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Military

Chapter 8

CA Methodology: Transition

It is DoD policy that.civil affairs activities shall be undertaken to achieve an orderly and prompt transition of civilian sector responsibilities from the DoD components to non-DoD authorities.
 

DODD 2000.13, Civil Affairs,
June 27, 1994

   

OVERVIEW

 
 

8-1.   The transition phase is every bit as critical to an operation as is the deliver phase. Planning and preparation for the transition begin during the decide phase and continue throughout the develop and detect, deliver, and evaluate phases. Successful execution of transition is the CA community's direct contribution to a sustainable solution and the commander's ability to secure the victory.

8-2.   CA soldiers experience several types of transition throughout combat operations, from combat to posthostilities operations, and in conjunction with redeployment. Depending on the situation, CA activities and CMO in transition operations may be terminated, transferred to follow-on forces, or passed to the indigenous population or institutions. If terminated, CA soldiers take the appropriate steps to cease operations. If transferred to some other military or civilian organization, CA soldiers take steps to orient the incoming organization to the activity or task, supervise the incoming organization in performing the activity or task, transfer the task, and redeploy as directed.

8-3.   Transitions may occur randomly, sequentially, or simultaneously across the AO or within a theater. Ideally, each type of transition is executed according to synchronized transition plans. These transition plans are normally a product of transition working groups established early in the planning process of an operation. Transition working groups usually require close ties with an area's CMOC to obtain updates on the current situation and the status of MOEs. They meet periodically to review, refine, and coordinate specific details of the transition plan.

8-4.   The products of this phase include CA/CMO briefings, reports, and AARs. The outcome of this step includes a successful transition of authority or relief-in-place, and programs that are durable and sustainable by the follow-on force or organization. This chapter will focus on the activities that support and occur during the transition phase.

 

TRANSITION OPERATIONS

 
 

8-5.   Transitions occur routinely in military operations across the spectrum of operations. These transition operations include the following:

  • Offensive operations become defensive operations when the force achieves the purpose of the operation, reaches a limit of advance, or approaches culmination.
  • Defensive operations become offensive operations to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative to defeat the enemy decisively.
  • Units in combat conduct passage of lines operations in which a force moves forward or rearward through another force's combat positions with the intention of moving into or out of contact with the enemy.
  • As combat operations move forward, or at cessation of hostilities, combat operations in designated areas become security operations. Some units redeploy while others arrive or remain in place to begin stability operations and/or support operations.
  • Units in defensive, stability, and support operations, conduct, at the direction of higher authority, relief-in-place operations in which all or part of a unit are replaced in an area by the incoming unit. The responsibilities of the replaced elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are transferred to the incoming unit. The incoming unit continues the operation as ordered. (In NATO operations, this relief-in-place is sometimes called a transfer of authority.)

8-6.   Transition of CMO across the spectrum of operations falls into three categories:

  • Termination of an activity or task.
  • Transfer of an activity or task to follow-on CA forces, other military forces, or the international community.
  • Transition of an activity or task to the indigenous population or institutions.
 
TERMINATION OF AN ACTIVITY OR TASK
 

8-7.   An activity or task may be terminated for a variety of reasons. Some of these include-

  • The time specified for the task has elapsed.
  • Milestones or overall objectives have been reached.
  • The political or security situation has deteriorated below an acceptable level.
  • A loss of support or funding by project benefactor.
  • A change of mission.
  • Command directive.

8-8.   When terminating an activity or task, whether completed as planned or not, CA soldiers must execute certain close-out procedures. These include closing out all open administrative actions; giving or returning equipment and facilities, in good condition, to the appropriate authorities; conducting an after-action review and writing an AAR; and thanking both military and civilian participants and supporters, if appropriate.

8-9.   Depending on METT-TC, the command climate, and other factors, CA soldiers may consider conducting a termination ceremony. This action helps maintain good rapport with the indigenous population, as well as the international community, and facilitates future operations in the area.

8-10.   Chapter III of JP 3-57 contains a Sample Checklist for Termination Planning.

 
TRANSFER OF AN ACTIVITY OR TASK TO FOLLOW-ON CA FORCES, OTHER MILITARY FORCES, OR THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
Brig. Gen. Stephen Ferrell, assistant division commander of Multinational Division (North), followed with an address to the troops. "To the soldiers of NORDPOL, General Sharp passes on his congratulations to the soldiers of NORDPOL. This ceremony is a time to reflect on past experiences and to look ahead."

"I know that over 200,000 people in this region are appreciative of your efforts and service in the Balkans," said Brig. Gen. Ferrell. Then Brig. Gen. Ferrell welcomed the new commander and new soldiers to NORDPOL. "You are now part of our team."

"Distinguished guests and soldiers of NORDPOL, I am proud to take over command. I will continue taking care of soldiers and treat with dignity and respect the local inhabitants," said Col. Kochanowski.

The new commander will continue the work of the outgoing Team 10 and is interested in improving the role of Civil-Military Cooperation centers in local communities, according to Capt. Sylwester Michalski, Press Information Officer, NORDPOL.

 

Talon Magazine Online, Vol. 7, No. 7,
NORDPOL Transfer of Authority,
February 17, 2001

 
 

8-11.   An activity or task may be transferred to a variety of military or nonmilitary organizations for an equally varied number of reasons. Some of these reasons include the following:

  • Supported unit is conducting a relief-in-place during offensive, defensive, stability, or support operations and the incoming unit is continuing the military mission, including CMO and CA activities initiated or carried on by the unit being replaced (for example, relief of Regimental Combat Team 7/1st Marine Division in Humanitarian Relief Sector Baidoa by Australian Infantry Battalion during Operation RESTORE HOPE).
  • Change of operation or mission resulting in exchange of forces (for example, Operation RESTORE HOPE to Operation CONTINUE HOPE in which U.S.-led JTF Somalia transferred operations to U.N.-led UNOSOM II; transition of authority according to Dayton Peace Plan in which ad hoc U.N. forces assisting relief agencies in Bosnia transferred authority to NATO forces conducting peace enforcement mission).
  • Normal rotation of CA units or individuals conducting a long-term project or operation (for example, Bosnia and Kosovo rotations, JTF Guantanamo Bay, and some combatant command theater engagement programs).
  • Administration and support of a DC camp in a rear area transferred from a CSS unit to an NGO or the UNHCR.
  • Command directive.

8-12.   Transferring an activity or task to other forces or organizations requires detailed, coordinated, and synchronized planning. Some items for the CA soldier to consider include-

  • Define the end state; for example, continuity of current operations or modification of current operations to some other format.
  • Identify the organizational structure required to perform the activity or task.
  • Identify and match components within the incoming organization that are the same or similar in nature to components within the unit being replaced.
  • Identify equipment and facilities required to perform the activity or task, and who will provide them. Prepare the appropriate property-control paperwork if transferring equipment or facilities between organizations.
  • Create timelines that provide sufficient overlap between the outgoing and incoming organizations.
  • Determine the criteria that will dictate when the incoming organization will assume control of the activity or task; for example, a target date, task standard, or level of understanding.
  • Orient the incoming organization to the area, including an introduction to all the essential players of both military and civilian organizations remaining in the area.
  • Orient the incoming organization to the activity or task. This orientation includes exchanging procedures, routine and recurring events, and other information critical to the conduct of the activity or task. Demonstrate the activity or task, if possible.
  • Supervise the incoming organization in performing the activity or task. The outgoing organization retains control of the activity or task during this process, providing critiques and guidance as needed.
  • Transfer the task according to the plan.
  • Redeploy.
  • Conduct an after-action review and write an AAR.

Chapter III of JP 3-57 contains a Sample Checklist for Transition Planning.

 
TRANSITION OF AN ACTIVITY OR TASK TO THE INDIGENOUS POPULATION OR INSTITUTIONS
 

8-13.   Ultimately, especially during support to civil administration operations, an activity or task may be turned over to HN government or private sector agencies. The following are examples:

  • Transfer of civil authority from military to civil government (for example, replacement of U.S. military governors by German civilian high commissioners with the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949).
  • Establishment of indigenous police or security forces (for example, establishment of the first truly multiethnic police force in Brcko by the International Police Task Force of the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina).
  • Privatization or return of facilities, such as public works and utilities, airports, and seaports, to civilian control (for example, Kuwait City International Airport).
  • Privatization of HMA programs.

8-14.   The considerations for transferring an activity or task to indigenous populations or institutions is similar, in many respects, to transferring to follow-on forces or organizations. Items for the CA soldier to consider include the following:

  • Know the capabilities and limitations of the elements of the on-the-ground infrastructure, such as-
    • Host governments.
    • Bilateral donors.
    • UN agencies.
    • International organizations, especially the International Crisis Group (ICG) and the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC).
    • NGOs by type (assistance or advocacy).
    • Indigenous organizations.
  • Define the end state; for example, continuity of current operations or modification of current operations to some other format.
  • Identify the organizational structure required to perform the activity or task.
  • If within the control of the relieved organization, identify competent, trustworthy individuals to fill positions within the relieving organizational structure.
  • Determine, if necessary, how to conduct demilitarization of indigenous forces and incorporation of former belligerents into the private sector.
  • Identify equipment and facilities required to perform the activity or task, and who will provide them. Prepare the appropriate property-control paperwork if transferring equipment or facilities to the relieving organization.
  • Create timelines that provide sufficient overlap between the departing and relieving organizations.
  • Determine the criteria that will dictate when the relieving organization will assume control of the activity or task; for example, a target date, task standard, or level of understanding.
  • Orient the relieving organization to the activity or task. This orientation includes providing procedures, routine and recurring events, and other information critical to the conduct of the activity or task. Demonstrate the activity or task, if possible.
  • Supervise the relieving organization in performing the activity or task. The departing organization retains control of the activity or task during this process, providing critiques and guidance as needed.
  • Transfer the task according to the plan.
  • Redeploy.
  • Conduct an after-action review and write an AAR.
 

CONTINUITY OF OPERATIONS

 
 

8-15.   The goal of transition to follow-on organizations or indigenous population or institutions is a sustainable, durable structure or system. Throughout all operations, CA/CMO planners, functional specialists, and team members maintain continuity books that will orient new personnel to their routine tasks. Ideally, there will be an overlap period when mission handoff occurs between individuals and units.

8-16.   A continuity book facilitates a turnover of operations between outgoing and incoming personnel that is transparent to the supported organization, agency, or populace. The book should be chronologically arranged with daily, weekly, and monthly calendars that show essential tasks with enough detail to take out any guessing by a newly assigned soldier (including details, such as who, what, where, why, when, and how). A daily journal is an excellent tool that can be used to build a useful continuity book. Additional items for the CA soldier to consider to ensure continuity of operations are-

  • Operational resource requirements (funding, equipment, personnel, and facilities).
  • Sources of resources required to maintain operations.
  • Identification of interdependency and interoperability between organizations.
  • Contingency plans that address threats to continuity of operations, countermeasures to mitigate those threats, as well as preparedness for, response to, and recovery from those threats that succeed in disrupting operations.
  • Postredeployment oversight and support mechanisms for the operation (reachback POCs, periodic visits, combatant command theater engagement programs).
 

CONTRACTING THE CIVIL-MILITARY OPERATIONS CENTER

 
 

8-17.   The CMOC should remain a center of CMO activity during transition operations. In fact, the operations' transition working group may be located at the CMOC. As operations wind down, units and agencies begin to withdraw from the AO or to modify their operations. As they leave, tasks are consolidated and reapportioned to those individuals who remain.

8-18.   Depending on the type of transition, the CMOC may hand over its operations to another military unit or civilian agency, or it may terminate operations and redeploy. A transfer of operations to a follow-on organization should be progressive, reflecting the increasing capabilities of the incoming organization or civil institution.

8-19.   The director ensures the CMOC draws down in an orderly fashion. Ideally, he will require departing individuals and teams to provide lessons learned from the experience to help increase the effectiveness of follow-on or future CMOCs.

 

PRODUCTS OF THE TRANSITION PHASE

 
 

8-20.   The transition phase is characterized by the termination of operations or the transfer of operations to follow-on organizations or HN authorities. The duration of the transition phase will vary based on the factors of METT-TC. While executing these activities, CA soldiers generate routine CA/CMO briefings, reports, and AARs according to unit SOP. The briefings and reports allow monitors of CA operations to confirm or validate transition timelines. They also indicate how well the transition is progressing toward durable and sustainable programs run by the follow-on force or organization. Examples of CA/CMO briefings, reports, and AARs are in Appendixes C and D.

 



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