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Military

Chapter 2

Integration With Supported Organizations

Participants (at the Conference on Information Sharing in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies) noted that good preparation should include more than just knowing about the host country and its people. There should be information about past and ongoing local and international activities; personnel, resources, and capacities already in place on the ground; as well as the condition of existing infrastructure, such as telephone lines or potable water sources. Participants further agreed that responsibility for knowing and sharing this information begins during predeployment planning and continues through mission implementation and into postconflict reconstruction. Gathering this information should be part of each organization's preparation, participants said.
 

United States Institute Of Peace Report,
Taking It to the Next Level:
Civilian-Military Cooperation in Complex Emergencies
,
31 August 2000

   

OVERVIEW

 
 

2-1.   CA soldiers and teams are involved in planning at every level from DOD to the maneuver battalion. At the DOD level, CA/CMO planners develop and review directives, coordinate with DOS and other national agencies, and provide CA guidance to the geographic combatant commanders. At the combatant command level, CA/CMO planners develop and review CA plans, programs, and policies in support of combatant command campaign plans and peacetime military engagement (PME) activities. At combatant command, Army, and JTF levels, CA/CMO planners participate in contingency planning, recommend CA troop lists, and integrate the deployment of CA assets into the TPFDL. At all command levels from JTF to battalion, including special operations commands (SOCs), CA/CMO planners participate in the MDMP by analyzing COAs for the civil component of METT-TC, advising the commanders of their CMO obligations, and developing and monitoring the commander's centralized CMO plan. At theater and corps support commands, CA/CMO planners help commanders manage rear-area operations. CA/CMO planners identify and coordinate the CA activities conducted by CA assets in support of the CMO plan. These responsibilities are replicated or modified when working in interagency or multinational environments.

 

CA PLANNING ASSOCIATIONS

 
 

2-2.   CA/CMO planning is a shared responsibility of both Active Army and RC CA elements. It requires continuous coordination between the full-time members of combatant command staffs, the drilling members of CA reserve units, and the members of Active Army CA units.

2-3.   United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), in conjunction with the USACAPOC, assigns CA planning associations between CA units and combatant commands, as well as divisions, corps, theater support commands [TSCs], COSCOMs, SOCs, and selected RC units. Planning associations are designed to improve wartime planning, mission capability, mobilization, and deployability. These associations are based on current Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) requirements and are included in the campaign plans of the supported combatant commanders.

2-4.   Once a planning association is established, the supported commander provides the supporting CA unit with a mission letter. At corps level and below, this mission letter is normally prepared by the G-3/S-3 with input by the G-5/S-5. At unified and subunified commands, it is prepared by the J-3 with input by the senior CMO staff officer. The mission letter provides unit-specific guidance regarding plans and operations in the supported command's AOR. It greatly influences the way a CA unit may organize, equip, and train to meet mission requirements.

2-5.   FM 41-10 outlines the composition of CA planning teams and where they are located in CA organizations. Figure 2-1, depicts the level of commands with which the planning teams are associated and the levels of operation at which each team generally focuses.

Figure 2-1. CA Planning Team Support to Commands and Levels of Operation

Figure 2-1. CA Planning Team Support to Commands and Levels of Operation

 

2-6.   Regardless of the associated level of command or level of operation, and to establish a positive working relationship with the supported organization, the supporting CA unit should immediately seek answers to the following questions upon notification of a planning association:

  • What full-time position or function on the supported staff is responsible for CA/CMO planning?
  • What planning and plan review processes does this staff undertake?
  • How does the CA planning team participate in the campaign and operation plan review cycle and contingency planning cycle?
  • Where does the CA planning team physically set up to integrate into the supported staff's operational configuration?
  • What kind of equipment and resources does the CA planning team need to be fully functional with the supported staff?
  • How soon can the CA planning team receive copies of supported command policies, training calendars, or SOPs?

2-7.   These questions are addressed for various levels of command and organizational structures later in this chapter. Before discussing options to these questions, a general discussion on integrating with supported staffs and organizations is appropriate.

 

PLANNING TEAM INTEGRATION WITH A SUPPORTED STAFF

 
 

2-8.   A staff is a group of individuals organized to assist a commander to make and implement decisions. The staff is usually organized according to a traditional staff structure, but a commander may focus and reorganize the staff to conform to his personal decision-making techniques or to the unique demands of a specific mission. Figures 2-2 through 2-4, depict the typical staff structures a CA planning team will encounter at various levels of command.

Figure 2-2. Typical Organizational Structure of a Joint Staff

Figure 2-2. Typical Organizational Structure of a Joint Staff

Figure 2-3. Typical Corps or Division Staff Structure

Figure 2-3. Typical Corps or Division Staff Structure

Figure 2-4. Typical Smaller-Unit Staff Structure (Brigade and Battalion)

Figure 2-4. Typical Smaller-Unit Staff Structure (Brigade and Battalion)

 

2-9.   A common requirement for CA planning teams at all levels is to join an existing staff and become an effective staff element as quickly as possible. CA teams are not alone in this requirement, but they often are the teams least understood by the commanders and staffs they support. This misunderstanding, coupled with the idiosyncrasies of group dynamics and group development, often put a CA planning team at a disadvantage when trying to establish itself as a contributing element of a supported staff.

2-10.   Successful CA planning teams understand group dynamics and the stages of group development. When the team joins an established group, it changes the makeup of the staff and modifies the staff's method of operations. The following discussion uses Tuckman's model of group development to illustrate how to meet the challenges of staff integration. This model consists of five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The role of the CA planning team is then discussed.

 
FORMING
 

2-11.   The forming stage is characterized by awareness. Individuals become acquainted with one another's unique identities and personal skills. Staff members need to know how each member fits into the organization and how they relate to the organization's goals. The CA planning team must be able to communicate to the supported commander and staff the team's purpose, mission, capabilities, requirements, and the benefits it brings to the organization, as well as other information pertinent to the mission. A team briefing that covers the following topics may be useful:

  • Team organization (by position, name, and shift).
  • Team purpose (to analyze and monitor the civil considerations of the commander's battlespace, focusing on the CASCOPE that may affect or be affected by military operations).
  • Team mission (for example, CAP3T augments the combatant commander's J-5 section at combatant command HQ [Forward] not later than [NLT] date-time group [DTG] to plan and coordinate theater-level CMO plans, policies, and programs in support of Operation X).
  • Capabilities (24-hour operations, writing plans and orders, and conducting briefings).
  • Requirements (for example, access to secure and nonsecure digital networks, security support when traveling to coordination meetings in-theater, and logistics support).
  • Benefits to the organization (for example, increased situational awareness and force protection, links to HNS to augment CSS requirements, links to NGOs and third-nation authorities to alleviate stress to rear-area units from the mounting needs of the local populace, and management of interagency operations through the CMOC).
  • Other pertinent information:
    • Experience level of the team members, to include mission-related military and civilian skills and backgrounds.
    • CA force structure supporting higher and adjacent units.
    • Recommendations for team utilization to support the commander's current and future missions, if known.
 
STORMING
 

2-12.   The storming stage is characterized by conflict. It involves resistance and feelings of hostility among members of the staff. Hostility may be expressed subtly, such as failing to include CA team members in important discussions, or openly, such as arguing with team members over perceived encroachments in staff territory. Hostility such as this is usually rooted in a misunderstanding of the CA role on the staff. Team members must manage conflict with professionalism, which means being patient, encouraging open discussion of the issues, and continuously educating fellow staff members on how CA activities and CMO relate to their staff functions.

 
NORMING
 

2-13.   The norming stage is characterized by cooperation. This stage capitalizes on the education process started earlier. Effective staff members recognize the synergistic effect of various capabilities among the staff and include others in decision-making processes. Collaboration becomes a staff norm. CA team members should continue to share information and be open to giving and receiving feedback from fellow staff members.

 
PERFORMING
 

2-14.   The performing stage is characterized by productivity. Staff members value the contributions and ideas of others, promote interdependencies, and solve problems creatively. CA team members contribute to establishing milestones for success and identifying when these points are reached. They keep focused on setting the conditions for transition of military operations to civilian control.

 
ADJOURNING
 

2-15.   The adjourning stage is characterized by separation and transition. This may occur when the mission is complete and the supported unit redeploys as a whole, or when CA team members are replaced by follow-on CA elements. In the latter case, the supported staff recycles back to stage one with the arrival of the new team. In either case, CA team members execute transition plans, ensure seamless battle handoff and continuity, participate in evaluating staff accomplishments, and provide important feedback regarding staff performance and working relationships. They write an AAR to assist future or follow-on CA teams, and they submit lessons learned to the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), the Marine Corps Lessons Learned System (MCLLS), the Joint Universal Lessons Learned System (JULLS), and the CA database, as appropriate.

 
ROLE OF CA PLANNING TEAM
 

2-16.   To be effective members of a supported staff at any level of command, the CA planning team must be proficient in standard staff functions and procedures. The following paragraphs discuss the role of the CA planning team as strategic-, operational-, or tactical-level staff members. These roles apply equally in Service, joint, interagency, or multinational environments.

2-17.   CA planning team members are, first and foremost, leaders. As with all leaders, CA planning team members must internalize the following direct leadership skills described in FM 22-100, Army Leadership, to achieve excellence:

  • Interpersonal skills include communicating, team building, supervising, and counseling.
  • Conceptual skills include competence in handling ideas, thoughts, and concepts.
  • Technical skill is skill with things (equipment, weapons, and systems)-everything from the tactical radio in the team vehicle to the computer that keeps track of CA and CMO activities to the reachback system that provides timely and accurate information to the planning team. Team members must know their equipment and how to operate it.
  • Tactical skills include knowing doctrine and fieldcraft. Fieldcraft consists of the skills soldiers need to sustain themselves in the field.

2-18.   Leader skills are reflected in the following characteristics of a staff officer, listed in FM 101-5, Staff Organization and Operations. CA planning team members who develop these skills and characteristics will find it easier to integrate with the members of a supported staff:

  • Competence.
  • Initiative.
  • Creativity.
  • Flexibility.
  • Confidence.
  • Loyalty.

In addition, the CA planning team members should be-

  • Team players.
  • Effective managers.
  • Effective communicators.

2-19.   CA planning team members must know the extent of their authority to make decisions without the commander's approval that affect the overall operation. The commander specifies the CA planning team's authority based on the team leader's maturity and experience, the commander's confidence in the team leader's abilities, and other factors. This authority allows the team to exercise initiative to operate within its area of expertise or responsibility when there is a deviation beyond tolerance from the original plan. Knowledge of the commander's intent guides specific decisions within the team's authority.

2-20.   CA planning team members must effectively manage time and the timeline for CA/CMO activities. They must synchronize this timeline with the unit's timelines. Continuous synchronization with the staff is necessary for the four basic timelines used by the staff-troop-leading procedures (TLPs), friendly critical events, logistics, and enemy critical events. The staff can thus identify required actions, decisions, and recommendations. During the planning process, primary staff planners use input from the current CA/CMO timelines to develop the overall timeline for future operations.

2-21.   Staff activities focus on assisting the commander in mission accomplishment. FM 101-5 discusses the common staff and staff officer responsibilities and duties that achieve this end. The CA methodology supports these common staff tasks, which include-

  • Advising and informing the commander.
  • Preparing, updating, and maintaining staff estimates.
  • Making recommendations.
  • Preparing plans and orders.
  • Assessing the execution of operations.
  • Managing information within areas of expertise.
  • Identifying and analyzing problems.
  • Conducting staff coordination.
  • Conducting training.
  • Performing staff assistance visits.
  • Performing risk management.
  • Conducting staff inspections.
  • Performing staff administrative functions.
  • Supervising staff section and staff personnel.

2-22.   FM 101-5 also discusses specific and unique responsibilities and duties of the coordinating, special, and personal staff groups. CA planning team members must be thoroughly familiar with the unique functions of each staff member and how the various staff sections interact with and relate to CMO.

 

CA TEAM INTEGRATION WITH A SUPPORTED UNIT OR ORGANIZATION

 
 

2-23.   The following paragraphs expand on the previous discussion. The focus is on integrating with units or organizations in general.

2-24.   Integration is the act or process of bringing separate entities-people, capabilities, and organizations-together to form a unified whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. For CA soldiers, integration may mean participating in the creation of an organization, such as a JTF or a multiagency humanitarian mine action (HMA) team. More often than not, however, it means joining with an existing organization that is already in the process of conducting operations. This organization may be Army, joint, coalition military, or civilian. Regardless of the makeup of the unit or organization, successful integration of CA units, teams, and individuals requires planning, coordination, understanding, and patience. Table 2-1, depicts the command and support relationships and their inherent responsibilities (per FM 3-0).

Table 2-1. Army Command and Support Relationships and Inherent Responsibilities Matrix

 

2-25.   Integration starts during the mission planning and preparation phases. CA/CMO planners must consider and resolve, as early as possible, several issues pertaining to the employment of CA assets. These issues include the following, as well as any other administrative, operational, or logistical issues that could affect smooth operations upon arrival at the supported organization:

  • Operational purpose (mission).
  • Operational requirements (specified and implied tasks).
  • Command relationships (attached, operational control [OPCON], or tactical control [TACON]).
  • Logistical support requirements (classes of supply I, III, V, VII, IX, X).
  • Role of team or unit members in the security plan of the supported unit or organization.

2-26.   Once notified of a mission tasking, CA/CMO planners should make contact with the supported organization as early as possible. Planners should seek direct liaison authorized (DIRLAUTH) with the supported organization if authorization was not granted in the warning order, tasking order (TASKORD), or FRAG order. Frequent contact with the supported organization during planning and preparation facilitates successful integration later.

2-27.   Upon arrival at the supported unit location, the senior CA soldier must accomplish several responsibilities as soon as possible. These include-

  • Reporting to commander, sponsor, or designated point of contact (POC). This action should be taken as soon as possible after linking up with the supported unit or agency. The purpose of this action is to inform the commander or sponsor that the CA asset has arrived. This action affords the opportunity for initial introductions, receipt of initial commander's guidance, and coordination of a time to brief pertinent CA information to the commander, sponsor, and supported staff.
  • Briefing the commander, sponsor, and supported staff. This briefing may be formal or informal, but it must be tailored to the mission. It should contain an overview of the CA mission, organization, equipment, strength, and status. It should also address any unresolved issues of which the commander or sponsor ought to be aware and which possibly could be resolved with their assistance.
  • Conducting a leader's reconnaissance. The CA unit commander or team leader gets oriented to the environment in which he will be operating. This orientation includes determining or obtaining-
    • Assigned billeting and workspace areas.
    • Location of CMOC and other high-visibility areas and conference rooms.
    • Copies of policies and SOPs not received during predeployment preparation.
    • Key POCs among the supported staff and the staffs of higher and lower organizational levels, as well as lateral and local civil agencies and NGOs.
    • Locations of higher and lower organizational levels, as well as lateral and local civil agencies and NGOs via map reconnaissance and physical reconnaissance.
    • Threat levels, off-limits areas, ROE, uniform and security requirements within the security perimeter, as well as movement of soldiers outside the security perimeter.
    • Locations of logistics and administrative support activities; for example, fuel point, postal distribution center, sundry items purchase, laundry and bath facilities, and gymnasium.
  • Establishing operations. Designated CA unit or team members set up and establish operations with the supported unit or organization according to the priorities of work established by unit or team SOP. Generally, priority actions include the following:
    • Integrate into the security plan of the supported unit according to the supported unit's SOP. Integration includes assignment and preparation of fighting positions and briefing on contingency plans in effect.
    • Introduce team members to all supported staff.
    • Become a part of the staff information loop, head count, and unit order of movement.
    • Set up tent for CMOC if hard site is unavailable or inappropriate.
    • Establish communications and digital connections with supported unit, as applicable.
    • Establish communications and digital connections with lower, adjacent, and higher-level CA elements, as applicable, including the establishment of contingency communications plans during periods of disrupted operations.
    • Establish communications and digital connections with key civilian agencies in the AO, as applicable, including the establishment of contingency communications plans during periods of disrupted operations.
    • Set up work area with all additional equipment needed to operate effectively, such as facsimiles (FAXs), computers, and furniture. Coordinate with supported unit to fill shortfalls, as required.
    • Set up map board with overlays showing the tactical situation (location of all units and maneuver graphics) and the civil situation (CMO graphics showing locations of CASCOPE in the AO that affect military operations). If the map is in an open area, it should be covered when not in use and should contain no classified information.
    • Set up shifts if the supported unit requires 24-hour operations.
    • Determine the team leader's place in the briefing sequence of the daily briefing to the supported commander.
    • Conduct an initial area assessment of the AO, taking notes and creating sector sketches.
    • Establish initial personal contact with the indigenous population and institutions, NGOs, international organizations, and FNS personnel.

2-28.   Once the CA unit or team is operational, its focus turns to maintaining operations with the supported unit. Doing so involves keeping abreast of current and future operations by participating in routine meetings and briefings, as well as any restricted meetings and briefings in which CA or CMO-related issues may come up. The senior CA leader determines when the meetings or briefings are pertinent. Also, a CA representative should be on all briefing agendas to keep the supported unit informed of current CA/CMO issues, even if it means reporting no change in status.

2-29.   CA operations do not occur autonomously. Whether performed during war or MOOTW, CA operations occur within the operational boundaries of a commander or civilian representative (for example, a U.S. Ambassador) who is responsible for all operations within those boundaries. The responsible commander or civilian representative must be kept informed of all that goes on in his AO, no matter how insignificant an event may seem. This is especially critical with CA operations because of the far-reaching implications of some CA activities.

2-30.   Depending on the tactical or security situation, freedom of movement for CA teams or individuals may be restricted. Entry into the AO by another unit or organization must be coordinated in advance. During military operations, failure to coordinate or follow procedures established by the commander will often impede the ability of CA soldiers to perform their mission. On the other hand, failure to educate commanders on the operational requirements of CA missions leads to misunderstanding and imposition of undue restrictions on CA teams. These restrictions sometimes influence CA soldiers to take irregular measures to circumvent commanders' authority.

 
In Bosnia, we had three "mobile teams": the Project Action Group (PAG); the Displaced Persons, Refugees, and Evacuees (DPRE) Action Group (DAG); and the Economic Action Group (EAG). All three teams had freedom of movement in the three allied brigade areas, but had trouble operating in the American brigade sector. Each team addressed the problem differently. The DAG and PAG relied heavily on our allied officers, who were exempt from American force protection measures and other restrictions, to get them into and out of the American brigade sector. The EAG took the Civilian Ph.D. political advisor with them, using his General Officer-equivalent status to bypass the bureaucracy.
 

Notes of a U.S. CA Officer on Operations During Operation JOINT GUARD,
29 November 2000

   

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

 
 

2-31.   The authority for CA activities and CMO originates at the national level. The President of the United States and the National Security Council (NSC) develop the national security strategy (NSS). The NSS establishes how the United States will use its diplomatic, informational, military, and economic instruments of national power to protect or promote the worldwide interests, goals, and objectives that are vital to its national security.

2-32.   Government agencies representing each of the elements of national power, in turn, develop supporting strategies to the NSS. For example, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), the JCS, and geographic combatant commanders, in turn, develop the national military strategy (NMS). The NMS defines the military's role in executing the NSS during war and MOOTW.

2-33.   Congress has long recognized that successful implementation of security policy at the national level relies on the ability of agencies representing the instruments of national power to work together. The National Security Act of 1947, as amended, established the NSC to advise the President on the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security. The National Security Council System (NSCS) is a process to coordinate executive departments and agencies in the effective development and implementation of national security policies. The current NSCS organization is shown in Figure 2-5.

Figure 2-5. Current National Security Council System Organization

Figure 2-5. Current National Security Council System Organization

  2-34.   Although the organization of the NSCS and the basic interagency process changes with each administration, the purpose of the NSC remains the same. For example, note the following excerpts of National Security Presidential Directive 1 (NSPD-1):

 
This document is the first in a series of National Security Presidential Directives. National Security Presidential Directives shall replace both Presidential decision directives and Presidential review directives as an instrument for communicating presidential decisions about the national security policies of the United States...

The NSC Principals Committee (NSC/PC) will continue to be the senior interagency forum for consideration of policy issues affecting national security, as it has since 1989...

The NSC Deputies Committee (NSC/DC) will also continue to serve as the senior sub-Cabinet interagency forum for consideration of policy issues affecting national security...

Management of the development and implementation of national security policies by multiple agencies of the United States Government shall usually be accomplished by the NSC Policy Coordination Committees (NSC/PCCs). The NSC/PCCs shall be the main day-to-day fora for interagency coordination of national security policy. They shall provide policy analysis for consideration by the more senior committees of the NSC system and ensure timely responses to decisions made by the President...

The existing system of Interagency Working Groups is abolished.

* The oversight of ongoing operations assigned in PDD/NSC-56 to Executive Committees of the Deputies Committee will be performed by the appropriate regional NSC/PCCs, which may create subordinate working groups to provide coordination for ongoing operations...

Except for those established by statute, other existing NSC interagency groups, ad hoc bodies, and executive committees are also abolished as of March 1, 2001, unless they are specifically reestablished as subordinate working groups within the new NSC system as of that date...

 

NSPD-1, Organization of the National Security Council System,
13 February 2001

   
 

2-35.   Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 2000.13, Civil Affairs, states the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict) (ASD[SO/LIC]) shall work "within the interagency process as appropriate, translate national security policy objectives into specific defense policy objectives achievable through civil affairs activities [and] supervise the formulation of DOD civil affairs activities in plans and policies." Additionally, the ASD(SO/LIC) shall act as the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) POC for DOD to "coordinate civil affairs activities as they relate to the activities of other U.S. Government Agencies, international, nongovernmental and nonprofit organizations and the private sector, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations."

2-36.   The joint staff provides operational input and staff support through the CJCS for policy decisions made by the OSD. U.S. Army CA/CMO planners at the joint staff provide premission input for CMO issues. In some instances, they may participate as members of assessment teams dispatched to evaluate situations for NSC/PCCs. Most of the time, however, they perform critical liaison duties between the CA/CMO planners of the geographic combatant commands and the joint staff representatives of NSC/PCCs.

2-37.   As campaigns and major operations develop, tasks and objectives that directly support military operations but are the responsibility of other agencies are identified. When commanders and planners identify these objectives, they submit them through the joint force commander (JFC) to the joint staff for consideration and nomination to interagency working groups. Formal and task-specific interagency working groups coordinate policy and assign tasks among the various departments and agencies. (Policy, objectives, and task assignments are outlined in a political-military (pol-mil) plan for specific campaigns and operations.) Once a department or agency accepts a task, it reports through the interagency working group to the joint staff. The joint staff links the JFC to this process.

2-38.   JP 3-08, Interagency Coordination During Joint Operations, discusses the interagency environment. It describes joint doctrine designed to achieve coordination between the combatant commands of the DOD and USG agencies, NGOs, and regional and international organizations during unified actions and joint operations. Many military activities require interagency coordination, which the joint staff routinely accomplishes with the OSD, DOS (with many involved offices and bureaus), CIA, NSC staff, Department of Justice (DOJ), USAID, and others, depending on the circumstances. There are times when the combatant commander may also directly participate IAW the Unified Command Plan (UCP).

2-39.   CA/CMO planners at the DOD ensure that CA/CMO-related decisions, guidance, and directives, resulting from NSC/PCC meetings and validated by the appropriate agency HQ, are passed to the appropriate geographic combatant command HQ for validation and execution.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMAND HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-40.   As stated previously, the CJCS, the JCS, and geographic combatant commanders are responsible for translating the NSS into an NMS. The SecDef uses the NMS to prepare the Defense Planning Guidance and the JSCP. From the JSCP, the combatant commander develops specific strategic objectives and programs in his theater of operations. From these goals and objectives, the combatant commander can develop campaign plans, theater engagement plans (TEPs), and OPLANs. The combatant commander's plans and programs must have a defined end state. To approach this end state, the combatant commander conducts continuous engagement throughout the geographic region, sometimes overseeing multiple operations across the range of military operations simultaneously.

2-41.   Within a theater, the geographic combatant commander is the focal point for collaborative planning and implementation of regional military strategies that require interagency coordination. Coordination between the combatant commander's staff and other USG agencies may occur through a country team or within the combatant command at a CMOC or CMOC variant, such as an interagency planning cell or HA coordination center. For most operations, the CMOC must also be accessible to non-USG agencies (special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses) for collaborative planning and coordination. If the geographic combatant commander does not have a standing CMOC, he establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players.

2-42.   Figures 2-6 and 2-7, demonstrate models for coordination between military and nonmilitary organizations in both domestic and foreign operations. CA/CMO planners should note the locations for coordination with nonmilitary organizations in each model. CA/CMO planners must be intimately involved at each of those locations. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the CMOC in more detail.

Figure 2-6. Model for Coordination Between Military and Nonmilitary Organizations (Domestic Operations)

Figure 2-6. Model for Coordination Between Military and Nonmilitary Organizations (Domestic Operations)

Figure 2-7. Model for Coordination Between Military and Nonmilitary Organizations (Foreign Operations)

Figure 2-7. Model for Coordination Between Military and Nonmilitary Organizations (Foreign Operations)

CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE COMBATANT COMMAND STAFF
 

2-43.   Figure 2-8, shows the geographic regions of responsibility of each of the combatant commanders. Since each theater of operations has unique concerns and considerations, each geographic combatant commander views the conduct of CMO and the employment of CA assets in his theater from a different perspective. One may look at CMO primarily as a logistics function and assign planning responsibility to the Logistics Directorate (J-4). Another may see CMO as purely a special operations function and assign planning responsibility to the SOC (SO J-7). Yet another may see CMO as integral to peacetime engagement operations and assign planning responsibility to the staff of a standing JTF. The key challenge for the CA/CMO planner is to keep abreast of the issues the combatant commander is facing and be able to influence his thought processes in the strategic and operational application of CA forces and activities and CMO. Joint Forces Staff College (JFSC) Pub 1, The Joint Staff Officer's Guide, and the combatant command staff SOP provide more information on how the combatant command staff operates.

Figure 2-8. Geographic Regions of Responsibility by Combatant Command and the Supporting CACOM

Figure 2-8. Geographic Regions of Responsibility by Combatant Command and the Supporting CACOM

STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-44.   Whatever the concerns of the combatant commander, each combatant command staff follows the joint operation planning process as outlined in JP 5-0, Plans. Joint operation planning encompasses planning for the full range of activities required for conducting joint operations. These activities include the mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment of forces. The JOPES provides single process, interoperable planning and execution for both war and MOOTW. Joint operations planning is categorized as campaign, deliberate, or crisis-action planning.

2-45.   JOPES and the participation of CA/CMO planners in joint operations planning are discussed throughout this manual. Appendix C provides examples of various products that result from CA/CMO planning processes and operations.

 
ROLE OF THE CA PLANNING TEAM IN THE CAMPAIGN OR OPERATION PLAN REVIEW CYCLE AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING CYCLE
 

2-46.   The CA planning team participates in joint operation planning according to the JSCP. Depending on the factors of METT-TC, the CA planning team may be a CAP3T from a CACOM (Figure 2-9) or a CAPT-B from a CA battalion (Active Army) (Figure 2-10). Due to the time-sensitive nature of crisis-action planning and the inherent challenges of activating RC soldiers on short notice, the CAP3T will most often participate in deliberate planning. Crisis-action planning will most often involve full-time CA/CMO planners on the combatant command staff with augmentation by the CAPT-B.

Figure 2-9. Composition of CAP3T (USAR)

Figure 2-9. Composition of CAP3T (USAR)

Figure 2-10. Composition of CAPT-B, CA Battalion (Active Army)

Figure 2-10. Composition of CAPT-B, CA Battalion (Active Army)

 

2-47.   Joint operation planning for CMO requires comprehensive study and analysis of many interrelated factors. Good deliberate planning facilitates crisis-action planning. Coordination with nonmilitary organizations during both deliberation planning and crisis-action planning is essential to successful plans and operations.

2-48.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA planning team-whether a CAP3T or a CAPT-B (Active Army)-must perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review the NSS and NMS.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional guidance from the JCS.
  • Review alliance and coalition plans.
  • Understand the combatant commander's strategic intent and his operational focus.
  • Read the primary planning document (campaign plan, OPLAN, CONPLAN, functional plan, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the geographic AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the strategic-level civil considerations (Chapter 3).
  • Obtain the combatant commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil strategic and operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly strategic and operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD).
  • Write the CMO annex to the campaign plan, OPLAN, CONPLAN, functional plan, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.
  • Monitor and participate in CMO-related boards, such as the joint targeting coordination board (JTCB), Joint Facilities Utilization Board (JFUB), joint civil-military engineering board (JCMEB), and joint environmental management board (JEMB).

JP 3-57 contains additional guidance for planning CMO at the joint level.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-49.   CA/CMO planners must be integrated into the highest levels of the combatant command staff. The most logical location for the CA planning team is in the J-5, Plans and Policy Division. This division does long-range planning and prepares campaign, concept, and operation plans. Members of the team may also augment the J-3, Operations Division, to monitor current CMO, or the J-4, Logistics Division, to integrate FNS into logistics plans.

2-50.   The planning team must consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are found in Chapters 4 and 5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-51.   The CA planning team must arrive well prepared to perform its CA/CMO staff planning function. This means the team must be self-sufficient to a certain degree, so it can immediately go to work with minimal disruption to the supported staff. At a minimum, the team should have the materials to maintain-

  • Daily staff journals.
  • CA workbooks.
  • Situation maps and overlays.
  • Resource card files.
  • Records of specific CA/CMO incidents.

Appendix D provides examples of these CA/CMO products.

2-52.   All team members must have current, verifiable security clearances at the appropriate security level for the plans on which they will be working. The team must bring adequate and compatible automated data processing (ADP) equipment and supporting software to allow the team to access classified military networks, as well as unclassified international organization/NGO systems. Finally, the team must be thoroughly familiar with all policies and SOPs of the supported element.

2-53.   The team must also come equipped with vehicles, individual uniforms, and other team and individual equipment appropriate to climate, supported unit SOP, and other mission requirements.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE SUBUNIFIED COMMAND AND SERVICE COMPONENT HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-54.   A subordinate unified (subunified) command is a command established by commanders of unified commands to conduct operations on a continuing basis according to criteria set forth for unified commands. A subunified command may be established on an area basis (for example, JTF 6) or a functional basis (for example, a theater SOC). Commanders of subordinate unified commands have functions and responsibilities similar to those of unified commands and exercise OPCON of assigned commands and forces within the assigned joint operations area.

2-55.   A Service component HQ is the HQ of one of the subordinate organizations that constitute a joint force, such as the Army Service Component, the Air Force Service Component, the Navy Service Component, and the Marine Corps Service Component. In the context of this section of this manual, the Service component HQ is a numbered organization, such as the 3d U.S. Army, the 9th U.S. Air Force, or the 6th Fleet. The Service component HQ may function as a joint force component command (for example, joint force land component command, joint force air component command, or joint force maritime component command), or a combined joint task force (CJTF) when designated by the geographic combatant commander.

2-56.   Within the subunified command AO or the Service component HQ, the commander is the focal point for collaborative planning and implementation of military operations that require interagency coordination. As with planning at the geographic combatant command HQ, coordination between the commander's staff and other USG agencies may occur through a country team or within the subunified or Service component command HQ at a CMOC. For most operations, the CMOC must also be accessible to non-USG agencies (special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses) for collaborative planning and coordination. If the subunified command or Service component commander does not have standing CMOCs, they establish the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE SUPPORTED OR SUBUNIFIED STAFF
 

2-57.   Subunified commands that engage in CA/CMO planning are often joint organizations. As such, their HQ are normally organized similarly to a geographic combatant command HQ. As is the case with the geographic combatant commands, the subunified commander views the conduct of CMO and the employment of CA assets in his AO from a unique perspective and may place the full-time CA/CMO planning function in a number of possible staff positions. The key challenge for the CA/CMO planner is to keep abreast of the issues the commander is facing and be able to influence his thought processes in the strategic and operational application of CA forces, activities, and CMO.

2-58.   Service component command HQ are organized according to Service doctrine. An organization may or may not have a designated full-time CMO position. Responsibility for routine CA/CMO planning most likely will fall to the operations or planning directorate of the Service component command staff.

 
STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-59.   The subunified command and Service component HQ staffs work closely with the geographic combatant command staffs to produce and review plans. They follow the joint operation planning process as outlined in JP 5-0. The commander and his staff develop a detailed OPLAN or OPORD, along with supporting TPFDD, within the JOPES crisis-action planning guidelines as directed by the combatant commander. They determine applicability of existing OPLANs, CONPLANS, functional plans, and campaign plans, if any, to maximize the benefits of prior deliberate planning. Appendix C discusses JOPES and CA/CMO planner participation in joint operations planning.

 
ROLE OF THE CA PLANNING TEAM IN THE CAMPAIGN OR OPERATION PLAN REVIEW CYCLE AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING CYCLE
 

2-60.   The CA planning team is normally a CAPT-B from a CACOM or a CA brigade (Figure 2-11). The CA planning team must be familiar with the joint and Service-specific operational procedures employed by the subunified command or Service component HQ. The CA planning team participates in operational planning when activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations.

Figure 2-11. Composition of CAPT-B (USAR)

Figure 2-11. Composition of CAPT-B (USAR)

 

2-61.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA planning team must perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review combatant command campaign plans, OPLANs, and CONPLANs, as appropriate.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the JTF's specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional combatant command guidance.
  • Understand the subunified or Service component commander's intent and his operational and tactical focus.
  • Obtain the subunified or Service component CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the subunified command or Service component AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the operational-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local and international activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capacities already in place in the region; and the condition of existing infrastructure.
  • Obtain the subunified or Service component commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. Ensure commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
  • Determine the operational mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CMO annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.
  • Monitor and participate in CMO-related boards, such as the JTCB, JFUB, JCMEB, and JEMB.

JP 3-57 contains additional guidance for planning CMO at the joint level.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-62.   The CA/CMO planning function on the subunified command or Service component HQ staff should reside in the staff element that does long-range planning and prepares OPLANs and OPORDs. The CA/CMO planners' role includes overseeing, advising, and coordinating CMO activities; recommending command policy for CMO; ensuring compliance with the policy; analyzing civilian impact on military operations and the impact of military operations on civilians; and supporting other USG agencies in-country.

2-63.   The planning team must consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-64.   CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53. The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE JOINT TASK FORCE HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-65.   A JTF is a military force, under a single commander, composed of elements of two or more U.S. military Services. It can be formed by the SecDef, a unified command commander, or another JTF commander to conduct a single mission and be dissolved at the completion of that mission at the direction of the establishing authority. Two examples are JTF Somalia, which conducted Operation RESTORE HOPE from December 1992 to May 1993, and JTF Bravo, which, at the time of this publication, continues operations that began in 1983 to promote multinational cooperation in Central America.

2-66.   The JTF commander is responsible for accomplishing specific operational missions as assigned by the establishing commander. The organizational structure of a JTF will depend on the missions to be fulfilled, the capabilities and strengths of the component elements of the forces assigned and attached, and the phasing of the contemplated operations. The JTF HQ may be formed around a standing JTF HQ, such as JFC's JTF for Civil Support; augment a core Service component HQ, such as the commander of the 1st Marine Division did for JTF Somalia; or form an ad hoc HQ from various contributors, such as JTF Eagle, formed by JTF Bravo in response to Hurricane Mitch in 1999.

2-67.   During operations, the JTF HQ must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. Doing so includes tying interagency efforts with the military effort in the JTF AO. As the operational focal point for interagency coordination, the JTF commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.

2-68.   At both the operational and tactical levels, the JTF conducts interagency collaborative planning and coordination through the CMOC. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies (USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses). The JTF commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. For most JTF operations, this means establishing the CMOC as early as the initial planning stages of the operation.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE JTF STAFF
 

2-69.   The JTF commander may come from any of the Service components. Although he organizes his staff as necessary to carry out all duties and responsibilities, he will normally defer to an organization with which he is comfortable. That organization may or may not have a designated full-time CMO position. Active Army CA/CMO planners may find themselves called upon to assist in the formation of a JTF. These individuals must ensure the commander includes dedicated CA/CMO planners on his primary staff and on the primary staffs of all subordinate commanders. The essential challenge for a CA/CMO planner on the primary staff is to keep abreast of the issues the JTF commander is facing. He must be in a position to influence the commander's thought processes in the operational and tactical application of CA forces and activities, as well as the CMO of his subordinate unit commands. The following example illustrates the challenge faced by CA/CMO planners.

 

Planning CA/CMO Support for JTF Somalia

On 29 November 1992, the commander of C Company, 96th CA Bn (A) deployed to USCENTCOM to assist in the final planning of Operation RESTORE HOPE. Upon analyzing the mission, the U.S. Army major recommended that CA forces supporting the operation include one CA brigade at the JTF level and one CA battalion to each of the JTF's divisions (the 1st Marine Division and the 10th Mountain Division). When he was informed that USAR CA assets would not be activated for this mission, he revised his recommendation. Support at the JTF level would come from his CATHST of five CA soldiers while each of the JTF's divisions would get three CA CADSTs of four soldiers each.

On 5 December 1992, the commander deployed to Camp Pendleton, California, to be the CA advisor to J-3, JTF Somalia. On 11 December 1992, he deployed with the JTF J-3 main body to Mogadishu, Somalia. The CATHST arrived 2 days later.

At the direction of the J-3, the CA company commander and his team established a CMOC at the United Nations Operation Somalia Humanitarian Operations Center (UNOSOM-HOC), located approximately one mile from the J-3 at the JTF HQ. In this role, the CATHST coordinated and facilitated all humanitarian relief organization requests for security and other assistance required to support the relief operations. A United States Marine Corps (USMC) officer performed liaison duties between the CMOC and the JTF staff.

The physical separation of the CMOC from the JTF HQ and the practice of using a non-CA-trained officer to conduct liaison with the JTF J-3 precluded the CATHST from participating in daily staff operations. Consequently, the JTF commander did not benefit from professional advice, and CA/CMO planning at the JTF level was limited for the duration of the operation.

 

STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-70.   The JTF staff follows the joint operation planning process as outlined in JP 5-0 and JP 5-00.2, Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures. The commander and his staff develop a detailed campaign plan, OPLAN, or OPORD, along with supporting TPFDD, within the JOPES crisis-action planning guidelines as directed by the establishing authority. They determine applicability of existing OPLANs, CONPLANs, functional plans, and campaign plans, if any, to maximize the benefits of prior deliberate planning.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM PARTICIPATION IN THE PLANNING PROCESS
 

2-71.   Depending on the factors of METT-TC, the CA planning team may be a CAPT-A from a CA brigade (Figure 2-12), a CAPT-B from a CA battalion (Active Army) (Figure 2-10), or a CAT-B from a CA battalion (Active Army) (Figure 2-13). The CA planning team must be familiar with joint operational procedures as outlined in various JPs. The CA planning team participates in joint operation planning for a JTF when activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations.

Figure 2-12. Composition of CAPT-A (USAR)

Figure 2-12. Composition of CAPT-A (USAR)

Figure 2-13. Composition of CAT-B (Active Army)

Figure 2-13. Composition of CAT-B (Active Army)

 

2-72.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA planning team must perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review combatant command campaign plans, OPLANs, and CONPLANs, as appropriate.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the JTF's specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional combatant command guidance.
  • Understand the JTF commander's intent and his operational and tactical focus.
  • Obtain the JTF CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the JTF's AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the operational-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local and international activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capacities already in place in the region; and the condition of existing infrastructure.
  • Obtain the JTF commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.

 
Although an endstate may be difficult to define in peace operations, strive to refine the mission to ensure one exists. Being prepared early to develop the [CMO] mission statement and coordinate it with higher authority may allow a commander the opportunity to clearly identify an endstate(s).
 

Joint Task Force Commander's Handbook,
February 1995

   
 
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. Ensure commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
  • Determine the operational mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CA annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.
  • Monitor and participate in CMO-related boards, such as the JTCB, JFUB, JCMEB, and JEMB.

JP 3-57 contains additional guidance for planning CMO at the joint level.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-73.   The CA/CMO planning function on the JTF staff should reside in the J-5, Plans and Policy Division. This division does long-range planning and prepares OPLANs and OPORDs. It provides politico-military oversight for all aspects of the JTF's operations, to include FNS, noncombatant evacuation operations (NEOs), HA, and ROE. The CA/CMO planners' role includes overseeing, advising, and coordinating CMO activities; recommending command policy for CMO; ensuring compliance with the policy; analyzing civilian impact on military operations and the impact of military operations on civilians; and supporting other USG agencies in-country. (JP 5-00.2 includes information on JTF J-5 organization and responsibilities.)

2-74.   The planning team must consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-75.   CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53. The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE THEATER AND CORPS SUPPORT COMMANDS AND AREA SUPPORT GROUP HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-76.   CSS functions are performed across the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of operations by various support commands, groups, and battalions. Although the organizational structure of these support units may vary over time based on METT-TC, their purpose remains consistent-to sustain military forces throughout war or MOOTW.

2-77.   The hierarchy of logistics support functions in a theater flow from TSC through the area support group (ASG) at echelons above corps (EAC) to the COSCOM and below. Each support organization operates within defined geographical boundaries from bases or base clusters. The senior commander of the base or base cluster normally assumes command and control (C2) responsibility for all logistics functions, as well as rear-area operations, within the defined support area. This responsibility usually encompasses-

  • FNS to augment operational and tactical logistics.
  • Support to NEOs.
  • Support to DC operations.
  • Establishment of PRC measures in the rear area.
  • Support to HA organizations in the rear area.
  • Liaison with HN authorities for rear-area security, emergency services, and other issues.
  • Support to humanitarian and civic assistance (HCA) programs.

2-78.   FM 54-40, Area Support Group; FM 63-3, Corps Support Command; FM 4-93.4, Theater Support Command; FM 100-16, Army Operational Support; other doctrinal references; and the unit tactical SOP contain more information on how the unit operates.

2-79.   TSC, COSCOM, and ASG operations are, by nature, interagency-intensive. The commander of each organization must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. As the operational focal point for coordination with nonmilitary organizations in his assigned support area, the TSC, COSCOM, and ASG commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.

2-80.   The TSC, COSCOM, and ASG conduct interagency collaborative planning and coordination through the CMOC. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies, such as USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses. The support unit commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. For most support operations, establishment of the CMOC begins as early as the initial planning stages of the operation.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE TSC, COSCOM, AND ASG STAFF
 

2-81.   The ACofS, G-5, CMO, is responsible for full-time CA/CMO planning on the TSC and COSCOM staffs. The G-5 staff section is small compared to the other principal sections of the staff. To be effective, all members of the CMO staff section must be trained in functional area 39C, Civil Affairs.

2-82.   There is no full-time S-5 position on the ASG staff. The S-5 position is coded "required/not authorized" and, therefore, is not filled on a full-time basis. Upon deployment, the ASG may be authorized an S-5. Until that time, the CA/CMO planning function normally falls under the ASG S-3.

2-83.   Other sections that have CMO planning responsibility are the HNS section of the TSC and the HNS logistics directorate of the ASG. The members of these sections are normally not trained in CA, but they know the logistics needs of the force and are familiar with the legal and procedural requirements to obtain HNS from the HN in which they are operating.

 
STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-84.   Each of the CSS organizations' staffs plan using the MDMP. As mentioned previously, the MDMP is a single, established, and proven analytical process used by the Army to assist the commander and staff in developing estimates and plans.

2-85.   The CA/CMO staff officer participates in all planning and war-gaming events undertaken by the CSS organization staff. CA considerations in MDMP are in Appendix C. Additional information on MDMP is in FM 101-5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM PARTICIPATION IN THE PLANNING PROCESS
 

2-86.   The CA planning team for a TSC is normally a CAPT-A from a CA brigade (Figure 2-12). The CA planning team for a COSCOM and an ASG is normally a CAT-C from a CA battalion (USAR) (Figure 2-14). At the TSC and COSCOM, the CA planning team participates in the planning processes through the ACofS, G-5, according to the TSC or COSCOM SOP. At the ASG, the CA planning team participates in the planning processes through the S-3 according to the ASG SOP.

Figure 2-14. Composition of CAT-C (USAR)

Figure 2-14. Composition of CAT-C (USAR)

 

2-87.   During peacetime, the planning process may mean providing planners to the TSC, COSCOM, or ASG staff on a short-term, contingency basis through temporary tours of active duty (TTADs) or active duty for special work (ADSW) tours. Another option is to maintain constant communication with the G-5 or S-3 staff element by using the U.S. Postal Service, military couriers, and secure automation technology. When activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations, the CA planning team reports to the CSS unit HQ and becomes a full-time, active part of the CSS unit staff.

2-88.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA planning team must be familiar with CSS unit operations as described in the doctrinal publications listed in paragraph 2-78. The CA planning team must also perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review the campaign plans, OPLANs, CONPLANs, and HNS plans, as appropriate, of commands two levels up, as well as the NEO plans of the combatant command and the U.S. Country Team.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the CSS unit's specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS as they apply to the operation in which the CSS unit is participating.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional higher-level command guidance.
  • Understand the CSS unit commander's intent and his operational focus.
  • Obtain the CSS unit CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the CSS unit's AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the operational-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local and international events and activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capabilities already in place in the region; and the condition of the existing infrastructure.
  • Obtain the CSS unit commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. Ensure CSS unit commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
  • Determine the operational mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CA annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.

CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-89.   The TSC, COSCOM, or ASG commander exercises C2 over operational logistics support activities from a logistics operations center (LOC) and a command post (CP). If performing as a base cluster commander, the TSC, COSCOM, or ASG commander establishes a base cluster operations center (BCOC) to plan, coordinate, and control rear operations among the bases in the cluster. He forms the BCOC from his own staff assets and from those of other elements in the cluster.

2-90.   The CA planning team must set up where it can best support the CA/CMO staff planners of the TSC, COSCOM, and ASG. It must have access to all primary staff sections, as well as to elements such as the HNS section of the TSC and HNS logistics directorate of the ASG. Depending on METT-TC, this location may be either the LOC or the BCOC.

2-91.   The planning team must also consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-92.   As an augmentation element to an established staff section, CA planning team members may find themselves looked upon as outsiders or temporary help. Depending on the situation, the commander and staff, and other factors, CA planning team members may or may not receive the full support they require to accomplish their mission. CA planning team members must be well versed in the techniques of project management and the challenges of group dynamics on team building and problem solving. The team must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO. For additional information, CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE CORPS HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-93.   The corps is the largest tactical unit in the U.S. Army. It conducts combat operations in support of operational objectives. The corps conducts Army, joint, interagency, and multinational operations across the full range of military operations and is tailored for the theater and the mission for which it is deployed. It responds to short-notice crisis situations, as well as full-scale mobilization as a total force or as a force provider.

2-94.   A corps may be employed under an Army HQ as part of a larger Army force, it may be the ARFOR HQ of a JTF, or it may serve as a JTF HQ. (More information on CA/CMO planning at the JTF is provided in paragraphs 2-65 through 2-75.) Each configuration has unique considerations for CA/CMO planners. FM 100-15, Corps Operations, other doctrinal references, and the corps tactical SOP include more information on how the corps operates.

2-95.   During all operations, the corps HQ must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. Doing so includes tying interagency efforts with the military effort in the corps AO. As the operational focal point for coordination with nonmilitary organizations, the corps commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.

2-96.   The corps conducts interagency collaborative planning and coordination across full-spectrum operations through the CMOC. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies-USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses-in the corps AO. The corps commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. For most corps operations, establishment of the CMOC begins as early as the initial planning stages of the operation.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE CORPS STAFF
 

2-97.   The ACofS, G-5, CMO, is responsible for full-time CA/CMO planning on the corps staff. The G-5 staff section is small compared to the other principal sections of the corps staff. The G-5 section generally consists of a colonel, two additional field grade officers, two senior NCOs, and a DA civilian. To be effective, all members of the CMO staff section must be trained in functional area 39C, Civil Affairs.

 
STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-98.   Each corps has operational responsibilities in at least one theater operation plan. The corps staff periodically reviews and updates the corps portion of the plan IAW guidance from the geographic combatant commander. Once employed, planning at the corps level is a continuous process that occurs concurrently with corps operations. The process of maintaining a running estimate of the situation keeps the commander armed with viable options.

2-99.   Because the corps may perform as an Army force or a joint force, staff members must be familiar with both the MDMP and JOPES. The MDMP is a single, established, and proven analytical process used by the Army to assist the commander and staff in developing estimates and plans. The JOPES provides single-process, interoperable planning and execution for both war and MOOTW. Joint operations planning is categorized as campaign, deliberate, or crisis-action planning.

2-100.   The corps G-5 participates in all planning and war-gaming events undertaken by the corps staff. CA considerations in MDMP and JOPES are found throughout this manual. Additional information on MDMP can be found in FM 101-5. Additional information on JOPES can be found in JP 5-0.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM PARTICIPATION IN THE PLANNING PROCESS
 

2-101.   Depending on the factors of METT-TC, the CA planning team may be a CAPT-A from a CA brigade (USAR) or a CAPT-B from a CA battalion (Active Army). The CA planning team participates in the corps' continuous planning processes through the ACofS, G-5, according to the corps SOP. During peacetime, the planning process may mean providing planners to the ACofS, G-5, on a short-term, contingency basis through TTAD or ADSW tours. Another option is to maintain constant communication with the G-5 staff element by using the U.S. Postal Service, military couriers, and secure automation technology. When activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations, the CA planning team reports to the corps HQ and becomes a full-time, active part of the corps staff.

2-102.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA planning team must be familiar with corps operations as described in FM 100-15, as well as joint operational procedures as outlined in various JPs. The CA planning team must also perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review the campaign plans, OPLANs, and CONPLANs, as appropriate, of commands two levels up.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the corps' specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS as they apply to the operation in which the corps is participating.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional higher-level command guidance.
  • Understand the corps commander's intent and his operational and tactical focus.
  • Obtain the corps CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the corps' AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the operational-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local and international events and activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capabilities already in place in the region; and the condition of the existing infrastructure.
  • Obtain the corps commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. Ensure commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
  • Determine the operational mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CA annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Provide input to the corps' IO cell.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.

JP 3-57 contains additional guidance for planning CMO at the joint level.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-103.   The corps commander exercises C2 through the ABCS from a command group and three CPs. The command group consists of the corps commander and selected personnel. It allows the commander to make a personal situation assessment, to provide leadership and guidance, and to make decisions. The corps CPs are normally echeloned into a tactical CP, a main CP, and a rear CP. The tactical CP controls corps close operations. The main CP synchronizes all corps operations and plans future operations. The rear CP performs rear security operations and sustainment of the entire corps.

2-104.   The CA/CMO planning function on the corps staff resides with the ACofS, G-5, CMO. When deployed, this section normally locates in the main CP where it integrates with the current operations cell, the plans cell, the deep operations coordination cell, the intelligence cell, the fire support coordination cell, the command and control warfare (C2W) cell, and the CSS cell. The G-5's role includes overseeing, advising, and coordinating corps CMO activities; recommending corps command policy for CMO; ensuring compliance with the policy; analyzing civilian impact on military operations and the impact of military operations on civilians; and supporting other USG agencies in the corps AO.

2-105.   The CA planning team supports the ACofS, G-5, in the performance of these functions using one of several options based on METT-TC. One option is to locate the entire team at the main CP. This option provides the G-5 with the maximum number of CA soldiers to meet all CMO planning and operational requirements while conducting 24-hour operations. Another option is to locate the entire team at the rear CP where it focuses on rear operations in support of the corps rear operations commander. A third option is to split the team between both CPs; for example, putting the plans officer and team noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) in the main CP and the rest of the team in the rear CP. This option allows the G-5 to focus on current corps operations and oversee the planning of future operations while maintaining strong representation on the rear operations staff.

2-106.   The CA planning team must also consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-107.   CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53. The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE DIVISION HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-108.   The division is the largest Army organization that trains and fights as a tactical team. Each division is capable of independent operations, performs tactical missions in offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations over a wide range of environments and, for limited periods, is self-sustaining. Corps augment divisions as the mission requires.

2-109.   Traditionally, the division operates as part of a U.S. corps. The division may deploy as part of a JTF without its traditional corps HQ and supporting corps units. In these types of operations, a division often works directly for the JFC and, therefore, division staffs must know joint doctrine and TTP.

2-110.   Divisions are not normally designated as a JTF HQ. Divisions assigned to a JTF normally conduct traditional tactical operations but may be involved in nontraditional actions, such as interagency operations or operations with the indigenous population and institutions. A JTF may designate a division under its C2 as the ARFOR HQ, the senior Army HQ within the JTF. An ARFOR HQ may provide support normally associated with the Army Service component within the AO. The division commander could also be responsible for all land combat forces through his appointment as the joint force land component commander (JFLCC). As the JFLCC, the division commander controls all Army, Marine, and multinational ground forces in the AO.

2-111.   As with the corps, each division mission and configuration has unique considerations for CA/CMO planners. FM 71-100, Division Operations; other doctrinal references; and the division tactical SOP include more information on how the division operates.

2-112.   During operations, the division HQ must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. Doing so includes tying interagency efforts with the military effort in the division AO. As the operational focal point for coordination with nonmilitary organizations at the tactical level, the division commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.

2-113.   The division conducts interagency collaborative planning and coordination across full-spectrum operations through the CMOC. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies-USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses-in the division's designated AO. The division commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. For most division operations, establishment of the CMOC begins as early as the initial planning stages of the operation. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the CMOC in more detail.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE DIVISION STAFF
 

2-114.   The ACofS, G-5, CMO, is responsible for full-time CA/CMO planning on the division staff. The G-5 staff section is small compared to the other principal sections of the division staff. The G-5 section generally consists of a lieutenant colonel, a company grade officer, two senior NCOs, and a DA civilian. To be effective, all members of the CMO staff section must be trained in functional area 39C, Civil Affairs.

 
STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-115.   Each division has tactical responsibilities in at least one theater operation plan. The division staff periodically reviews and updates the division's portion of the plan IAW guidance from the geographic combatant commander and the corps commander. Once employed, planning at the division level is a continuous process that occurs concurrently with division operations. The process of maintaining a running estimate of the situation keeps the commander armed with viable options.

2-116.   The division staff plans using the MDMP. As mentioned previously, the MDMP is a single, established, and proven analytical process used by the Army to assist the commander and staff in developing estimates and plans.

2-117.   The division G-5 participates in all planning and war-gaming events undertaken by the division staff. CA considerations in MDMP are found throughout this manual. Additional information on MDMP can be found in FM 101-5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM PARTICIPATION IN THE PLANNING PROCESS
 

2-118.   Depending on the factors of METT-TC, the CA planning team may be a CAT-C from a CA battalion (USAR) (Figure 2-14), a CAT-B from a CA battalion (Active Army) (Figure 2-13), or a CAT-A from a CA battalion (Active Army) (Figure 2-15). The CA planning team participates in the division's planning processes through the ACofS, G-5, according to the division SOP. During peacetime, the planning process may mean providing planners to the ACofS, G-5, on a short-term, contingency basis through TTAD or ADSW tours. Another option is to maintain constant communication with the G-5 staff element by using the U.S. Postal Service, military couriers, and secure automation technology. When activated for short-term contingencies or long-term operations, the CA planning team reports to the division HQ and becomes a full-time, active part of the division staff.

Figure 2-15. Composition of CAT-A (Active Army)

Figure 2-15. Composition of CAT-A (Active Army)

 

2-119.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA planning team must be familiar with division operations as described in FM 71-100. The CA planning team must also perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review the campaign plans, OPLANs, and CONPLANs, as appropriate, of commands two levels up.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the division's specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS as they apply to the operation in which the division is participating.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional higher-level command guidance.
  • Understand the intent and tactical focus of the division commander.
  • Obtain the division CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the division's AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the tactical-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local events and activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capabilities already in place in the region; the condition of the existing infrastructure; types, status, and potential uses of civil structures in the AO; and the intentions and potential actions of the local populace in response to military operations in the AO.
  • Obtain the division commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. Ensure commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
  • Determine the tactical mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CA annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Provide input to the division's IO cell.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.
 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-120.   The division commander exercises C2 through the ABCS from a command group and three CPs. The command group consists of the division commander and selected personnel. It allows the commander to make a personal situation assessment, to provide leadership and guidance, and to make decisions. The division CPs are normally echeloned into a tactical CP, a main CP, and a rear CP. The tactical CP controls division close operations. The main CP synchronizes all division operations and plans future operations. The rear CP performs rear security operations and sustainment of the entire division.

2-121.   The CA/CMO planning function on the division staff resides with the ACofS, G-5, CMO. When deployed, this section normally locates in the main CP where it integrates with the current operations cell, the plans cell, the deep operations coordination cell, the intelligence cell, the fire support coordination cell, the C2W cell, and the CSS cell. The G-5's role includes overseeing, advising, and coordinating division CMO activities; recommending division command policy for CMO; ensuring compliance with the policy; analyzing civilian impact on military operations and the impact of military operations on civilians; and supporting other USG agencies in the division AO.

2-122.   The CA planning team supports the ACofS, G-5, in the performance of these functions using one of several options based on METT-TC. One option is to locate the entire team at the main CP. This option provides the G-5 with the maximum number of CA soldiers to meet all CMO planning and operational requirements while conducting 24-hour operations. Another option is to locate the entire team at the rear CP where it focuses on rear operations in support of the division rear operations commander. A third option is to split the team between both CPs; for example, putting the team leader and a CA NCO in the main CP and the rest of the team in the rear CP. This option allows the G-5 to focus on current division operations and oversee the planning of future operations while maintaining strong representation on the rear operations staff.

2-123.   The CA planning team must also consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-124.   CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53. The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-125.   The Army has several types of maneuver brigades: divisional brigades, separate brigades, and the Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT). Each type of brigade is organized to conduct successful tactical engagements across the range of operations. Whether the brigade is organized as an air assault, airborne, armored, aviation, light infantry, mechanized infantry, or SBCT, its primary mission is to deploy on short notice and destroy, capture, or repel enemy forces, using maneuver and shock effect. Brigades also conduct various MOOTW activities independently or as part of a joint or multinational HQ in peacetime and conflict environments.

2-126.   Divisional brigades normally operate as part of a division. Separate brigades are organized for and normally conduct sustained operations under corps control. The SBCT will be organized and equipped to enable rapid deployment to meet the challenges of small-scale contingency operations while possessing significant utility for divisions and corps engaged in a major theater war (MTW). In either case, brigades are task-organized, as directed, and most often perform tactical tasks under the command of a division, corps, or a JTF HQ.

2-127.   More information on how the brigade operates may be found in FM 1-111, Aviation Brigades; FM 7-30, The Infantry Brigade; FM 71-123, Tactics and Techniques for Combined Arms Heavy Forces: Armored Brigade, Battalion Task Force, and Company Team; FM 71-3, The Armored and Mechanized Infantry Brigade; other doctrinal references; and the brigade tactical SOP.

2-128.   During all operations, the brigade HQ must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. Doing so includes tying interagency efforts with the military effort in the brigade AO. As the operational focal point for coordination with nonmilitary organizations at the tactical level, the brigade commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.

2-129.   The brigade conducts interagency collaborative planning and coordination across full-spectrum operations through the CMOC. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies-USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses-in the brigade's designated AO. The brigade commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. For most brigade operations, establishment of the CMOC begins as early as the initial planning stages of the operation. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the CMOC in more detail.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE BRIGADE STAFF
 

2-130.   The brigade S-5 is responsible for CA/CMO planning. For many brigades, the S-5 position is coded "required/not authorized" and, therefore, is not filled on a full-time basis. Upon deployment, the brigade may be authorized an S-5. Until that time, the CA/CMO planning function normally falls under the brigade S-3.

2-131.   Some brigades or brigade-equivalent organizations do have full-time S-5s. These include the separate brigades, the Ranger Regiment, and SFGs. These organizations normally have a small section that consists of a company grade officer and an NCO. To be effective, the members of the S-5 section must be trained in functional area 39C, Civil Affairs.

2-132.   Brigade staffs that do not have S-5 sections tend to ignore the CMO function if it is not emphasized by the brigade commander. Commanders without S-5s who are attuned to their CMO responsibilities would do well to have all staff members share the CA/CMO planning responsibility. Each staff member analyzes his battlefield operating system (BOS) function for civil considerations using METT-TC and CASCOPE as discussed in Chapter 3. In this way, the commander ensures that he has considered the impact of CASCOPE on his operations, as well as the impact of his operations on those civil factors.

 
STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-133.   Brigade operations are dynamic. During combat, the brigade quickly transitions between offensive, defensive, retrograde, and other tactical operations, such as passage of lines, relief operations, and linkup. During stability operations or support operations, the brigade may be required to transition just as quickly.

2-134.   The brigade staff uses the MDMP for all planning, whether conducting routine operations or working in a time-constrained environment. As mentioned previously, the MDMP is a single, established, and proven analytical process used by the Army to assist the commander and staff in developing estimates and plans. Additional information on MDMP can be found in FM 101-5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM PARTICIPATION IN THE PLANNING PROCESS
 

2-135.   Depending on the factors of METT-TC, the CA planning team may be a CAT-B from a CA battalion (USAR) (Figure 2-16) or a CAT-A from a CA battalion (Active Army) (Figure 2-15). The CA planning team participates in the brigade's planning processes when directed. The team is normally attached to the brigade for planning and operations. If the brigade has a full-time S-5, the CA team augments the S-5 section. If there is no full-time S-5, the CA team leader normally assumes duty as the brigade S-5. In either case, the CMO staff officer participates in all planning and war-gaming events undertaken by the brigade staff. CA considerations in MDMP are found throughout this manual.

Figure 2-16. Composition of CAT-B (USAR)

Figure 2-16. Composition of CAT-B (USAR)

 

2-136.   During peacetime, a CAT-B from the CA battalion (USAR) that has a planning association with the brigade's parent unit may provide planners on a short-term, contingency basis. These team members might perform this planning through TTAD or ADSW tours. Another option is for the CAT-B to maintain constant communication with the full-time individual responsible for the brigade's CMO planning by using the U.S. Postal Service, military couriers, and secure automation technology.

2-137.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA team must be familiar with brigade operations as described in the doctrinal publications listed in paragraph 2-127, and the unit tactical SOP. The CA team must also perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review the campaign plans, OPLANs, and CONPLANs, as appropriate, of commands two levels up.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the brigade's specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS as they apply to the operation in which the brigade is participating.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional higher-level command guidance.
  • Understand the intent and tactical focus of the brigade commander.
  • Obtain the brigade CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the brigade's AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the tactical-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local events and activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capabilities already in place in the region; the condition of the existing infrastructure; types, status, and potential uses of civil structures in the AO; and the intentions and potential actions of the local populace in response to military operations in the AO.
  • Obtain the brigade commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. Ensure commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
  • Determine the tactical mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CA annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and combat engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Provide input to the brigade's IO cell, as applicable.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-138.   The brigade commander exercises C2 through the ABCS from a command group and three CPs. The command group consists of the brigade commander and selected personnel. It allows the commander to make a personal situation assessment, to provide leadership and guidance, and to make decisions. The brigade CPs are normally echeloned into a tactical CP, a main CP, and a rear CP. The tactical CP controls brigade close operations. The main CP synchronizes all brigade operations and plans future operations. The rear CP performs rear security operations and sustainment of the entire brigade.

2-139.   The CA/CMO planning function on the brigade staff resides with the S-5. When deployed, this section normally locates in the main CP where it integrates with the current operations cell, the plans cell, the deep operations coordination cell, the intelligence cell, and the fire support coordination cell. The S-5's role includes overseeing, advising, and coordinating brigade CMO activities; recommending brigade command policy for CMO; ensuring compliance with the policy; analyzing civilian impact on military operations and the impact of military operations on civilians; and supporting other USG agencies in the brigade AO.

2-140.   As mentioned previously, the CA team either augments an existing brigade S-5 section or fills the role of the S-5 section in brigades without full-time S-5s. The CA team performs the functions listed above using one of several options based on METT-TC. One option is to locate the entire team with the tactical operations center (TOC) at the main CP. This option provides the S-5 with the maximum number of CA soldiers to meet all CMO planning and operational requirements while conducting 24-hour operations. Another option is to locate the entire team at the rear CP where it focuses on rear operations in support of the brigade rear operations commander. This option is viable only when augmenting an existing S-5 section. A third option is to split the team between both CPs, such as putting the team leader and a CA NCO in the main CP and the rest of the team in the rear CP. This option allows the S-5 to focus on current brigade operations and oversee the planning of future operations while maintaining strong representation on the rear operations staff.

2-141.   The CA team must also consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

2-142.   The CA team has more of an active role in supporting tactical operations than the planning teams of higher HQ. The CA team leader must balance his planning function with requirements to conduct CA activities in support of the commander's CMO; for example, conducting area assessments, facilitating DC operations and other PRC measures, identifying and facilitating FNS, and conducting liaison with civilian authorities and NGOs.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-143.   CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53. The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE BATTALION HEADQUARTERS

 

2-144.   Maneuver brigades contain three to five maneuver battalions that are task-organized to accomplish the tactical missions assigned to the brigade. Task organizing consists of cross-attaching companies (for example, tank and mechanized infantry companies) between battalions in the brigade to capitalize on the capabilities of each in support of mission requirements. A battalion organized in such a manner is called a battalion task force. For the purpose of this section, the term battalion will be used to mean both battalion and battalion task force.

2-145.   Maneuver battalions accomplish missions and tasks as part of a brigade's operation. Whether part of an air assault, airborne, armored, aviation, light infantry, mechanized infantry brigade, or SBCT, the battalion's primary mission is to deploy on short notice and destroy, capture, or repel enemy forces, using maneuver and shock effect. Maneuver battalions conduct various MOOTW activities when the brigade operates independently or as part of a joint or multinational HQ in peacetime and conflict environments.

2-146.   Occasionally, battalions will conduct operations directly under the control of a division or an armored cavalry regiment, such as when they are participating in the covering force of the higher HQ, acting as a reserve, or forming a tactical combat force in rear-area operations.

2-147.   More information on how the battalion operates may be found in FM 7-20, The Infantry Battalion; FM 71-2, The Tank and Mechanized Infantry Battalion Task Force; FM 71-123; other doctrinal references; and the unit tactical SOP.

2-148.   During all operations, the battalion HQ must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. Doing so includes tying interagency efforts with the military effort in the battalion AO. As the operational focal point for coordination with nonmilitary organizations at the local tactical level, the battalion commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.

2-149.   The battalion conducts interagency collaborative planning and coordination across full-spectrum operations through the CMOC. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies-USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses-in the battalion's designated AO. The battalion commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. For most battalion operations, establishment of the CMOC begins as early as the initial planning stages of the operation. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the CMOC in more detail.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE BATTALION STAFF
 

2-150.   The battalion S-5 is responsible for CA/CMO planning. With the exception of the Ranger battalions and some Army National Guard battalions, the S-5 position on a maneuver battalion staff is coded "required/not authorized" and, therefore, is not filled on a full-time basis. Upon deployment, the battalion may be authorized an S-5. Until that time, the CA/CMO planning function normally falls under the battalion S-3.

2-151.   On effective battalion staffs, all staff members share the CA/CMO planning responsibility. Each staff member analyzes his BOS function for civil considerations using METT-TC and CASCOPE as discussed in Chapter 3. In this way, the commander ensures that he has considered the impact of CASCOPE on his operations, as well as the impact of his operations on those civil factors.

 
STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-152.   Battalion operations are dynamic. During combat, the battalion quickly transitions between offensive, defensive, retrograde, and other tactical operations, such as passage of lines, relief operations, and linkup. During stability operations or support operations, the battalion may be required to transition just as quickly.

2-153.   The battalion staff uses the MDMP for all planning, whether conducting routine operations or working in a time-constrained environment. Additional information on MDMP is in FM 101-5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM PARTICIPATION IN THE PLANNING PROCESS
 

2-154.   The CAT-A from a CA battalion (USAR) (Figure 2-17) is normally attached to the battalion for planning and operations. If the battalion has a full-time S-5, the CA team augments the S-5 section. If there is no full-time S-5, the CA team leader can assume the S-5 position or augment the S-3 section, based on METT-TC analysis. In either case, the CA team leader participates in all planning and war-gaming events undertaken by the battalion staff. CA considerations in MDMP are found throughout this manual.

Figure 2-17. Composition of CAT-A (USAR)

Figure 2-17. Composition of CAT-A (USAR)

 

2-155.   During peacetime, a CAT-A from the CA battalion (USAR) that has a planning association with the brigade's parent unit may provide planners on a short-term, contingency basis. These team members might perform this planning through TTAD or ADSW tours. Another option is for the CAT-A to maintain constant communication with the full-time individual responsible for the battalion's CMO planning by using the U.S. Postal Service, military couriers, and secure automation technology.

2-156.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA team must be familiar with battalion operations as described in the doctrinal publications listed in paragraph 2-147, and the unit tactical SOP. The CA team must also perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review the campaign plans, OPLANs, and CONPLANs, as appropriate, of commands two levels up.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the battalion's specified AO to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS as they apply to the operation in which the battalion is participating.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional higher-level command guidance.
  • Understand the intent and tactical focus of the battalion commander.
  • Obtain the battalion CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the battalion's AO defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the tactical-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local events and activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capabilities already in place in the region; the condition of the existing infrastructure; types, status, and potential uses of civil structures in the AO; and the intentions and potential actions of the local populace in response to military operations in the AO.
  • Obtain the battalion commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Determine the tactical mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CA annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and combat engineering support).
  • Prepare and archive reports.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-157.   The battalion commander exercises C2 through the ABCS from a command group and three CPs. The command group consists of the battalion commander and selected personnel. It allows the commander to make a personal situation assessment, to provide leadership and guidance, and to make decisions. The battalion CPs are normally echeloned into a tactical CP, a main CP, and a combat trains CP. The tactical CP controls battalion close operations. The main CP synchronizes all battalion operations and plans future operations. The combat trains CP performs rear security operations and sustainment of the entire battalion.

2-158.   The CA/CMO planning function on the battalion staff resides with the S-3 at the main CP. If there is a battalion S-5 section, it normally locates in the main CP where it integrates with the operations and plans cell, the intelligence cell, and the fire support coordination cell. The CMO staff officer's role includes overseeing, advising, and coordinating battalion CMO activities; recommending battalion command policy for CMO; ensuring compliance with the policy; analyzing civilian impact on military operations and the impact of military operations on civilians; and supporting other USG agencies in the battalion AO.

2-159.   As mentioned previously, the CA team augments the battalion S-3 or S-5 section. To do this, it must operate out of the TOC at the main CP. The CA team must also consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

2-160.   The CA team has more of an active role in supporting tactical operations than the planning teams of higher HQ. The CA team leader must balance his planning function with requirements to conduct CA activities in support of the commander's CMO (conducting area assessments, facilitating DC operations and other PRC measures, identifying and facilitating FNS, and conducting liaison with civilian authorities and NGOs).

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-161.   CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53. The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with that of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the AO.

 

CA/CMO INTEGRATION AT THE SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES HEADQUARTERS

 
 

2-162.   JP 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, defines special operations as those operations conducted "to achieve military, political, economic, or informational objectives by unconventional military means in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive areas. These operations are conducted across the full range of military operations, independently or in coordination with operations of conventional, non-special operations forces. Political-military considerations frequently shape special operations, requiring clandestine, covert, or low visibility techniques and oversight at the national level. Special operations differ from conventional operations in degree of physical and political risk, operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets."

2-163.   SOF are those components of Army special operations forces (ARSOF), Air Force special operations forces (AFSOF), and naval special warfare (NSW) forces that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support SO. ARSOF consist of Active Army Ranger and Army special operations aviation (ARSOA) forces, as well as Active Army and RC SF, PSYOP, and CA.

2-164.   Operational control over assigned SOF within a theater is exercised by the appropriate theater SOC for the joint operations area; for example, Special Operations Command, United States European Command (SOCEUR), or Special Operations Command, United States Central Command (SOCCENT). Paragraphs 2-54 through 2-64, include further detail on CA/CMO integration at the SOC level.

2-165.   SOF elements may be designated as a JTF HQ. When a SOF element is designated as a JTF, it will be designated as a joint special operations task force (JSOTF). The JSOTF is normally formed around elements of the SOC, or the SFG HQ or similar component level HQ, and is augmented by SOF members from the other Services. The JSOTF consists of the SOF components of two or more U.S. military Services, and may contain some conventional forces as well.

2-166.   SFGs normally establish and operate from a Special Forces operational base (SFOB). SFGs conduct sustained operations normally coordinating the activities of up to three forward operational bases (FOBs). The SFG will task-organize SF operational detachments (SFODs) to conduct SF missions in any operational environment-permissive, uncertain, or hostile.

2-167.   CA/CMO support to SOF is provided by the CA battalion (SO) and CA battalion (Active Army) for rapid deployment operations. The CA battalion (SO) is apportioned to the theater SOC, and is further task-organized to support subordinate SOF elements under OPCON of the SOC commander. The CA battalion (SO) is task-organized to provide CMO staff support to all echelons of SO; however, it is most effective when employed in support of SF. The remainder of this section will primarily discuss the relationship between the CA battalion (SO) and SF units. CA integration with other SO units can be inferred.

2-168.   The CA battalion (SO) or CA battalion (Active Army) provides varied levels of planning or operational CA support (depending on METT-TC) to the following SO missions and collateral activities:

  • Foreign internal defense.
  • UW.
  • Foreign humanitarian assistance.
  • Coalition support.
  • IO.
  • Security assistance.
  • HMA.
  • Counterdrug.
  • Combat search and rescue.
  • Direct action.
  • Special reconnaissance.

2-169.   As with conventional forces, each SO mission and configuration has unique considerations for CA/CMO planners. Additional information on how the CA unit participates in each of these SO missions is contained in Chapter 6 of FM 41-10; FM 3-05.20, Special Forces Operations; the FM 3-05.20 series of manuals for the SO missions and collateral activities; other related doctrinal references; and the SOF unit tactical SOP.

2-170.   During operations, SOF HQ must provide the basis for a unified effort, centralized direction, and decentralized execution. Doing so includes tying interagency efforts with the military effort in the joint special operations area (JSOA). As the operational focal point for coordination with nonmilitary organizations at the tactical level, the commander must accommodate additional staff members to meet the requirements of interagency operations.

2-171.   SOF at all levels conduct interagency collaborative planning and coordination across full-spectrum operations through the CMOC. The CMOC must be accessible to both USG and non-USG agencies-USAID representatives, special representatives of the UN Secretary-General, NGOs, HN agencies, and businesses-in the JSOA. The commander establishes the CMOC as soon as possible to maximize the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the various interagency players. For most SOF operations, establishment of the CMOC begins as early as the initial planning stages of the operation. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the CMOC in more detail.

 
CA/CMO FULL-TIME POSITIONS OR FUNCTIONS ON THE GROUP AND BATTALION STAFF
 

2-172.   The S-5, CMO, is responsible for full-time CA/CMO planning on the SFG and battalion staff. The S-5 staff section is small compared to the other principal staff sections. For many SOF units, the S-5 position is not filled by a full-time staff officer until deployment. Until that time, the CA/CMO planning function normally falls under the unit S-3. To be effective, all members of the CMO staff section must be trained in functional area 39C, Civil Affairs.

 
STAFF PLANNING AND PLAN REVIEW PROCESSES
 

2-173.   Each SFG has tactical responsibilities in at least one theater operation plan. The group staff periodically reviews and updates the group's portion of the plan IAW guidance from the geographic combatant commander and the theater SOC commander. Once employed, planning at the group level is a continuous process that occurs concurrently with group operations. The process of maintaining a running estimate of the situation keeps the commander armed with viable options.

2-174.   When operating as a JSOTF, the JSOTF staff follows the planning process outlined in JP 3-05.1, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Joint Special Operations Task Force Operations. When not operating as a JSOTF, the SFG staff plans using the MDMP. Likewise, SFODs use MDMP and TLP in developing estimates and plans.

2-175.   The SF unit S-5 participates in all planning and war-gaming events undertaken by the unit staff. CA considerations in planning are found throughout this manual. Additional information on SO operational planning procedures, MDMP, and TLP may be found in Appendix E or appropriate publications.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM PARTICIPATION IN THE PLANNING PROCESS
 

2-176.   The SFG and SFOB will receive CA augmentation from the CAT-A (Regional) of the CA battalion (Active Army), the CAT-C of the CA battalion (SO), and/or the functional specialty company of the CA battalion (SO). The functional specialty company will provide general support to the direct support CAT-B and CAT-A of the CA battalion (SO).

2-177.   SF battalions accomplish missions as part of group and SFOB operations. The SF battalion normally establishes and operates from an FOB, which can be collocated with an SFOB, or can be thousands of miles from the higher HQ. The SF battalion deploys on short notice to conduct SF missions or collateral activities in any operational environment-permissive, uncertain, or hostile. SF battalions isolate, deploy, control, sustain, recover, and reconstitute SFOBs and Special Forces operational detachments A (SFODAs).

2-178.   The battalion and FOB will receive CA augmentation from one of the CAT-Bs of the CA battalion (SO), as well as the Civic Action Team of the CA Direct Support Company.

2-179.   SFGs contain three SF battalions, each consisting of three SF companies (Special Forces operational detachments B [SFODBs]). Each SF company contains six SFODAs, for a total of eighteen SFODAs within the battalion. The SFODAs are the building block tactical force of the SF battalion, and are normally tasked to perform one of the specific SF missions or collateral activities. All other SF organizations are designed to command, control, and support the SFODA.

2-180.   SFODAs will receive CA augmentation from one of the CAT-As allocated to the FOB from which the SFODAs are operating. CAT-A mission support and augmentation to SFODA is based upon the SF mission or collateral activities that the SFODA is tasked to perform. Based upon METT-TC, however, CAT-A augmentation may not be required or may be limited to CA/CMO orientation training before or during isolation.

2-181.   To effectively participate in the planning process, the CA planning team must be familiar with SF operations as described in FM 3-05.20. It must be capable of deploying by various means of infiltration and operating in austere and less-than-permissible environments. The CA planning team must also perform the following tasks (which are not all-inclusive or necessarily in sequential order):

  • Review the campaign plans, OPLANS, and CONPLANs, as appropriate, of commands two levels up.
  • Review UN, unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral treaties and agreements pertaining to the group's specified JSOA to which the United States is signatory.
  • Review the NSS and NMS as they apply to the operation in which the group is participating.
  • Review the pol-mil plan.
  • Review any additional higher-level command guidance.
  • Understand the intent and tactical focus of the group commander.
  • Obtain the group CCIR.
  • Read the primary planning document (OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan).
  • Read all supporting annexes and appendixes to the primary planning document for CA/CMO-related assumptions and activities; validate the accuracy of these assumptions and activities.
  • Establish and maintain a CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations.
  • Analyze the group's JSOA defined in the primary planning document according to METT-TC, focusing on the tactical-level civil considerations (Chapter 3). This analysis includes, but is not limited to, knowing and understanding past and ongoing local events and activities; international organization and NGO personnel, resources, and capabilities already in place in the region; the condition of the existing infrastructure; types, status, and potential uses of civil structures in the JSOA; and the intentions and potential actions of the local populace in response to military operations in the JSOA.
  • Obtain the group commander's intent for CMO. It should include orientation on the civil operational centers of gravity, protection of friendly operational centers of gravity, phases of operations (such as prehostilities, lodgment, decisive combat and stabilization, follow-through, and posthostilities), and end state. Be prepared to offer specific recommendations to assist the commander in defining his intent for CMO.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CMO tasks for military forces.
  • Identify specified, implied, and essential CA tasks for CA forces.
  • Apportion CA forces against CA task requirements and ensure the forces are included in the TPFDD. Ensure commanders at all subordinate levels have a CA representative on their staff.
  • Determine the tactical mission, configuration, and location of the CMOC.
  • Write the CA annex to the OPLAN, OPORD, or supporting plan.
  • Incorporate CMO considerations into the primary planning document and supporting annexes and appendixes, as appropriate (for example, ROE, indirect fires, IO, logistics, interagency operations, and civil engineering support).
  • Analyze and archive reports from the field.
  • Provide input to the group's IO cell.
  • Catalog resources and POCs that will be useful in updating future plans and conducting future operations.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM LOCATION WITHIN THE SUPPORTED STAFF'S OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION
 

2-182.   The SFG commander designs, executes, and sustains sequential and cumulative SF operations to support the theater campaign plan. He also synchronizes the decentralized activities of the subordinate battalions and FOBs. The commander exercises this control with the assistance of a battle staff operating from the SFOB operations center (OPCEN), as well as a support center (SPTCEN) and a signal center (SIGCEN).

2-183.   The CA/CMO planning function on the group and battalion staff resides with the S-5. When deployed, this section locates in the OPCEN, where it integrates with the OPS cell and intelligence cell. The S-5's role includes overseeing, advising, and coordinating group CMO activities; recommending group command policy for CMO; ensuring compliance with the policy; analyzing civilian impact on military operations and the impact of military operations on civilians; and supporting other USG agencies in the JSOA.

2-184.   The CA planning team must also consider where to establish and maintain the CMOC for coordination with nonmilitary organizations. Techniques for establishing and maintaining a CMOC are in Chapters 4 and 5.

 
CA PLANNING TEAM EQUIPMENT AND RESOURCES
 

2-185.   CA team members should refer to paragraphs 2-51 through 2-53. The team also must have transportation and tactical communications capabilities commensurate with those of the supported unit and nonmilitary agencies in the JSOA to meet SO mission requirements.



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