and Staff Responsibilities
commanders and staff members must be familiar with applicable
ARs, Army directives, and international laws necessary for the
successful operation of I/R and confinement facilities. This
chapter discusses areas of greatest concern when performing the
2-1. An MP battalion commander tasked with operating an I/R facility is also the
facility commander. As such, he is responsible for the safety and
well-being of all personnel housed within the facility. Since an
MP unit may be tasked to handle different categories of personnel
(EPW, CI, OD, refugee, and US military prisoner), the commander,
the cadre, and support personnel must be aware of the
requirements for each category.
2-2. Commanders are familiar with applicable
regulations, directives, international laws, and administrative
procedures. The servicing staff judge advocate (SJA) provides
legal advice and training on I/R matters. Regulations and other
guidance relative to the administration, employment, and
compensation of internees are prescribed in
2-3. Copies of the
Geneva Conventions and compound regulations, orders, and notices
relating to internee conduct and activities are posted in each
facility, in the language of internees who are housed there. If
internees do not have access to posted copies, the facility
commander makes copies available to them.
2-4. The commander is
responsible for the administrative processing of each internee.
When processing is complete, he submits a DA Form 2674-R to the
servicing internment/resettlement information center (IRIC),
which functions as the field operations agency for the national
IRIC located in CONUS.
2-5. The following principles apply to I/R facilities:
2-6. An EPW/CI has
the right to
rights of US military prisoners are outlined in AR 190-47 and DOD
2-7. Standing orders provide uniform,
orderly administration of an I/R facility. The orders to be
obeyed by housed personnel are published in their language and
posted where they can read the orders and refer to them. Standing
orders include rules, procedures, and instructions (see Figure 2-1)
governing the following activities and other matters as deemed
Schedule of calls,
personnel actions that support the emergency action plans of the
internment facility, such as
religious services, recreation activities, and so forth.
for emergency sick call.
must comply with rules, regulations, and orders.
They are necessary for safety, good order, and
must immediately obey all orders of US personnel.
Deliberate disobedience, resistance, or conduct
of a mutinous or riotous nature will be dealt
with by force.
are subject to disciplinary or judicial
punishment if you disobey a rule, a regulation,
or an order or if you commit any act, conduct,
disorder, or neglect that is prejudicial to good
order or discipline.
will not receive disciplinary or judicial
punishment until you have an opportunity to
explain your conduct and to defend yourself. If
you commit an offense for which judicial
punishment may arise, investigation of the
offense will be coordinated with the SJA before
being undertaken to ensure that it is conducted
according to the Geneva Conventions. You may call
witnesses, and if necessary, you will be provided
with the services of a qualified interpreter.
may receive disciplinary punishment that includes
discontinuing privileges over and above the
treatment provided for by the Geneva Conventions.
You may receive a fine up to one half of your
30-day advance and working pay. Privates may be
assigned fatigue (extra) duty up to 2 hours
daily, noncommissioned officers (NCOs) may be
required to perform supervisory duties only, and
officers may not be compelled to work.
may not establish courts or administer punishment
over other captives.
may not have knives, sticks, metal pieces, or
other articles that can be used as weapons in
your possession at any time.
may not drill or march in military formation for
any purpose except as authorized and directed by
the facility commander.
may not meet or issue propaganda for political
may not wear or display national political items.
may not gamble.
may not possess or consume alcoholic beverages.
may retain personal effects and property that are
authorized by the facility commander.
may smoke at times and places specified by the
will follow the required courtesies toward your
army's officers. If you are an enlisted captive,
you will salute all US commissioned officers. If
you are an officer captive, you will salute US
commissioned officers of a higher grade and the
facility commander, regardless of his grade.
Figure 2-1. Sample Standing Orders
2-8. To protect
persons from acts of violence, bodily injury, and threats of
reprisals at the hand of fellow internees, post a notice of protection (Figure 2-2) in the
internees' language in every compound.
detainee who fears that his life is in danger, or fears
that he may suffer physical injury at the hands of
another detainee, should immediately report to a US
member of the facility without consulting his
representative. The facility commander ensures adequate
protection for the victim by segregation, transfer, or
other means. A detainee who mistreats a fellow detainee
will be punished.
(Signed by the Commanding
Figure 2-2. Sample Notice of Protection
2-9. The commander
establishes local records and reports necessary for the effective
operation of the I/R facility. They provide information about the
control, supervision, and disposition of personnel housed in the
facility. He determines the type (administrative, operational,
logistical, intelligence, and personnel) of reports and the
frequency (routine or as required). Normal reports (duty officer
logs, worksheets, and situation maps) are also required.
consider the following when establishing medical
care (see AR 190-8):
officer, a physician's assistant (PA), or a nurse
practitioner examines each internee monthly and
Records his weight on
DA Form 2664-R.
his general health, nutrition, and cleanliness.
him for contagious diseases, especially
tuberculosis (TB), venereal disease, lice,
louse-borne disease, and human immunodeficiency
treatment facility provides isolation of communicable
diseases, disinfection, and inoculations. Use retained
medical personnel and EPWs with medical training to the
fullest extent possible when caring for sick and wounded
EPWs. When medical care is inadequate, transfer housed
personnel to military or civilian medical facilities
where the required treatment is available.
2-11. Certain sanitation standards must be met to
prevent disease and ensure cleanliness. These standards
that internees receive as much water as US soldiers.
adequate space within housing units to prevent
sufficient showers and latrines and ensuring that they
are cleaned and sanitized daily.
dining-facility workers the rules of good food sanitation
and ensuring that they are observed and practiced.
human waste properly to protect the health of all
individuals associated with the facility according to the
guidelines established by preventive medicine (PVNTMED).
sufficient potable water for drinking, bathing, laundry,
and food service.
materials for personal hygiene.
personnel on proper garbage disposal to prevent insects
and vermin that can contribute to health hazards.
2-12. Encourage and support active education,
religious, recreation, and employment programs when practical. If
possible, provide adequate facilities, instruction material, and
representatives of protecting powers and the ICRC are allowed
full access to the I/R facility and internees. Representatives of
approved religious organizations, relief societies, NGOs, IHOs,
and other organizations assisting housed personnel are permitted
to visit according to policies and procedures prescribed by the
coordination is encouraged by representatives of NGOs, IOs, and
IHOs who want access to internees. This avoids confusion when
representatives arrive at the facility. Likewise, the facility
staff coordinates in advance with organizations to establish an
access roster of representatives and a means of verifying their
personnel are allowed freedom of
worship, including attendance at services of their respective
faith held within the facility. Retained chaplains and other EPW
clergymen are permitted to devote their time to ministering to
members of their faith. The MP commander may permit other
ordained clergymen, theological students, or chaplains to conduct
services within the compound. The US personnel will not attend
services with EPWs, RPs, CIs, or ODs.
in recreation activities promotes
general health and welfare and alleviates tension and boredom. In
addition to athletic contests, group entertainment can be
provided by concerts, plays, recorded music, and motion pictures.
2-17. Set up and
administer a safety program for
housed personnel in each I/R facility. Follow the procedures
outlined in AR 385-10 and associated circulars and pamphlets to
establish the safety program. Maintain records and reports for
the internee safety program separate from those for the Army
2-18. The EPWs are
allowed to raise vegetables for their use. Subsequently,
commanders must be aware of resources, procedures, and HN
guidelines applicable to this program.
2-19. The MP
commander establishes security
measures that effectively control housed personnel with minimal
use of force. The same use of force that is employed for one
category of housed personnel may not be applicable to another.
Commanders protect housed personnel from threats outside the
facility. The physical construction of the facility and the
presence of guard personnel create the most obvious means of
providing internal and external security. Maintaining a high
state of discipline, a system of routines, and required standards
of behavior are all measures that enhance effective security and
2-20. Many housed
personnel will actively cooperate with US authorities or will
assume a passive, compliant role. They will be composed, in part,
of individuals with ideologies favorable to the US. Others,
through resignation or apathy, will simply adapt themselves to
the conditions of their internment.
2-21. Some housed
personnel will engage in a campaign of embarrassing and harassing
US personnel to create propaganda of value to their cause. The
EPWs want to force the use of maximum US troops for
other-than-combat missions. The leaders of the uncooperative
faction may try to establish a united effort and blind obedience
by all its members. They will not be content with merely planning
and attempting to escape or using normal harassment tactics. The
leaders will assign duties and missions to individuals so that
resistance will not stop while they are interned. Any relaxation
of security will be immediately detected and fully exploited.
2-22. Maintain firm
control at all times. Adapt policies, tactics, techniques, and
procedures (TTP) to achieve this end state.
2-23. The facility guard force provides internal
and external security. The force has a commander of the guard,
one or more sergeants of the guard, a relief commander for each
shift, and the necessary number of guards. There are two types of
orders for guards:
General orders. All guards are required to know,
understand, and comply with the general
orders outlined for sentinels in FM 22-6.
Special orders. They apply to particular posts
and duties. Special orders
supplement general orders and are established by the
2-24. The facility
guard force is the primary source of security for the I/R
facility. Its responsibilities include
2-25. Standby guards are soldiers who are not
on duty. The standby guard force is large enough to reinforce
tower and sally port guards; however, it is not normally used as
a quick-reaction force (QRF) to enter enclosures and quell
disturbances or conduct searches.
2-26. Tower guards are posted in towers and
positioned so that they have overlapping fields of vision of the
entire perimeter. This allows one or more guards to observe
activities within enclosures. A tower guard's primary duties are
to prevent escape and to observe and report unauthorized or
2-27. Walking patrols supplement the
perimeter security when weather conditions or electrical failure
prevents tower guards from clearly observing the entire
perimeter. Gate guards are posted at perimeter gates and the
sally port to
control over personnel, vehicles, and work details.
shakedown searches according to facility standing
operating procedures (SOPs), special orders, and security
smuggling of weapons or other contraband items into the
2-28. Military working dogs (MWDs) offer a psychological and real
deterrent against physical threats presented by housed personnel.
However, they cannot be used as security measures against US
military prisoners. The MWDs reinforce security measures against
penetration and attack by small enemy forces that may be
operating in the area. They also provide a positive, effective
alternative to using firearms when preventing disturbances. The
various techniques for employing MWDs are
Demonstrations. Hold periodic demonstrations in
full view of housed personnel to increase the
psychological deterrent of MWDs. Emphasize how easily and
quickly an MWD can overtake a fleeing individual,
highlight his ability to attack and overcome physical
resistance, and demonstrate his tracking ability. To
ensure a successful demonstration, use only the best
qualified MWD teams.
Perimeter security. Use an MWD team as an
adjunct to perimeter
security by making periodic, unscheduled patrols around
the perimeter fence during periods of darkness. During
inclement weather, a temporary blackout, or an electrical
failure, increase the number and frequency of patrols.
Ensure that housed personnel are aware of MWD presence by
having dogs bark at infrequent intervals during the
an MWD team through living areas to search for
contraband. Depending on the type of MWD team available,
it can search for explosive devices and components and/or
Work details. Position an MWD between the work
detail and the area offering the greatest avenue of
escape. The MWDs provide a valuable adjunct to work
detail guards, particularly those employed in areas
offering the greatest potential for escape.
USE OF FORCE AND
RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
2-29. An MP commander ensures that soldiers
understand use-of-force guidelines and the ROE established
by higher headquarters for each mission. Because the use of force
and the ROE vary depending on the category of housed personnel
and the operational environment, the commander develops SOPs that
follow the guidance provided. He balances the physical security
of forces with mission accomplishment and the protection of
more information on the use of force, see Appendix B.
restrictions on combat operations and the use of force are
clearly explained in the ROE and are understood and obeyed at all
levels. Soldiers study and train on the use of the ROE and
discuss them for their mission. The ROE address the distinctions
between internee categories and the instruments of control
available for each category. Use the following issues to develop
considered lethal force?
conditions is lethal force used?
conditions is nonlethal force used?
What are the
required warnings, if any, before using force (lethal or
personnel may organize a disturbance
within the facility to weaken the guard force. At the beginning
of a disturbance, initiate a record of events. Commanders must be
concerned with two types of disturbancesriots and
Leaders of housed personnel organize the internee
population into quasi-military groups.
Unorganized. It is spontaneous in
nature, although it can be exploited and diverted
by leaders into an organized riot.
Multiple. When housed personnel in one
compound start rioting, personnel in other
compounds also riot.
It can be a demonstration, a refusal to work or
eat, a work slowdown, or the damage or
destruction of property.
Unorganized. It is spontaneous in
more information on riots and disorders, see Appendix B.
|SECTION II - STAFF OFFICERS
2-32. Staff officers at
tactical headquarters and CSS commands are normally responsible
for the same functional areas inside an I/R or confinement
facility. However, the emphasis on different aspects and the
scope and magnitude of EPW, CI, and US military prisoner
activities vary in CS and CSS commands. This section describes
additional staff officers that may be found at different echelons
of command (primarily I/R MP units) and their areas of
responsibility. FM 101-5 describes the roles, relationships,
organization, and responsibilities of staffs in the US Army.
2-33. The adjutant general (AG) maintains personnel records for
EPWs, CIs, and US military prisoners. The AG's personnel and
administrative section can inprocess eight persons per hour,
depending on the category. It
accountability documents to the IRIC if applicable.
labor records and time cards for prisoners.
required reports on prisoners.
documents for administrative court-martial charges for
EPWs, CIs, and US military prisoners.
2-34. The finance officer
impounded financial assets (cash and negotiable
instruments) of housed personnel.
pay/labor credits, canteen purchases/coupons, and other
payrolls, makes disbursements, and processes repatriation
commander on finance and accounting issues.
NOTE: See FM
14-100 for more information.
2-35. The civil-military operations (CMO)
technical advice and assistance on strategies for
community relations and information.
community relations programs to gain and maintain public
understanding and goodwill and to support military
liaison and coordination with other US government
agencies; HN civil and military authorities concerned
with I/R operations; and NGOs, IOs, and IHOs in the AO.
with the SJA on the ROE for dealing with housed
technical advice and assistance on the reorientation of
enemy defectors, EPWs, CIs, and detainees.
2-36. The chaplain or the unit ministry
religious support for assigned soldiers and internees.
commander on the impact of faiths and practices of
indigenous religious groups in the AO and internees
within the facility.
religious support to the command and the community,
including confined and hospitalized personnel.
supervision and control over internee religious leaders
within the facility.
2-37. The engineer officer is a captain in a
brigade and a lieutenant in a battalion. He trains and supervises
internees who perform internal and external labor (construction
and repair of facilities). The engineer officer is responsible
maintenance, repair, and operation of utilities (water,
electricity, heat, and sanitation).
rodent control and fumigation.
2-38. The public
affairs officer (PAO)
and fulfills the information needs of soldiers, the Army
community, and the public in matters relating to
internees and the I/R facility.
the command's spokesman for all communication with the
media efforts to cover operations by expediting the flow
of complete, accurate, and timely information.
2-39. The signal officer is located in the
brigade. He is responsible for all matters concerning signal
operations, automation management, network management, and
2-40. The SJA is
located in the brigade and the brigade liaison detachment (BLD).
operational law advice and support for US military
prisoner operations and resettlement operations,
particularly the interpretation of the Geneva
advice on the application of force to quell riots and
support and advice during investigations following the
death or injury of an internee during internment.
the recorder for Article 5 tribunals. (A tribunal
determines the status of a person who has committed a
hostile act but whose status is doubtful.)
the commander's liaison to the ICRC.
legal advice on
law (investigations and command authority).
law (contract, fiscal, and environmental laws).
law (law of land warfare, Geneva Conventions,
status of forces, ROE, and treatment of detained
technical advice and assistance on the internee labor
policy as it relates to supporting local indigenous
requirements not directly advancing the war effort.
with all treaties and conventions.
2-41. The surgeon section
responsible for the combat health support (CHS) of the
command and internees within the facility.
directs echelon I CHS.
echelons II and III CHS (including air/ground medical
evacuation and hospitalization) when required.
disease prevention through PVNTMED programs.
2-42. The medical
routine medical care (sick call) and advanced trauma
management for duty soldiers and internees.
qualified RPs who are providing medical care for
initial medical exams to determine the physical fitness
of arriving internees as stipulated by the Geneva
of operating as two separate treatment teams.
2-43. The PVNTMED
limited PVNTMED services for the facility.
sanitary inspections of housing, food service operations,
water supplies, waste disposal operations, and other
operations that may present a medical nuisance or health
hazard to personnel.
training and guidance to the staff, unit personnel, and
2-44. The movement control officer (MCO)
coordinates the movement of internees and their property
with the Corps Support Command (US Army) (COSCOM)
movement control center.
with brigade operations for daily transportation
requirements and evacuation and transfer of internees.
This includes determining the transportation requirements
for the evacuation of detainees from one level of
internment to the next and coordinating the arrangements.
2-45. The inspector general (IG) is located in the brigade. He
commander on the organization inspection policy (OIP).
inspections, surveys, and studies to comply with
international, state, and US laws.
allegations and conducts investigations and inquiries
based on reports and information obtained from EPWs, CIs,
DCs, US military personnel, and multinational guard and
with international and US agencies in matters pertaining
to the overall health and welfare of the protected
the MP unit's discipline, efficiency, morale, training,
and readiness and provides feedback to the chain of
protected population in coping with family issues and
resolving complaints consistent with military necessity.
trends to correct and improve I/R operations consistent
with current doctrine, military laws, international laws,
UN mandates, and foreign-nation (FN) and state laws.
the resolution of systemic issues pertaining to the
processing and administration of the protected
allegations of war crimes (from protected personnel or US
soldiers) through the chain of command to the SJA or the
United States Army Criminal Investigation Command
(USACIC). The responsibility for investigating alleged
war crimes rests with the SJA and the criminal
investigation division (CID), not the IG.
2-46. Psychological operations (PSYOP) are not part of the I/R
structure; however, the PSYOP officer in charge (OIC) of the
EPW/CI PSYOP team supporting I/R operations serves as the special
staff officer responsible for PSYOP. The PSYOP officer advises
the MP commander on the psychological impact of actions to
prevent misunderstandings and disturbances by EPWs and CIs. The
EPW/CI PSYOP team
MP force in controlling EPWs and CIs.
and CIs to US and allied policies.
executes PSYOP programs to condition EPWs and CIs to
accept facility authority and regulations.
cooperation of EPWs and CIs to reduce guard needs.
malcontents, trained agitators, and political officers
within the facility who may try to organize a resistance
or create a disturbance.
executes indoctrination programs to reduce or remove
Helps the MP
commander control EPWs and CIs during emergencies.
executes a PSYOP program that produces an understanding
and appreciation of US policies and actions.
comprehensive information, reorientation, educational,
and vocational programs to prepare EPWs and CIs for
FMs 3-05.30 and 33-1-1 for additional information about PSYOP
support to I/R operations.
2-47. The necessary care and control of
housed personnel is best achieved with carefully selected and
trained personnel. The specialized nature of duty at different
facilities requires individuals who can be depended on to cope
successfully with behavior or incidents that call for calm, fair,
and immediate decisive action. These personnel must possess the
highest qualities of leadership and judgment. They are required
to observe rigid self-discipline and maintain a professional
attitude at all times.
assigned or attached to I/R facilities are trained on the care
and control of housed personnel.
They are fully cognizant of the provisions of the Geneva and UN
Conventions and applicable regulations as they apply to the
treatment of housed personnel. A formal training program should
and laws of land warfare, specifically provisions of
Geneva and UN Conventions and HN laws and customs.
and human relations techniques.
The use of
force, the ROE, and the ROI.
qualification and familiarization.
relations, particularly CONUS operations.
regulations and SOPs.
and counterintelligence techniques.
customs and habits of internees.
language of internees.
2-49. The guard force
should receive additional training in
measures, control agents, and dispersers.
techniques, including the use of electronic detection
equipment and weapons.
soldiers assigned to the facility may be required to deliver
babies and care for infants and small children. Their training
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