The Largest Security-Cleared Career Network for Defense and Intelligence Jobs - JOIN NOW

Military

Chapter 3

CA Methodology: Assess

Participants [at the Conference on Information Sharing in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies] noted that good preparation should include more than just knowing about the host country and its people. There should be information about past and ongoing local and international activities; personnel, resources, and capacities already in place on the ground; as well as the condition of existing infrastructure, such as telephone lines or potable water sources. Participants further agreed that responsibility for knowing and sharing this information begins during predeployment planning and continues through mission implementation and into postconflict reconstruction. Gathering this information should be part of each organization's preparation, participants said.
 

United States Institute Of Peace Report,
Taking It to the Next Level:
Civilian-Military Cooperation in Complex Emergencies
,
31 August 2000

   

OVERVIEW

 
 

3-1.   One of the hallmarks of a CA soldier is his ability to conduct an assessment. CA teams and individuals conduct assessments upon receipt of a mission, upon arrival in a designated operational area, continuously during operations, and as directed for special or emergency cases. The purpose of each assessment is to determine current conditions; compare them to a defined norm, established standards, or MOEs; and identify needs or requirements that can be addressed by CA activities or CMO. This includes the needs and requirements of the supported commander or organization, other civilian agencies associated with the mission, and the local populace.

3-2.   As the entry step into the CA methodology, assess normally begins with the receipt of a mission. The preliminary assessment and the mission analysis process characterize this step. CA soldiers take an initial look at the nonmilitary factors-CASCOPE-that shape the operational environment. They do this for each of the 16 functional specialties, as well as the general aspects of the AO. At the end of this step, CA soldiers produce an initial estimate and a restated mission statement for CA or task-organized forces. They also determine who (NGOs, government organizations, or other military and civilian agencies) needs to be involved in the next step-the decision-making process.

3-3.   This chapter will focus on the activities that support and occur during the assess phase. It relates CA planning and assessment tasks to each of the problem-solving and decision-making processes. A more detailed discussion of the CA role in these processes is in Appendix E.

 

ASSESSMENTS

 
 

3-4.   CA soldiers perform two basic types of assessments: the preliminary assessment and the deliberate assessment. The objectives of the preliminary assessment are-

  • To analyze known information about the situation or conditions in the AO.
  • To relate U.S. policy, goals, and objectives to the current situation.
  • To determine the best use of assigned assets to meet the known challenges of the assigned mission.

The objectives of the deliberate assessment are-

  • To validate the preliminary assessment.
  • To finalize or modify operations that were planned prior to deployment into the AO.
 
PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT
 

3-5.   The preliminary assessment is conducted upon receipt of every CA mission or tasking. It is an automatic first step of mission analysis and feeds into the civil IPB process. This assessment is characterized by an analysis of all information known about the area or situation up to the moment of receipt of the mission or tasking. Much of this information may be old, secondhand, or incomplete requiring planners to make assumptions until information shortfalls can be answered by a more detailed, deliberate assessment made upon entry into the AO. The CMO estimate includes information from the preliminary assessment.

3-6.   During the preliminary assessment, the CA/CMO planner consults previously prepared area studies for the region that encompasses the AO. The CA/CMO planner also researches current data and statistics pertaining to the designated area, using the CA area assessment format in FM 41-10 and the principles of METT-TC for analyzing a situation, which are described later in this chapter. Sources of current information include intelligence summaries, special operations debrief and retrieval system (SODARS) reports, magazine and newspaper articles, and the Internet. When using the Internet, the CA/CMO planner seeks links to government organizations and NGOs on the ground, such as USAID's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) or NGOs' ties to the UN Relief Web. The CA/CMO planner considers accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of the sources during analysis, to include-

  • Understanding the combatant commander's strategic intent and operational focus.
  • Reading the primary planning document (campaign plan, OPLAN, CONPLAN, functional plan, or supporting plan).
  • Reading all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities, and validating the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establishing and maintaining a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyzing the geographic AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the strategic-level civil considerations.
  • Analyzing and archiving reports from the field.
  • Cataloging resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.

3-7.   The CA/CMO planner also relates U.S. policy, goals, and objectives to the current situation, to include-

  • Reviewing the NSS and NMS.
  • Reviewing the pol-mil plan.
  • Reviewing the theater security cooperation plan.
  • Reviewing UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements to which the United States is signatory.
  • Reviewing any additional guidance from the JCS.
  • Reviewing alliance and coalition plans.

3-8.   The CA/CMO planner determines the best use of assigned assets to meet the known challenges of the assigned mission, to include-

  • Identifying specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identifying specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportioning CA forces against CA task requirements and ensuring the forces are included in TPFDD.
  • Incorporating CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
 
DELIBERATE ASSESSMENT
 

3-9.   The deliberate assessment is conducted during the develop and detect phase-normally upon entry into the AO, continually throughout an operation, and as directed for special or emergency cases. The deliberate assessment is characterized by firsthand observation, interviews, surveys, and other tools used to make more knowledgeable decisions. Further discussion of deliberate assessments is in Chapter 5.

 

ANALYZING THE CIVILIAN COMPONENT OF METT-TC

 
 

3-10.   Commanders and staffs analyze every situation and potential COAs using the factors of METT-TC. One of the most basic tasks of CA soldiers is to analyze and assess the civil considerations. Initial analysis is continuously updated by assessment based on firsthand observation of events, personal reconnaissance of the AO, interaction with civilians, and research of applicable data sources.

3-11.   Civil considerations are a factor in every offensive, defensive, stability, and support operation. At both the operational and tactical levels, civil considerations generally focus on the immediate impact of civilians on the operation being considered. An appreciation of civil considerations enhances the commander's selection of objectives; location, movement, and control of forces; use of weapons; and force protection measures. It also helps him avoid, or at least minimize, "mission creep" into civil areas that are beyond his mission parameters or resource capabilities. Mission creep occurs when commanders choose to use, or are forced to use, their resources to address (allegedly) unforeseen factors after they have begun an operation.

 
This deepening involvement of U.S. forces in combat operations during UNOSOM II has been criticized as "mission creep," despite the fact that these changes in both mission and direction clearly resulted from specific decisions reached by the National Command Authorities. However, the important lesson for future planners that can be derived from this experience is that the best way to avoid mission creep is to analyze what the mission really calls for; this means constantly measuring the mission against milestones that best indicate its success or failure. The choice of milestones is especially important. In peace operations, these measures should not normally be expressed in terms of enemy killed and wounded or kilometers of ground taken; if they are, this is itself an indicator that the peace operation has changed in ways that should call into question both the mission and the mandate. In fact, the best measures of success may well be those that signal reductions in the level of violence. Other important indicators may be expressed in terms of the numbers of children being fed, gallons of potable water being pumped, or weapons being turned in. While specific criteria will depend upon the mission, all must be capable of answering one basic question: "How will we know when we have won?"
 

Institute for National Strategic Studies,
Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned,
By Kenneth Allard,
January 1995

   
 

3-12.   Civil considerations also affect larger, long-term diplomatic, economic, and informational issues. Discounting these issues can tax military or government resources and can hinder the transition of operations to follow-on elements. If the military mission is to support civil authorities, civil considerations define the mission.

3-13.   A simple technique for analyzing civil considerations, used by untrained analysts or when time is too short for in-depth research, is for the commander or planner to ask the following questions:

  • Who are the civilians we might encounter in our AO?
  • Where, why, and when might we encounter them?
  • What activities are those civilians engaged in that might affect our operations?
  • How might our operations affect civilian activities?

The following paragraphs describe a more appropriate and enlightened technique used by professional CA soldiers.

3-14.   The mnemonic OAKOC is used by military leaders when analyzing an AO for terrain and weather considerations. OAKOC stands for observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, key terrain, obstacles, and cover and concealment.

3-15.   Similarly, civil considerations are analyzed using the mnemonic CASCOPE. The six characteristics are-

  • Civil Areas.
  • Structures.
  • Capabilities.
  • Organizations.
  • People.
  • Events.
 
CIVIL AREAS
 

3-16.   In tactical operations, key terrain is any locality or area whose seizure or retention affords a marked advantage to either combatant. The leader considers key terrain in his selection of objectives, support positions, and routes in the offense, and on the positioning of his unit in the defense.

3-17.   Civil areas are key localities or aspects of the terrain within a commander's battlespace that are not normally thought of as militarily significant. Failure to consider key civil areas, however, can seriously affect the success of any military mission.

3-18.   The commander must analyze key civil areas from two perspectives: how do these areas affect the military mission and how do military operations impact on civilian activities in these areas? At times, the answers to these questions may dramatically influence major portions of the COAs being considered.

3-19.   The following are examples of key civil areas that a commander should closely analyze:

  • Locations of government centers. These areas are often richer, more populated, better educated, and contain greater and more advanced infrastructure than outlying areas. They are also often the center of influence over the populace in outlying areas. Depending on mission priorities, commanders may consider aggressively engaging these areas rather than bypassing them.
  • Areas defined by political boundaries (districts within a city or municipalities within a region). Political boundaries are often well defined and respected not just by political leaders but also by the population of the areas. Commanders might consider overlaying unit boundaries on political boundaries for long-term operations for practical control purposes.
  • Social, political, religious, or criminal enclaves. These are sources of potential problems and may pose a threat to U.S. forces.
  • Agricultural and mining regions and trade routes. Routine economic activities may hinder the movement or staging of military resources. Likewise, interfering with operations related to the economy of an area may bring an unnecessary burden on military units or logistical resources in the area.
  • Possible sites for the temporary settlement of DCs or other civil functions. Often, the same considerations that make a site ideal for positioning a military unit will also make it ideal for a DC camp or other such settlement. Commanders must consider the long-term practical and environmental consequences of occupying certain civil areas.
 
STRUCTURES
 

3-20.   Existing civil structures take on many significant roles. Some, such as bridges, communications towers, power plants, and dams, are traditional high-payoff targets. Others, such as churches, mosques, national libraries, and hospitals, are cultural sites that are generally protected by international law or other agreements. Still others are facilities with practical applications, such as jails, warehouses, schools, television stations, radio stations, and print plants, that may be useful for military purposes.

3-21.   Analyzing structures involves determining the location, functions, capabilities, and application in support of military operations. It also involves weighing the consequences of removing them from civilian use in terms of political, economic, religious, social, and informational implications; the reaction of the populace; and replacement costs.

 
CAPABILITIES
 

3-22.   Civil capabilities can be viewed from several perspectives. The term capabilities may refer to-

  • Existing capabilities of the populace to sustain itself, such as through public administration, public safety, emergency services, and food and agriculture systems.
  • Capabilities with which the populace needs assistance, such as public works and utilities, public health, economics, and commerce.
  • Resources and services that can be contracted to support the military mission, such as interpreters, laundry services, construction materials, and equipment. Local vendors, the HN, or other nations may provide these resources and services. In hostile territory, civil capabilities include resources that may be taken and used by military forces consistent with international law.

3-23.   CA soldiers use the 16 CA specialties to identify existing capabilities of the HN to address various issues. They also identify the capabilities of partner countries and organizations involved in the operation. In doing so, CA soldiers consider how to address shortfalls, as well as how to capitalize on strengths in capabilities.

 
ORGANIZATIONS
 

3-24.   Civil organizations are organized groups that may or may not be affiliated with government agencies. They can be church groups, fraternal organizations, patriotic or service organizations, and community watch groups. They might be international organizations of the NGO community.

3-25.   Organizations can assist the commander in keeping the populace informed of ongoing and future activities in an AO and influencing the actions of civilians. They can also form the nucleus of self-help programs, interim-governing bodies, civil defense efforts, and other activities.

 
PEOPLE
 

3-26.   People, both individually and collectively, can have a positive, negative, or no impact on military operations. In the context of CASCOPE, the term people includes all the civilians or nonmilitary personnel one can expect to encounter in an AO. The term may also extend to those outside the AO whose actions, opinions, or political influence can affect the military mission. In all military operations, U.S. forces must be prepared to encounter and work closely with civilians of all types.

 
Civilians Encountered in the AO
 

3-27.   Who These Civilians May Be. Regardless of the nature of the operation, military forces will usually encounter civilians of various kinds living and operating in and around the military AO. To facilitate determining who they might be, it is useful to separate civilians into distinct categories. In foreign operations, these categories might include-

  • Local nationals.
  • HN civil authorities.
  • Expatriates.
  • Foreign employees of multinational corporations (MNCs) or IROs.
  • USG and third-nation government agency representatives.
  • UN representatives.
  • Contractors.
  • Morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) personnel.
  • DOD civilians.
  • The media.

3-28.   In domestic support operations (DSO), these categories might include-

  • Local disaster victims.
  • Local, regional, or national domestic civil authorities.
  • Emergency service agencies.
  • NGOs.
  • Industry.
  • The media.

3-29.   It may also be useful to assess whether and to what extent these categories consist of males; females; and the young, elderly, healthy, ill, educated, or uneducated people. These factors may influence how military forces deal with them, as well as how they might respond to military forces.

3-30.   Where, Why, and When These Civilians May Be Encountered. Civilians may be encountered in the AO at almost any time or place and for a variety of reasons. Analysts must often use historical precedents, informed judgment, as well as their imaginations to determine the most likely reasons civilians may be encountered. For example-

  • During Operation EAGLE CLAW (the failed hostage rescue attempt in Iran), a busload of Iranian civilians, a fuel truck, and a pickup truck unexpectedly drove into the remote Desert One refuel site shortly after 10:00 p.m. and had to be detained by SO soldiers.
  • During Operation DESERT STORM, SF soldiers, while occupying a hide site that was dug into the open desert floor during the hours of darkness, were compromised at daybreak by a Bedouin child tending goats.
  • During Operation RESTORE HOPE, despite the presence of hundreds of NGOs and IROs, local elders consistently approached the compounds and strong point positions of U.S. and international security forces throughout Somalia with requests for direct assistance in the areas of food, water, security, health care, and education.
  • During intense fighting against the militia of the Somali National Alliance in Mogadishu, Somalia on 3-4 October 1993, members of Task Force Ranger routinely encountered innocent civilian bystanders, as well as civilian women and children actively engaged in combat and combat support roles against the Task Force.
 
Activities of Civilians That Might Affect Operations
 

3-31.   Civilian activities are dictated primarily by the type of environment in which they occur. Each category of civilian should be considered separately, as their activities will impact differently, both positively and negatively, on all BOSs. Examples of the types of questions CA soldiers and supported unit staff planners must carefully consider for the BOS activities in foreign operations are outlined below:

  • Local nationals. These include town and city dwellers, farmers and other rural dwellers, and nomads in the AO.
    • Are the local nationals peacefully going about their daily life activities, or have their daily lives been disrupted to the point that they require outside assistance?
    • Are they evacuating their homes for safer rear areas, clogging the main supply routes, and placing a burden on CA units' limited resources to sustain them?
    • Are they staying put in basements and other temporary shelters?
    • Are they supportive or nonsupportive of CA soldiers' presence?
    • What resources do they have that CA personnel can purchase or obtain by contract to augment logistics needs?
  • HN civil authorities. These include elected and traditional leaders at all levels of government.
    • How much influence do the leaders have over their constituents?
    • Are they supportive of CA soldiers' presence or are they inciting the local nationals against CA?
    • Do they have viable civil defense plans and the capabilities to put them in effect?
    • Are they seeking CA personnel's direct assistance to alleviate their plight?
    • Can they provide useful information about CA personnel's AO?
  • Employees of MNCs and IROs.
    • Are foreign employees conducting business as usual, or are they seeking to be evacuated?
    • What kind of security forces, if any, do they employ?
    • Will their own logistics operations compete with CA for resources, such as port facilities; storage facilities; and air, rail, or ground transportation?
    • Are they supportive of CA soldiers' presence?
    • What are their capabilities, and how effective might they be in supporting the local populace during relief operations?
    • Do they have any contractible resources or historical information that may be useful to CA personnel?
  • UN representatives. These include high-level UN representatives and lower-level employees.
    • What UN agencies are present and what are their charters?
    • What is the relationship between CA's operations and UN operations?
    • Can CA personnel expect very important persons (VIPs) in their AO?
  • USG and third-nation government representatives. These include members of the Country Team, USAID, and similar agencies of foreign nations involved in the operation.
    • What U.S. and third-nation government agencies are in the AO and how do their operations relate to CA?
    • What useful information might they have?
    • Do CA units need to furnish LNOs?
  • Contractors. These include U.S. citizens, local nationals, and third-nation citizens providing contract services to CA's operation.
    • What contractors are present and what support activities are they providing?
    • Do they need resources from CA, such as security, subsistence, or real estate?
  • DOD civilians. These are not contractors; they are members of TOE and TDA units. DOD civilians are playing an increasingly greater role in combat support and CSS. They will be there even in the absence of the categories of civilians listed thus far.
    • How many DOD civilians are in the AO?
    • What roles do they play in the organization?
  • The media. This includes journalists from print, radio, and visual media.
    • Are they self-sufficient or do they require support, such as transportation and security?
    • Can CA personnel expect their coverage of military activities to help or hinder the overall mission?
    • What aspects of the area are the media focused on?

3-32.   Similar questions apply in DSO. The answers should, at a minimum, provide awareness of what units can expect to encounter in their AO.

 
Operations That Affect Civilian Activities
 

3-33.   Military operations affect civilian activities in various ways throughout the spectrum of conflict. In war, conflict, or stability operations and support operations, commanders should consider the political, economic, psychological, environmental, and legal impact of their operations on the categories of civilians they have identified in their AO. The following are examples of the types of questions CA soldiers and staff planners must carefully consider for the BOS activities in foreign operations.

  • Political. This can be at the local, regional, national, or international levels.
    • Do CA operations support the overall political objective of the military mission?
    • Do CA actions tend to improperly or inappropriately favor one group, faction, or leader over another?
    • Can CA actions be exploited by opposing political groups, factions, or leaders?
  • Economic. This pertains to local economic activities, as well as the activities of MNCs and IROs.
    • Is military seaport, airport, or highway traffic interfering with commercial or developmental traffic in the AO?
    • Are military operations attracting large numbers of vendors to CA's AO?
    • Who are the economic beneficiaries of CA personnel's presence: legitimate local community members or local criminal elements?
    • Are military payments to local individuals or groups for goods and services contributing to shifts in the local economic or political power structure?
  • Psychological. Military operations can have a tremendous psychological impact on noncombatants. What CA personnel do or fail to do to mitigate hardship will often influence the amount of cooperation they receive from the populace.
    • Are CA personnel doing everything possible to care for the innocent victims of collateral damage, or are CA personnel ignoring them?
    • Are CA personnel respecting the social, cultural, or religious norms and practices in the AO?

NOTE: Negative public sentiment directed toward military forces often creates force protection issues from asymmetric threats. CA personnel must consider this in their operations security plans.

  • Environmental. Military operations impact the civilian environment in various ways. At some point, CA personnel must begin to consider what their role will be to help civilians recover from the effects of CA operations.
    • What effect are CA operations having on shelters, infrastructure, and subsistence mechanisms in the AO?
    • With respect to contractors and DOD civilians, how are CA operations affecting their ability to support CA?
    • Do CA personnel allow them freedom of movement throughout the AO for them to be effective?
  • Legal. The commander is responsible for everything that happens within his defined geographic AOR. The commander's primary responsibilities are to the mission and to the soldiers under his command. The commander is also bound by international law (the Geneva-Hague Conventions) to safeguard noncombatant life and property. In this respect, the commander must ensure that noncombatants have the resources and capabilities to take care of themselves. If noncombatants cannot support themselves, the commander must consider if, how, and when to provide the basics of life-food, water, shelter, and security-until this responsibility can be passed on to higher HQ, local civil authorities, or IROs.

3-34.   Similar questions apply in DSO. Again, the answers should, at a minimum, provide awareness of what units can expect to happen in their AO as a result of their operations.

3-35.   One important factor CA soldiers must consider and advise unit commanders about, especially in posthostility operations, is the tendency for lower-level military units and individuals to want to use military resources to alleviate the suffering they observe. Doing so may jeopardize the military mission, as well as interfere with the ongoing or planned projects of HN authorities or IROs. Military support to the civil sector must be tied to a centralized relief plan. This support must not become a factor that makes civilians dependent on military forces or that pulls them toward or in the way of the military force. Soldiers and unit leaders must consult with the appropriate civilian agencies before embarking on self-imposed relief efforts.

3-36.   If unit-level relief efforts are not interfering with any other organization or agency, then soldiers and unit leaders must consider the long-term impact of the assistance. Is the purpose of the assistance merely to make soldiers feel good, or will there really be some long-term benefit to the community? Is the program something that can be sustained by the local populace, or will the benefit end when the unit leaves?

 
EVENTS
 

3-37.   As there are many different categories of civilians, there are many categories of civilian events that may affect the military mission. Some examples are planting and harvest seasons, elections, riots, and evacuations (both voluntary and involuntary). Likewise, there are military events that impact on the lives of civilians in an AO. Some examples are combat operations, including indirect fires, deployments and redeployments, and payday. Once the analyst determines what events are occurring, it is useful to analyze the events for their political, economic, psychological, environmental, and legal implications. An example of the types of seasonal events that should be considered during METT-TC analysis is in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1. Seasonal Civilian Events From KFOR 2 OPLAN

Months

Season

Civilian Events

December-February

Winter

Period of establishing policies and pre-positioning stocks for spring (period of reconstruction).

Winter holidays.

March-April

Spring
(Transition Period)

Harvesting of winter wheat; planting.

Continuing to pre-position stocks; initiation of reconstruction.

Seasonal floods.

Large number of births from summer weddings.

Period of planning for children out of school in summer.

May-September

Summer

Period of reconstruction.

Summer holidays.

Preparation for winter wheat planting.

Weddings.

Seasonal labor migration by young adults.

Foreign tourist season.

September

Fall

Children and young adults back in school.

September-November

Fall
(Transition Period)

Harvest; winter wheat planting.

Preparation for winter and establishment of contingency plans.

Elections and installation of government.

First frosts (follows elevation).

   

CA SPECIALTY TEAM AND TACTICAL TEAM CONSIDERATIONS

 
 

3-38.   One of the implied tasks of the assess phase is to be thoroughly familiar with the capabilities and limitations of assigned assets. The following discussion is designed to give CA/CMO planners a better understanding of both specialty and tactical team operations.

 
SPECIALTY TEAM OPERATIONS
 

3-39.   CA specialty teams have their roots in the military governments of World War II. In Africa, Europe, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and elsewhere, CA specialists followed closely behind liberating forces or arrived with occupying forces. Operating at the national level, as well as at the provincial and local levels, skilled individuals and teams oversaw the recovery of infrastructure from the destructive effects of years of foreign occupation and combat operations.

3-40.   Today, CA specialty teams retain skills and expertise to perform similar missions, known collectively as support to civil administration. These skills, found and developed only in the civil sector, enable military commanders to effectively support civil authorities in the event of emergencies, support weakened governments of friendly nations, and assume the functions of defeated or nonexistent governments, as directed by the SecDef.

3-41.   CA specialty teams are retained for reasons other than for their performance in postconflict operations. Their knowledge and expertise are pertinent to all phases of military and interagency operations across the spectrum of operations. As part of the collaborative planning process in the CMOC, they are particularly valuable in the areas of analyzing and tracking current conditions, identifying MOEs, and coordinating the actions required to return an area to normal as quickly as possible once hostilities cease or recovery operations begin.

3-42.   CA specialty teams must be integrated early into strategic and operational plans and plan review processes, focused particularly on the portions of plans that address end state. Since they must remain familiar with current conditions in their associated AO, they should also be integrated into reachback operations. As a reachback asset, they would serve as an information resource, as well as a sounding board for collaborative planning efforts.

3-43.   There are 16 functional specialties. They reside in four broad categories that reflect the basic elements of modern societies. These include the functions of government, economics and commerce, public facilities, and five special functions. Figure 3-1, depicts these categories and the 16 functional specialties.

Figure 3-1. Functional Specialties

Figure 3-1. Functional Specialties

 

3-44.   CA functional specialists are found in every CA unit. CA specialty teams vary in composition according to the CA command level to which they are assigned. The composition of each team is found in FM 41-10.

3-45.   When employed, the specialty teams operate at various levels of supported command, generally based on the planning associations of their parent CA units. The operational focus of the CA specialty team is at the same level of operation as the supported unit or organization, as shown in Figure 3-2.

Figure 3-2. Example of Specialty Teams Related to Supported Commands and Levels of Operation

Figure 3-2. Example of Specialty Teams Related to Supported Commands and Levels of Operation

  3-46.   CA specialty teams also orient their plans and activities toward specific levels of government in an AO. For practical purposes, the levels of operation generally correspond to the levels of government depicted in Figure 3-2. There is sufficient overlap, however, that requires CA specialists to be prepared to operate at any level.

3-47.   The 16 CA specialties are organized into government, economics and commerce, public facilities, or special functions. The specialty teams of the CACOM and CA brigade comprise the technical expertise of all 16 functional specialties. The specialty team of the CA battalion (USAR) and the civic action team of the CA battalion (SO) provide expertise in several, but not all, of the 16 functional specialty skills.

3-48.   All CA specialists are required to perform the tasks of their functional specialty. They must also perform the common CA operational skills-those skills common to both CA generalists and CA specialists-discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of this chapter provides techniques and procedures associated with each functional specialty. Individual specialists and specialty teams must adapt these techniques and procedures to meet the requirements of their particular mission, based on METT-TC.

 
Government Function
 

3-49.   The government function includes the specialties of international law, public administration, public education, public health, and public safety. Table 3-2, lists the CA specialists who participate in the government function. The primary goals of the government function are to ensure-

  • Legal systems conform to accepted international law principles.
  • Governmental processes are viable and supported by the local populace.
  • An education system is established, functioning, and sustainable.
  • Public health systems are in place, viable, and available to all.
  • Public safety organizations exist that meet the needs of the populace and operate in a nondiscriminatory manner.

Table 3-2. CA Teams That Perform Government Functions

CACOM Government Team Sanitary Engineer
Team Chief Team Sergeant
Public Administration Officer Civil Affairs NCO
Public Education Officer Civil Affairs Specialist
Public Safety Officer Tactical CA Battalion Public Administration Team
Public Health Officer Team Chief
Veterinary Preventive Medicine Officer International Law Officer
Assistant Public Administration Officer Public Administration Officer
Assistant Public Education Officer Team Sergeant
Assistant Public Safety Officer Civil Affairs Specialist
International Law Officer CA Battalion (SO) Civic Action Team
Environmental Science Officer Dentist
Sanitary Engineer Physician Assistant
Team Sergeant Veterinary Service Officer
Civil Affairs Specialist Preventive Medicine NCO
CA Brigade Government Team Animal Care NCO
Team Chief CA Battalion (Active Army) Civic Action Team
Public Administration Officer Battalion Surgeon
Public Education Officer Battalion Veterinarian
Public Safety Officer Staff Judge Advocate
Public Health Officer Public Health Advisor
Veterinary Preventive Medicine Officer Operations Law Officer
Assistant Public Administration Officer Public Health Team
Assistant Public Education Officer Team Chief (Preventive Medicine Officer)
Assistant Public Safety Officer Sanitary Engineer
International Law Officer Veterinary Preventive Medicine Officer
Clinical Nurse Medical NCO
Environmental Science Officer Professional Services NCO
 
 

3-50.   International law specialists are attorneys-at-law (Judge Advocate 27A) who provide expertise in the organization and functions of HN or foreign national judicial systems; the interpretation of local, national, and international laws; and review and analysis of treaties and agreements. The primary mission of international law specialists is to assist and ensure that foreign legal systems are modeled to conform to accepted international standards. International law specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. As Judge Advocate attorneys, when required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Assistant to the SJA as advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the judicial system of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the judicial system of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-51.   International law specialists do not normally function as judge advocate general corps officers in the discipline and practice of international law for U.S. forces. As qualified Judge Advocate officers, they may assist the SJA in educating and training U.S. personnel in the foreign national legal system, obligations, and consequences. They may also advise and assist the SJA in international law issues affecting U.S. forces. Whenever they are directed to assist and advise U.S. forces, they should always coordinate that support through the appropriate unit SJA.

3-52.   Public administration specialists provide expertise in the organization and functions of government services, agencies, systems, and processes. This expertise includes an understanding of the political systems and military forces of an AO. Public administration specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to various public administration agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the public administration system of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-53.   Public education specialists provide expertise in the organization, structure, and facilities of primary (elementary), secondary, and post-secondary school systems. Public education specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the education system of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the education system of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-54.   Public health specialists provide expertise in public health issues and the organization and functions of public health and sanitation systems, agencies, and programs. Public health specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the public health and sanitation systems of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the public health or sanitation system of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-55.   Public safety specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, capabilities, and facilities of public safety systems. Areas covered include police and law enforcement administration, fire protection, emergency rescue, and penal institutions. Public safety specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the public safety systems of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the public safety systems of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.
 
Economics and Commerce Functions
There is an acute need for such a body [of civilian experts] because the success of future operations from this base will depend very largely upon the speed with which the economy of this country [Tunisia] is rehabilitated, at least to the point of sustaining a majority of the population above the starvation level.
 

Message 609, Eisenhower to Marshall,
26 November 1942,
Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors,
1964

   
 

3-56.   The economics and commerce functions include the specialties of civilian supply, economic development, and food and agriculture. Table 3-3, lists the CA specialists who participate in the economics and commerce functions. The primary goals of the economic and commerce functions are to ensure-

  • Civilian resources used in support of military operations are obtained and accounted for according to international law and U.S. policy while maintaining adequate civilian resources to support the essential needs of the populace.
  • Systems and incentives exist to stimulate economic development.
  • Resources, facilities, and systems exist that support the production, processing, storage, and distribution of food, fiber, and wood products.

Table 3-3. CA Teams That Perform Economics and Commerce Functions

CACOM Economics and Commerce Team Assistant Economics Development Officer (Labor)
Team Chief Assistant Economics Development Officer (Finance)
Food and Agriculture Officer Assistant Economics Development Officer (Projects)
Economics Development Officer (Commerce) Assistant Civilian Supply Officer (Property Control)
Economics Development Officer (Labor) Assistant Civilian Supply Officer (FNS)
Economics Development Officer (Finance) Team Sergeant
Civilian Supply Officer (Price Control) Civil Affairs NCO
Civilian Supply Officer (Property Control) Civil Affairs Specialist
Assistant Food and Agriculture Officer CA Battalion (SO) Civic Action Team
Assistant Economics Officer Veterinary Service Officer
CA Brigade Economics and Commerce Team Preventive Medicine NCO
Team Chief CA Battalion (Active Army) Civic Action Team
Food and Agriculture Officer Battalion Veterinarian
Economics Development Officer (Commerce) Public Health Advisor
Economics Development Officer (Labor) Team Medic
Economics Development Officer (Finance) Tactical CA Battalion Civilian Supply Team
Economics Development Officer (Projects) Team Chief
Civilian Supply Officer (Price Control) Civilian Supply Officer
Civilian Supply Officer (Property Control) Team Sergeant
Civilian Supply Officer (FNS) Civil Affairs NCO
Assistant Food and Agriculture Officer Civil Affairs Specialist
Assistant Economics Development Officer (Commerce) Material Contracting/Accounting Specialist (2)
   
 

3-57.   Civilian supply specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, and facilities of government and commercial supply systems. Areas covered include transportation, storage, and distribution systems. Civilian supply specialists also are instrumental in the identification and acquisition of resources essential for military operations and civilian requirements. Civilian supply specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the civilian supply agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the civil supply administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-58.   Economic development specialists provide expertise in the structure, functions, services, agencies, facilities, and resources of economic systems. Areas covered include treasury, banking, and market systems; fiscal policy and controls; budgetary procedures; foreign trade; industrial and commercial activities; labor issues; and black market activities. Economic development specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the economic development agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the economic development administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-59.   Food and agriculture specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, and facilities of government and commercial food and agriculture systems. Areas covered include the production, processing, storing, transporting, distributing, marketing, and rationing of food and agricultural products, and the equipment and supplies associated with these activities. Food and agriculture specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the food and agriculture agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the food and agriculture administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

Food and agricultural resources include the following:

  • Livestock.
  • Poultry.
  • Grain.
  • Vegetables.
  • Fruit.
  • Fish.
  • Fiber.
  • Forestry.
 
Public Facilities Function
 

3-60.   The public facilities function includes the specialties of public communications, transportation, and public works and utilities. Table 3-4 lists the CA specialists who participate in the public facilities function. The primary goals of the public facilities function are to ensure-

  • Adequate communications services exist to support public services and private enterprise.
  • Adequate transportation systems are in place to allow the mobility of people and goods.
  • Facilities that support power generation, public water, sewage treatment, sanitation, flood control, port operations, public housing, and other public works and utilities are built, operating, and properly maintained.

Table 3-4. CA Teams That Perform Public Facilities Functions

CACOM Public Facilities Team Assistant Public Transportation Officer
Team Chief Assistant Public Works Officer
Public Transportation Officer Team Sergeant
Public Works Officer (Utilities) Civil Affairs NCO
Public Works Officer (Facilities) Tactical CA Battalion Public Works and Utilities Team
Public Communications Officer Team Chief
Assistant Public Transportation Officer Public Works Officer (Utilities)
Assistant Public Works Officer Public Works Officer (Facilities)
Team Sergeant Team Sergeant
Civil Affairs Specialist Power Plant Operator
CA Brigade Public Facilities Team Civil Affairs NCO
Team Chief Civil Affairs Specialist
Public Transportation Officer CA Battalion (SO) Civic Action Team
Public Works Officer (Utilities) Construction Engineer
Public Works Officer (Facilities) CA Battalion (Active Army) Civic Action Team
Public Communications Officer Team Engineer
   
 

3-61.   Public communications specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, and facilities of government and commercial communications systems. Areas covered include postal services, telephone, telegraph, radio, television, computer systems, and print media. Public communications specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the public communications agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the public communications administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-62.   Transportation specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, and facilities of government and commercial transportation systems. These systems include motor vehicles, roads, trains, railways, boats, waterways, aircraft, airports, and pipelines. Transportation specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the public transportation agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the transportation administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-63.   Public works and utilities specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, facilities, and maintenance of government and commercial public works and utilities systems. These systems include electric power; natural gas; water production and distribution; sewage collection, treatment, and disposal; flood control facilities; sanitation services and facilities; port facilities; public housing; and other public buildings and facilities. Public works and utilities specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the public works and utilities agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the public works and utilities administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.
 
Special Functions
 

3-64.   The special functions include the specialties of civil information, cultural relations, DCs, emergency services, and environmental management. Table 3-5, lists the CA specialists who participate in these functions. The primary goals of the special functions are to ensure-

  • Resources, organizations, plans, and agreements exist that support the dissemination of civil information through various media while retaining a "single voice" message.
  • Friendly forces understand, preserve, and protect the social and cultural aspects of an AO, including traditions, language, and significant cultural property and facilities.
  • Resources, organizations, plans, and agreements exist that minimize civilian interference with military operations and protect civilians from combat operations.
  • Resources, organizations, plans, and agreements exist that support mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from natural, man-made, and technological disasters.
  • Adequate systems, agencies, services, personnel, resources, and facilities exist to support environmental and pollution control.

Table 3-5. CA Teams That Perform Special Functions

CACOM Special Functions Team Civil Affairs NCO (3)
Team Chief Civil Affairs Specialist (4)
Emergency Services Officer CA Battalion (SO) Civic Action Team
Environmental Management Officer Dentist
Cultural Relations Officer Physician Assistant
Dislocated Civilians Officer Construction Engineer
Assistant Emergency Services Officer Veterinary Service Officer
Assistant Civil Information Officer Senior Medical NCO
Assistant Dislocated Civilians Officer Senior Engineer Officer
Assistant Cultural Relations Officer Preventive Medicine NCO
CA Brigade Special Functions Team Team Leader
Team Chief Team Sergeant
Emergency Services Officer Civil Affairs Specialist
Environmental Management Officer CA Battalion (Active Army) Civic Action Team
Cultural Relations Officer Battalion Surgeon
Dislocated Civilians Officer Battalion Veterinarian
Assistant Civil Information Officer Public Health Advisor
Assistant Dislocated Civilians Officer Logistics Advisor
Team Sergeant Operations Law Officer
Civil Affairs NCO Team Leader
Tactical CA Battalion Dislocated Civilians Team Team Sergeant
Team Chief Team Engineer
Dislocated Civilians Officer Team Medic
Team Sergeant  
 
 

3-65.   Civil information specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, and facilities of government and commercial civil information (mass media) systems. These systems include radio, television, print, and newspaper. Also included are the development and dissemination of proclamations, ordinances, and notices, and information control and censorship policies. Civil information specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the civil information agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the civil information administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-66.   Cultural relations specialists provide expertise in the cultural and social aspects of the operational area to include historical background, religious and ethnic characteristics, codes of behavior, customs, traditions, and language. Also included are the identification, preservation, and restoration of significant historical, cultural, social, and religious sites, facilities, artifacts, organizations, and systems. Cultural relations specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the historical, cultural, social, and religious agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the cultural relations administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-67.   DC specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, and facilities of government and private agencies associated with the care, control, and assistance of dislocated populations. Areas covered include addressing legal and quality of life issues of displaced persons, refugees, evacuees, stateless persons, and war victims before, during, and after natural or man-made (including combat) emergencies. Also included is minimizing the interference of such persons with military operations. DC specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the public assistance, immigration, and naturalization agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the public assistance, immigration, and naturalization administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-68.   Emergency services specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, facilities, and maintenance of government, nongovernment, and private emergency services systems. Areas covered include all agencies, capabilities, and processes associated with the mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from natural, man-made, and technological emergencies. Emergency services specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the emergency services agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the emergency services administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.

3-69.   Environmental management specialists provide expertise in the organization, functions, services, facilities, and maintenance of government and commercial environmental management systems. Areas covered include agencies, capabilities, and processes associated with water quality, air quality, hazardous materials, pollution control, and wildlife management. Environmental management specialists advise commanders at all levels on how these areas affect plan development and strategic, operational, and tactical operations. When required, they may also perform duties as-

  • Advisor to the local commander during missions of civil assistance.
  • Liaison or advisor to the environmental management agencies of a foreign government during missions of civil administration in friendly territory.
  • An official in the environmental management administration of a military government during missions of civil administration in occupied territory.
 
TACTICAL TEAM OPERATIONS
 

3-70.   All CA soldiers, whether they are members of general staffs, planning teams, specialty teams, functional specialty teams, civic action teams, or CA teams, must master certain skills that can be categorized as CA generalist skills. Generalist skills revolve around the ability to analyze and monitor the civilian component of the AO and to incorporate CA specialists and the six CA activities-FNS, PRC, HA, MCA, emergency services, and support to civil administration-into the military operation.

3-71.   With these generalist skills, the CA soldier has a keener sensitivity to the political, economic, social, environmental, humanitarian, and other implications of military operations than do soldiers who are not trained in CA. Successful application of these skills enhance the commander's situational awareness and contribute to overall mission success at all levels across the spectrum of operations.

3-72.   This section discusses the functions and capabilities of CA generalists found in the CA teams A, B, and C (CAT-A, CAT-B, CAT-C). Each fully resourced and trained CA team has the capability to-

  • Deploy rapidly, within 24 to 48 hours.
  • Provide CMO staff augmentation and CA planning and assessment support to maneuver commanders.
  • Maintain direct data and voice communications (reachback) with conventional, SOF (especially CA specialists), and interagency elements using both classified and unclassified connectivity.
  • Provide linguistic, regional, and cultural expertise to supported commanders.
  • Provide general and limited technical assessments (engineering, medical, and intelligence).
  • Plan and support CMO conducted by military forces.
  • Identify and facilitate FNS.
  • Conduct liaison with civilian authorities.
  • Minimize civilian interference with military operations.
  • Conduct area studies and area assessments. (NOTE: CA team CMO assessments are general in nature and limited in the technical application of the 16 functional specialties. RC functional specialists provide more detailed deliberate assessments, as required.)
  • Establish and operate a CMOC.
  • Operate independently in austere environments, within the constraints of force protection, with minimal support.
 
Civil Affairs Team A
 

3-73.   The CAT-A is the basic tactical-level CA team. It provides for a rapidly deployable CA asset to division, brigade, or battalion (Figure 2-1). There are four types of CAT-As, each of which provide the same general type of support and capabilities to the units to which they are attached (based on METT-TC):

  • CAT-A in a CA company, CA battalion (USAR): normally attached to the conventional maneuver battalion.
  • CAT-A in a CA company, CA battalion (SO): normally attached to the SFODB or Special Forces operational detachment C (SFODC).
  • CAT-A (Regional) in a CA company, CA battalion (Active Army): normally attached to the SOC or SFG.
  • CAT-A (Tactical) in a CA company, CA battalion (Active Army): normally attached to joint rapid deployment forces, initial entry forces, or the conventional maneuver battalion, brigade, or division.
 
Civil Affairs Team B
 

3-74.   The CAT-B is task-organized from a CA company HQ and operates at corps, JTF, TSC, division, or brigade levels (Figure 2-1). There are three types of CAT-Bs, each of which provide the same general type of support and capabilities to the units to which they are attached (based on METT-TC):

  • CAT-B in a CA company, CA battalion (USAR): normally attached to the conventional maneuver brigade.
  • CAT-B in a CA company, CA battalion (SO): normally attached to the SFODC or SFG.
  • CAT-B in a CA company, CA battalion (Active Army): normally attached to the corps, JTF, division, or SFG.
 
Civil Affairs Team C
 

3-75.   The CAT-C is task-organized from a CA battalion HQ and operates at division, COSCOM, and ASG (Figure 2-1). There are three types of CAT-Cs, each of which provide the same general type of support and capabilities to the units to which they are attached (based on METT-TC):

  • CAT-C in a CA Battalion (USAR): normally attached to the division, COSCOM, or ASG.
  • CAT-C in a CA battalion (SO): normally attached to the JSOTF.
  • CAT-C in a CA battalion (Active Army): normally attached to the SOC or SFG.
 

PRODUCTS OF THE ASSESS PHASE

 
 

3-76.   The assess phase is characterized by preliminary assessments and their role in the mission analysis process. The products of this phase include a CASCOPE analysis of the AO, an area assessment (FM 41-10, Appendix G), the CMO estimate, and a general idea of basic CA mission requirements. The CMO estimate feeds directly into the decide phase in which CA/CMO planners determine how the needs and requirements identified by preliminary assessments will be addressed by CA activities and CMO. Appendix C provides an example of a CMO estimate.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list