriate disciplinary action.
4-44. Maintain humane, firm control of EPWs. To control EPWs
4-45. The MP establish daily and periodic routines and responses that are conducive to good EPW discipline and control. They
Give reasonable, decisive orders in a language that EPWs understand.
Post copies of the Geneva Conventions in the compound where EPWs can read them in their own language.
Post rules, regulations, instructions, notices, orders, and other announcements that EPWs are expected to obey. Ensure that posted information is printed in a language that EPWs understand. Provide copies to EPWs who do not have access to posted copies.
Report refusals and failures to obey orders and regulations.
4-46. Equitable treatment enhances the control of EPWs. According to the Geneva Conventions, all EPWs are treated humanely and are protected against violence, intimidation, insults, and public curiosity. Treat all EPWs alike, regardless of rank, sex, and privileged treatment (which may be accorded due to their health, age, or professional qualifications).
4-47. An EPW officer is afforded the following privileges and considerations:
Quarters and facilities that are commensurate with his grade.
Enlisted orderlies. They are assigned at a ratio of 1 for each general officer (GO) and 1 for every 12 officers of a lower grade.
4-48. An RP is extended additional privileges and considerations due to his profession and special skills:
Correspondence privileges for chaplains and senior medical officers that are over and above those afforded EPW officers.
Facilities necessary to provide EPWs with medical care, spiritual assistance, and welfare service.
Authority and transportation for periodic visits to hospitals and other internment facilities.
Work assignments that are restricted to medical or religious duties he is qualified to perform.
Quarters that are separate from those of other EPWs when practical.
4-49. A limited system of representation improves communication between US forces and EPWs, thus improving control. According to AR 190-8 and the Geneva Conventions, the senior EPW officer assigned to each facility is recognized as the senior EPW representative, unless he is declared incompetent or incapacitated by US authorities. Enlisted EPWs may elect an enlisted representative if there is no officer representation at the facility. In officer facilities, EPWs choose one or more advisors to assist the senior representative. In officer/enlisted facilities, EPWs elect one or more enlisted advisors to assist the officer representative.
4-50. Elected and appointed representatives have the same nationality, customs, and language as those they represent. Each group of EPWs interned in separate facilities due to language, customs, or ideology is permitted to have an elected representative.
4-51. The primary duties of elected representatives are to promote spiritual, physical, and intellectual well-being of EPWs. Representatives are given freedom of movement within security requirements. They do not have the authority to discipline EPWs, but they are allowed to
Protecting powers. (Protecting powers periodically inspect the internment facility and interview EPWs regarding the conditions of their internment, their welfare, and their rights under international law.)
4-52. Representatives do not perform any other work if it interferes with their representative duties. Each representative is elected by secret ballot and serves a 6-month term. The EPWs are permitted to consult freely with their representatives, and representatives are allowed to represent EPWs before
4-53. The facility commander is the final approving authority for each elected EPW representative. After the approval process is complete, a representative assumes his duties. When the commander denies, approves, or dismisses an elected representative, he sends a notice through channels to HQDA, the national IRIC (forwarded to the IRIC), or the protecting power. The notice includes the reason(s) for refusal if applicable. The EPWs are then permitted to elect another representative. Each elected representative can appoint assistants, as approved by the facility commander.
4-54. Medical and chaplain personnel are classified as RPs and are not considered EPWs. They receive, at a minimum, the benefits and protection afforded EPWs by the Geneva Conventions. However, EPW representatives do not represent them. The senior US or FN medical officer at each internment facility is responsible for the activities of retained medical personnel. The senior retained medical officer and the chaplain have the right to correspond and consult with the facility commander on all questions concerning their duties.
RULES OF INTERACTION AND ENGAGEMENT
4-55. The ROI provide soldiers with a guide for interacting with the EPW population. The following directives may be included in the ROI:
Do not make derogatory remarks or political comments about EPWs and their cause.
4-56. Commanders balance the physical security of forces with mission accomplishment and the ROE. The basic guidelines on ROE (Chapter 2 ) apply to EPWs. The employment of nonlethal weapons (NLWs) is clearly stated in the ROE (see Appendix B and FM 90-40).
4-57. The ROE vary from operation to operation. The commander in chief (CINC) establishes ROE in coordination with the SJA and the joint staff. Special ROE can be developed for use in internment facilities, but they must have CINC approval. Specific ROE may evolve to fit the changing environment and to ensure continued protection and safety for US personnel and EPWs. As a general principle, the ROE should remain simple and understandable.
4-58. The facility commander establishes and enforces the rules needed to maintain discipline and security. The EPWs may not establish their own court system. The following actions are not permitted between EPWs and US military or civilian personnel:
4-59. If necessary, the MP commander or his appointed officer initiates general court-martial proceedings against EPWs using Miscellaneous Publication (Misc Pub) 27-7; the UCMJ; and US laws, regulations, and orders. Do not deliver an EPW to civil authorities for an offense unless a member of the US armed forces would be delivered for committing a similar offense.
4-60. Do not discipline an EPW until he is given precise information regarding the offense(s). Allow the accused to explain his conduct and defend himself. Permit him to call witnesses, and use an interpreter if necessary. Maintain a record (on a locally produced form if available) of disciplinary punishment administered to EPWs. Disciplinary measures include
Discontinuance of privileges that are granted over and above those allowed by the Geneva Conventions (not to exceed 30 days).
A fine (not to exceed one-half of the advance and working pay that an EPW receives during a 30-day period).
Fatigue duty (extra duty) (not to exceed 2 hours per day for 30 days). Fatigue duty does not apply to officers, and NCOs are only required to supervise.
4-61. Supply EPWs with sufficient clothing, underwear, and footwear; and allow for the climate where EPWs are housed. Use captured uniforms of enemy armed forces if they are suitable for the climate. Ensure that clothing is replaced and repaired as necessary. Working EPWs receive clothing that is appropriate to the nature and location of the work. Clothing worn by EPWs at the time of capture is worn until it is no longer serviceable, and then it is exchanged. (Appendix C provides a synopsis of clothing and equipment that can be issued to EPWs.)
4-62. Mark outer garments with the letters "PW." Use black letters, about 4 inches high; if the clothing is a dark color, use white letters. Mark shirts, coats, and similar items across the back and on the front of each sleeve (between the elbow and the shoulder). Mark trousers, walking shorts, and similar items across the back (slightly below the belt) and on the front of each leg (slightly above the knee). Do not mark hats and other accessories. Sample EPW clothing markings are shown in Figure 4-1 .
Figure 4-1. EPW Clothing Markings
4-63. An RP wears a water-resistant armband on his left sleeve bearing a distinctive emblem (such as Red Cross or Red Crescent). It is issued and stamped by the military authority of the power with which he has served. An authorized person who does not have an armband in his possession is provided a Geneva Convention brassard (see AR 670-1).
4-64. The detaining power feeds EPWs a basic, daily food ration that is sufficient in quantity, quality, and variety to keep them in good health and to prevent weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. A medical officer, a PA, or a nurse practitioner keeps the commander apprised of situational needs and the nutritional health of EPWs. Supply working EPWs with extra rations to compensate for their labor. Sustain the health of EPWs at a level that is equal to that of the US forces guarding them.
4-65. If dining facilities are unavailable, feed EPWs meals, ready-to-eat (MREs). These rations are easily stored and require no additional dietary supplements. However, when perishable food supplies (fresh vegetables, fruit, and meat) are available, substitute them for nonperishable items. Always provide sufficient drinking water. Do not issue extra rations because EPWs can stockpile food and use it for escapes. The commander may authorize EPWs to prepare their own meals under the supervision of US personnel.
4-66. During the early stages of captivity (in brigade and division areas), allow EPWs to retain their own rations. However, arrange for collective feeding of EPWs according to the terms of the Geneva Conventions at the earliest opportunity.
MEDICAL AND SANITATION CONSIDERATIONS
4-67. Ensure that adequate medical and sanitation standards are met. Chapters 2 and 6 contain additional information on these responsibilities.
4-68. Within one week of arrival at the internment facility, an EPW completes a DA Form 2665-R. When an EPW is transferred from one internment facility to another, he completes a DA Form 2666-R.
May mail two letters (DA Form 2667-R) and four postcards (DA Form 2668-R) free of charge as prescribed in AR 190-8.
May address complaints in writing to US military authorities and the protecting power. Complaints are not limited in length or in number, and they are not charged against an EPW's correspondence allotment. All complaints are transmitted immediately.
Cannot write letters for other EPWs. If an EPW is unable to write, the facility commander appoints someone to write and countersign the letter.
4-70. The facility commander or his designated representative examines and reads letters and postcards. The facility commander requisitions, reproduces, and supplies correspondence forms. If EPWs are prevented from writing monthly letters due to the lack of forms, allow them to make up their allotment when forms become available.
4-71. An EPW can receive unlimited letters, cards, and parcels. Censors thoroughly inspect all parcels for unauthorized items and concealed or coded messages. If deemed necessary, the facility commander can request that censors also examine incoming correspondence. Parcels are forwarded to EPWs who have been transferred.
TELEGRAMS AND TELEPHONE CALLS
4-72. The EPWs may send and receive telegrams as determined by the facility commander, and the cost of sending telegrams is deducted from the EPW's account. The EPWs cannot make telephone calls.
4-73. Provide EPWs with sundry, health, and comfort packs. The packs can be supplemented with items tailored to EPWs' cultural needs as a temporary substitute for establishing canteen operations.
4-74. Canteens are operated according to the GPW and are installed as directed by the TO PM or senior MP officer. The EPWs can procure foodstuffs, soap, tobacco, and other items in canteens. The tariff for items available for EPWs never exceeds local market price, and payment procedures are outlined in DFAS-IN 37-1.
4-75. Profits made by the facility canteen are used to benefit the EPWs, and a special fund is created for this purpose. When an internment facility closes, transfer the credit balance of the special fund to another US internment facility in the TO. When all facilities are closed, transfer funds to an international welfare organization. The special fund is employed for the benefit of EPWs of the same nationality as those who have contributed to the fund. In case of a general repatriation, profits are kept by the US.
NOTE: The EPW representatives can make suggestions regarding the management of canteens and special funds.
4-76. Encourage and support active education, employment, and agriculture programs for EPWs. Like other internees, EPWs have active programs for religious worship, recreation, protecting-power visits, and safety. These programs are discussed in Chapter 2 . Provide adequate facilities, instruction materials, and agriculture equipment for these activities.
4-77. Develop education programs according to DA policy. Within the framework of DA guidance and directives issued by other headquarters, develop a separate education program for each EPW facility. Each program reflects the individual attitudes and political orientations of those interned in the facility. The following factors and considerations may influence an education program:
The availability of qualified instructors (may include EPWs, indigenous personnel, and US Army military and civilian personnel).
Security considerations that may restrict or prohibit the use of EPWs or indigenous personnel.
4-78. In addition to an academic program, ensure that vocational training is an integral part of the education program. The immediate objective of vocational training is to develop skills that are useful during internment. The long-range goal is for EPWs to learn trades that are useful in civilian life.
4-79. The EPW population constitutes a significant labor force of skilled and unskilled workers. Employ EPWs to construct, administer, manage, and maintain the facility. The EPWs will be employed in other essential work permitted by AR 190-8 only when qualified civilian labor is unavailable.
4-80. The commander organizes and manages the EPW population in a manner that permits proper, ready employment of each EPW. He
Establishes and maintains a current occupational-skill record for each EPW and includes new skills as they are acquired.
Assigns individual EPWs to a work detail or a job on a regular or permanent basis.
4-81. The EPW labor that is external to DOD is regulated through contract. (See AR 190-8 for more information on the employment of and compensation for EPWs.)
An NCO can only be required to supervise the work of enlisted personnel.
An EPW cannot be compelled to engage in work that is purely military in nature and purpose.
An EPW cannot be employed on a work detail that is unhealthy or dangerous because of the work's nature or the individual's lack of physical fitness or technical skill. (See the GPW and AR 190-8 for guidance on this type of employment.)
An EPW/RP cannot be assigned to labor that is considered humiliating or degrading for members of the US armed forces. This prohibition does not include unpleasant, necessary tasks that are connected to administering and maintaining the facility.
An EPW cannot be employed or retained in an area where he may be exposed to direct or indirect fire.
4-83. If in doubt as to whether work is authorized, request that the SJA review the proposed tasks. This review assures compliance with AR 190-8 and the law of land warfare.
4-84. The EPWs are compensated when they perform work for which pay is authorized. The rate of pay is not less than that prescribed in the GPW. Compensation for work is authorized from US Army appropriated funds, canteen funds, or EPW funds. The EPWs are paid for various types of authorized work, such as
Labor performed for a contract employer or a federal agency.
Services to construct, administer, manage, and maintain EPW facilities, branch facilities, and hospitals when such services are performed by EPWs permanently assigned to certain duties or occupations.
Services as EPW representatives or assistants. These individuals are paid from the EPW fund. If an EPW fund does not exist, they are paid from US Army appropriated funds.
4-85. The Geneva Conventions state that the detaining power shall grant EPWs a monthly advance of pay, the amount of which shall be fixed by conversion into the currency of the said power, of the following amounts:
Category I (EPWs below the rank of sergeant [SGT]): 8 Swiss francs.
Category II (SGTs, other NCOs, and EPWs of equivalent rank): 12 Swiss francs.
Category III (warrant officers [WOs], commissioned officers below the rank of major [MAJ], and EPWs of equivalent rank): 50 Swiss francs.
Category IV: (MAJs, lieutenant colonels [LTCs], colonels [COLs], and EPWs of equivalent rank): 60 Swiss francs.
Category V (GOs and EPWs of equivalent rank): 75 Swiss francs.
NOTE: The facility commander consults with the SJA and the finance office when setting up EPW advance-pay accounts.
4-86. When practical, EPWs should raise vegetables for their use; the labor is classified as paid work. Do not overlook the importance of developing an agriculture program. Agriculture and gardening projects are particularly desirable because they provide gainful employment for several individuals. The food produced by gardening projects provides a valuable supplement to diets at minimal expense. The produce from gardens operated with EPW labor is US property. It is used for the benefit of EPWs and US armed forces personnel, and it is not sold or traded in civilian markets.
4-87. The types and quantities of agriculture supplies required (seeds, fertilizers, and implements) are procured through local purchase or Army supply channels. Ensure that necessary supplies are ordered in a timely manner.
4-88. The commander is responsible for security measures that effectively control EPWs with minimal use of force. A general discussion of the commander's security responsibilities is found in Chapter 2. The information contained in this chapter applies specifically to EPW security.
4-89. Dissident actions by EPWs vary from acts of harassment to acts of violence. Enemy forces may support resistance activities, such as EPWs
Creating embarrassing situations or making false accusations to influence international inspection teams or members of the protecting power or the ICRC.
Instigating disturbances and riots to place the facility staff in unfavorable positions (this allows EPWs to gain concessions and influence custodial policies).
Establish communications with EPWs by using agents, smuggled radios, and foreign-language newspapers.
Order members to submit to capture so that they can become agitators in the internment facility.
Liberate EPWs through direct military action by regular or irregular forces.
4-91. Ensure that security planning is continuous and complete and that it reflects current intelligence information on uprisings, outbreaks, and escapes. Provide an immediate-response plan that is capable of meeting all internal and external threats to security.
4-92. The EPWs may try to communicate with EPWs from other compounds and facilities. The most common places for communication are
Dispensary and food distribution points. Messages can be hidden where EPWs from neighboring compounds can find them. Alert observations and periodic searches minimize the possibility of communication in these areas.
Hospitals. If an EPW is sick or injured, examine him carefully to ensure that hospitalization is required. Do not inform the EPW patient of his discharge until the last possible moment. Conduct a complete search of each EPW and his personal effects upon admission and discharge from a hospital.
Work details. Maintain an adequate distance between work details to prevent EPWs from exchanging information.
4-93. The first objective of MI is observing activities to accurately classify EPWs as cooperative or uncooperative. This minimizes security and control problems by allowing early segregation of hard-core, uncooperative EPWs to maximum-security internment facilities.
4-94. Timely information relative to attitudes and activities enables the facility commander to forecast disturbances and other clandestine activities. This information is an important means of countering resistance movements, minimizing the use of force, and maintaining control. An effective information-gathering system identifies dissident elements, including leaders, plans, and methods.
4-95. All facility personnel must detect and report significant information. They can acquire important information through observation and insight, even though they are not trained intelligence specialists.
4-96. In compounds that house cooperative EPWs, a special intelligence organization is not needed. Tap ordinary sources of information continually and assess them sensitively. These sources include communications, observations, and reports of military, administrative, and security personnel; criminal investigation data; disciplinary reports; and grievance statements.
4-97. Intelligence requirements incorporate information required by the commander to ensure the continued control of EPWs and information requested by higher headquarters and other agencies. The S2 prepares PIR and coordinates intelligence requirements to maintain a constant flow of intelligence to the commander.
4-98. Identify the following essential elements of information (EEI):
Clandestine EPW organizations, including their strength, objectives, and members.
Underground communications systems and overt attempts to communicate
Suspicious activities by local people near the internment facility (photographing or sketching the facility).
Fabricated weapons, stores of food, and clothing supplies in the compound.
4-99. Use the following methods to obtain information on clandestine EPW activities:
Provide opportunities for EPWs to volunteer information of intelligence value and offer protection from reprisal by removal or transfer to safe facilities.
Train personnel on the techniques and importance of observing, recognizing, and reporting information that may have intelligence value, such as
4-100. Developing an EPW intelligence network that extends to each compound is invaluable. The reliability of the network depends on the information provided and the verification of that information. Establishing an informant system is subject to local consideration of special hazards that may be involved. Take every precaution to provide safety for EPW informants.
WORK DETAIL GUARDS
4-101. Keep work detail guards to the minimum number necessary to assure reasonable security and prevent EPW escape. Guards maintain a reasonable distance from work details and properly position themselves to provide the best observation of the area. Rest breaks for guards are taken separately while EPWs are working.
MILITARY WORKING DOGS
4-102. The MWDs offer a viable deterrent against EPW escapes, because their tracking capabilities can be used to recapture escapees. Chapter 2 provides more information on MWDs and their use in internment facilities.
Conducting periodic, unannounced, and systematic searches to detect tunneling, caches of food or clothing, weapons, maps, and money or other valuables.
Maintaining strict accountability for tools and equipment that EPWs can access or use.
Examining perimeter fencing daily to detect cuts or other weaknesses.
Examining the lighting system during darkness to detect poorly lighted areas along the perimeter. (Replace burned out or broken light bulbs immediately.)
Conducting training and refresher training to ensure that all security and guard personnel are familiar with security precautions, techniques, and procedures.
Searching vehicles and containers taken into or out of the internment facility.
Supervising the disposition of unconsumed rations (in the internment facility and on work details) to prevent caching of food.
Early Detection of Escape Attempts
Roll calls and head counts on regular and unannounced bases.
Roll calls twice daily, preferably early morning and late evening.
Head counts immediately after witnessing a mass disturbance, discovering an open tunnel, or detecting a hole or break in a fence.
Head counts frequently while on work details and when en route to another facility.
Escape Prevention and the Use of Force
4-105. The facility commander ensures that US soldiers understand the ROE, including the use of the term halt , the use of deadly force, and the ban on physical or imaginary deadlines. Per AR 190-8, he also ensures that EPWs understand the use of the English word halt and its implications.
4-106. When an EPW tries to escape, a guard shouts HALT three times; thereafter, the guard uses the least amount of force necessary to halt the EPW. If there is no other effective means of preventing escape, deadly force can be used. If an EPW tries to escape from a fenced enclosure, do not fire unless he clears the outside fence (barrier, concertina wire, or razor tape) and makes further effort to escape. If an EPW tries to escape outside a fenced enclosure, fire if he does not halt after the third command.
Reaches the lines of his forces or the allies of that power.
Leaves the territory that the US or its allied powers control.
Per the unit SOP, notify commands and interested agencies of escapes and recaptures.
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