The Largest Security-Cleared Career Network for Defense and Intelligence Jobs - JOIN NOW

Military

Chapter 7

CA Methodology: Evaluate

Commanders, assisted by the staff, continuously assess the situation and the progress of the operation, and compare it with the initial vision. Assessment is the continuous monitoring-throughout planning, preparation, and execution-of the current situation and progress of an operation, and the evaluation of it against criteria of success to make decisions and adjustments. Commanders direct adjustments to ensure that operations remain aligned with the commander's intent. Subordinates assess their unit's progress by comparing it with the senior commander's intent and adjusting their actions to achieve the envisioned end state, particularly in the absence of orders.

Assessment precedes and guides every activity within the operations process and concludes each operation or phase of an operation. Assessment entails two distinct tasks: continuously monitoring the situation and the progress of the operation, and evaluating the operation against measures of effectiveness. Together, the two tasks compare reality to expectations.

 

FM 3-0, Operations,
June 2001

   

OVERVIEW

 
 

7-1.   The evaluate phase is a vital part of the CA methodology. The term evaluate is used to distinguish this phase from the assess phase of the methodology. This phase actually begins during the develop and detect phase and continues through the deliver phase.

7-2.   Once execution of the CA plan begins, every task performed or mission executed requires a critical evaluation to determine the results of the action. This evaluation is akin to conducting a CA battle damage assessment (BDA). The evaluation validates the CA/CMO concept of operations and determines whether the established MOEs have been met. It also helps commanders decide when and how to adjust the plan, when to develop new plans to address unforeseen consequences of operations, and when to terminate or transition an operation.

7-3.   During the evaluate phase, evaluators focus on the MOEs established for the operation during the decide phase. They determine the sustainability of any projects or programs initiated during the deliver phase. Evaluators look at each of the 16 functional specialties to determine if the operation caused any unintended effects in other areas of the civil component, and they recommend follow-on actions.

7-4.   The products of this phase include CA/CMO briefings and reports, AARs, additional project nominations, new mission requirements (FRAG orders), a finalized transition plan, and termination or transition timelines. This chapter will focus on the activities that support and occur during the evaluate phase.

 

EVALUATING MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS

 
 

7-5.   One of the products during the decide phase was CMO MOEs. CA/CMO planners developed CMO MOEs to determine how well or poorly an operation is proceeding in achieving the CMO goals of the operation according to the commander's mission statement and intent. CMO MOEs were also developed to identify effective strategies and tactics and to determine points at which to shift resources, transition to different phases, or alter or terminate the mission.

7-6.   For the purpose of discussion in this chapter, the following examples of CMO MOEs will be used:

  • DC camp mortality rates reduced to below X per day.
  • Public services and utilities restored to predisaster levels (defined by historical data).
  • NGO operations sustainable without U.S. military support.

7-7.   In addition to deciding what the MOEs were, CA/CMO planners developed plans to observe and validate each MOE. As discussed in Chapter 4, these plans determined-

  • Who will observe the MOE?
  • When will the MOE be observed?
  • How will the MOE be observed?
  • Where will the observations be made?
  • Who will approve and validate achievement of the MOE?
  • What actions will be taken when the MOE is satisfactorily achieved? By whom?
 
OBSERVATION OF THE MOE
 

7-8.   MOEs can be assigned to individuals, CA teams, or an all-source analysis center, such as the CMOC.

7-9.   Using the sample MOEs above, observation of DC mortality rates may be assigned to an individual, such as the camp administrator. Observation of public services and utilities levels of output may be assigned to a task-organized team of public facilities functional specialists. Observation of the sustainability of NGO operations can be assigned to the CMOC.

 
WHEN THE MOE IS OBSERVED
 

7-10.   Observation of MOEs may be event-driven or time-driven. Some MOEs can be observed and measured immediately after an event, such as the percentage of a population inoculated during a MEDRETE or the level of output of a utility after repairs. Other MOEs can only be observed after a cycle of time has passed, such as harvest season, if measuring agricultural output, or a school year, if measuring academic achievement. Observation of MOEs may be required on a routine or periodic basis to establish baselines or trends, as in crime rates or mortality rates.

 
HOW THE MOE IS OBSERVED
 

7-11.   MOEs may be observed in a variety of ways. The deliberate assessment, described in Chapter 5, is the most effective method for observing MOEs, such as the mortality rates in DC camps or the output of public utilities. Using a combination of surveys, interviews, and direct observation, the observers of an MOE obtain detailed, current information at the source of the issue.

7-12.   Some MOEs may be observed in the course of routine CMOC, or interagency, operations. As reports from CA teams and various civilian agencies are analyzed and statistics are recorded, the CMOC provides input to the COP. In this way, MOEs, such as the sustainability of NGO or HN operations, can readily be identified.

7-13.   In the latter case, CA soldiers must differentiate between results, indicators, and performance measures:

  • Result (or outcome): A result is a bottom-line condition caused by the execution of an event or implementation of a program. Results are not "owned" by any single agency or system. They cross over agency and program lines, and public and private sectors.
  • Indicator (or benchmark): An indicator is a measure for which data exists that helps quantify the achievement of a desired result. Indicators help answer the question: "How would we know a result if we achieved it?" Examples of indicators include rates of preventable disease, death rates among a distressed population, rates of pregnancy and drug use, and crime rates. There is a difference in the way in which the term benchmark is used in public- and private-sector applications. The public sector often uses the term benchmarks to mean an indicator or performance measure. The private sector uses the term to mean a particular level of desired and achievable performance.
  • Performance measure: A performance measure is a measure of how well agencies and programs are working. Typical performance measures address matters of timeliness, cost effectiveness, and compliance with standards. Examples of performance measures include percentage of investigations initiated within 24 hours of an incident report, percentage of military resources (versus civilian resources) expended to satisfy needs of the populace, and police or fire response time.
 
WHERE OBSERVATIONS ARE MADE
 

7-14.   Some MOEs, such as DC camp mortality rates, can be observed at single locations. Other MOEs, such as public utility output and NGO operations, must be observed at several locations.

7-15.   Certain MOEs dictate that observations must be made over a wide area to gauge the effectiveness of an event or program. The restoration of a water treatment facility or pumping station, for example, means nothing if the system that carried the water to local or remote villages is damaged or inoperable.

 
VALIDATION AND APPROVAL OF MOE ACHIEVEMENT
 

7-16.   MOEs must be validated and approved before final disposition of an event or program can be made. The approval authority must be identified during the decide phase. The approval authority may be a commander, HN authorities, organized representatives of the international community, or some other entity.

 
ACTIONS TAKEN WHEN THE MOE IS SATISFACTORILY ACHIEVED
 

7-17.   Achievement of MOEs must be tied to a disposition action. This action may be the termination of an activity or task; the transfer of an activity or task to follow-on CA forces, other military forces, or the international community; or the transition of an activity or task to the indigenous population or institutions.

7-18.   As the evaluation phase progresses and satisfaction of MOEs indicates an operation is nearing completion, CA soldiers finalize transition plans and begin executing termination or transition timelines. These actions are covered in Chapter 8.

7-19.   Execution of an event or program may result in unexpected outcomes. As new problems present themselves, CA soldiers must begin the CA methodology over. They assess the new situation; decide what, if any, action to take; develop the new situation and detect conditions through deliberate assessments; deliver the appropriate CA activity; and evaluate the results using MOEs. When MOEs are satisfactorily achieved, they move on to the transition phase.

 

ACTIONS FOR UNSUCCESSFUL MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS

 
 

7-20.   If success is not achieved, CA soldiers must determine why. The evaluated results of an event or program may be unsuccessful because levels were set too high, the wrong activity is being measured, or some other reason. CA soldiers must be careful not to redefine success to what has been achieved.

7-21.   At this point, a decision must be made regarding what to do next. Some options include-

  • Continue the operation as currently planned and reevaluate at a future date.
  • Accept the results and proceed with transition of the operation as planned.
  • Redefine the mission, using the CA methodology, and develop a new plan with new MOEs.
  • The cause and effect diagram: a useful technique to identify, explore, and graphically display all of the possible causes related to a problem or condition.
 

PRODUCTS OF THE EVALUATE PHASE

 
 

7-22.   The evaluate phase is characterized by comparing results of CA operations and CMO to MOEs established during the decide phase. The evaluate phase actually begins during the develop and detect phase and continues through the deliver phase. During the evaluate phase, CA soldiers generate routine CA/CMO briefings and reports according to unit SOP. These briefings and reports help those soldiers monitoring CA operations determine when the transition phase may begin.

7-23.   Products of this phase include CA/CMO briefings and reports, AARs, additional project nominations, new mission requirements (FRAG orders), a finalized transition plan, and termination or transition timelines. Examples of some of these products are in Appendixes C and D.

 



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list