Operational Terms and Graphics
daily intelligence summary(DISUM) (JP 1-02) - A report prepared in message form at the joint force headquarters that provides higher, lateral, and subordinate headquarters with a summary of all significant intelligence produced during the previous 24-hour period. The "as of" time for information, content, and submission time for the report will be as specified by the joint force commander. See FM 34-2.
damage assessment (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. The determination of the effect of attacks on targets. (DOD) 2. A determination of the effect of a compromise of classified information on national security. (See battle damage assessment (BDA).) See FM 34-1.
damage estimation (Army) - Analysis of data to estimate the damage that a specific weapon will cause to a target. (See also battlefield coordination element (BCE).) See FM 6-20 series.
danger area (JP 1-02) - 1. A specified area above, below, or within which there may be potential danger. (DOD, NATO) 2. In air traffic control, an airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times. (Army) - Area in the vicinity of weapons or aircraft which can cause serious injury or death if occupied or passed through by individual soldiers or other equipment, such as the backblast area behind a TOW or Dragon. (See also restricted operations zone (ROZ).) See FMs 7-7 and 7-20.
danger close (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, information in a call for fire to indicate that friendly forces are within 600 meters of the target. (Army) - For mortars, it indicates that friendly forces are within 400 meters of the target. (See also adjust fire and final protective fires (FPF).) See FMs 6-20 series, 7-20, 7-90, and 71-123.
datum (JP 1-02, NATO) - Any numerical or geometrical quantity or set of such quantities which may serve as reference or base for other quantities. Where the concept is geometric, the plural form is "datums" in contrast to the normal plural "data."
datum (geodetic) (JP 1-02) - A reference surface consisting of five quantities: the latitude and longitude of an initial point, the azimuth of a line from that point, and the parameters of the reference ellipsoid. (Army) -The mathematical model of the earth used to calculate the coordinates on any map. Different nations use different datums for printing coordinates on their maps. The datum is usually referenced in the marginal information of each map. See FM 101-5.
day of supply (DOS) (JP 1-02) - See one day's supply. (Army) - Normally used to express the amount of supplies pre-positioned in an area of operations or in a storage area. (See also controlled supply rate (CSR).) See FMs 7-20, 63-20, 71-100, 71-123, 100-10, and 100-15.
D-day (JP 1-02) - The unnamed day on which a particular operation commences or is to commence. (Army) - The execution date of an operation. The use of D-day allows for planning and sequencing of events when a specific calendar date cannot be established. References to days preceding or following D-day use a plus or minus sign and an Arabic numeral following the letter "D." Example: D-3 is 3 days prior to D-day; D+7 is 7 days after D-day. (See also C-day.) See FMs 71-100, 100-15, and 101-5.
deadline (JP 1-02) - To remove a vehicle or piece of equipment from operation or use for one of the following reasons: a. is inoperative due to damage, malfunctioning, or necessary repairs. The term does not include items temporarily removed from use by reason of routine maintenance, and repairs that do not affect the combat capability of the item; b. is unsafe; and c. would be damaged by further use. (Army) - An item in such condition is placed on the deadline or not operationally ready list provided to the commander daily. (See also full mission capable (FMC)).
dead space (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. An area within the maximum effective range of a weapon, radar, or observer which cannot be covered by fire or observation from a particular position because of intervening obstacles, the nature of the ground, the characteristics of the trajectory, or the limitations of the pointing capabilities of the weapon. 2. An area or zone which is within the range of a radio transmitter, but in which a signal is not received. 3. The volume of space above and around a gun or guided missile system into which it cannot fire because of mechanical or electronic limitations. See FMs 7-7, 7-20, 17-12, and 23-1.
debriefing (Army) - The questioning of individuals who are sources of information in a strategic or operational environment to obtain information in response to command- and nation-level intelligence needs. See FM 34-52.
deception (JP 1-02, NATO) - Those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence to induce him to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests. (Army) - The goal is to make an enemy more vulnerable to the effects of weapons, maneuver, and operations of friendly forces. (See also deception operation , demonstration, and imitative electromagnetic deception (IED).) See FMs 34-1 and 90-2.
deception means (JP 1-02) - Methods, resources, and techniques that can be used to convey information to the deception target. 3-5. There are three categories of deception means:
- a. physical means - Activities and resources used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power. (Examples: military operations, including exercises, reconnaissance, training activities, and movement of forces; the use of dummy equipment and devices; tactics; bases, logistic actions, stockpiles, and repair activity; and test and evaluation activities.) s
- b. technical means - Military material resources and their associated operating techniques used to convey or deny selected information to a foreign power through the deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, absorption, or reflection of energy; the emission or suppression of chemical or biological odors; and the emission or suppression of nuclear particles.
- c. administrative means - Resources, methods, and techniques to convey or deny oral, pictorial, documentary, or other physical evidence to a foreign power. See JP 3-58.
decision point (DP) (Army) - An event, an area, a line, or a point on the battlefield where tactical decisions are required resulting from the wargaming process before the operation order. Decision points do not dictate commander's decisions, they only indicate that a decision is required, and they indicate when and where the decision should be made to have the maximum effect on friendly or enemy courses of action. (See also decision support matrix (DSM), decision support template (DST), and wargaming.) See FM 101-5.
decision support matrix (DSM) - An aid used by the commander and staff to make battlefield decisions. It is a staff product of the wargaming process which lists the decision point, location of the decision point, the criteria to be evaluated at the point of the decision, the action or options to occur at the decision point, and the unit or element that is to act and has responsibility to observe and report the information affecting the criteria for the decision. (See also branch, decision point (DP), decision support template (DST), sequel, and wargaming.) See FM 101-5.
decision support template (DST) - A staff product initially used in the wargaming process which graphically represents the decision points and projected situations and indicates when, where, and under what conditions a decision is most likely to be required to initiate a specific activity (such as a branch or sequel) or event (such as lifting or shifting of fires.) (See also decision point (DP), decision support matrix (DSM), intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB), and wargaming.) See FMs 34-130 and 101-5.
decisive engagement (JP 1-02) - In land and naval warfare, an engagement in which a unit is considered fully committed and cannot maneuver or extricate itself. In the absence of outside assistance, the action must be fought to a conclusion and either won or lost with the forces at hand. (Army) - In some situations, this is a desired result in order to hold key terrain, defeat a specific enemy force, or secure a specific objective. In this situation, the unit can receive additional forces or support to be able to disengage.
decisive point - 1. A point, if retained, that provides a commander with a marked advantage over his opponent. Decisive points are usually geographic in nature but could include other physical elements, such as enemy formations, command posts, and communications nodes. 2. A time or location where enemy weakness is positioned that allows overwhelming combat power to be generated against it. It could be an enemy weakness to be exploited or a time when the combat potential of the enemy force is degraded. (See also critical point.)
decisive terrain - Key terrain that has an extraordinary impact on the mission. Decisive terrain is relatively rare and will not be present in every situation. To designate terrain as decisive is to recognize that the successful accomplishment of the mission, whether offensive or defensive, depends on seizing or retaining it. The commander designates decisive terrain to communicate its importance in his concept of operations, first to his staff and, later, to subordinate commanders. (See also key terrain.) See FMs 34-130 and 101-5.
declination (JP 1-02, NATO) - The angular distance to a body on the celestial sphere measured north or south through 90 degrees from the celestial equator along the hour circle of the body. Comparable to latitude on the terrestrial sphere. (Army) - In navigation, at a given place and time, the angle between the grid north meridian and the true north meridian and or magnetic north meridian measured in degrees or mils east or west. These change in relationship to the magnetic north meridian annually based on the drift of the magnetic pole. See FMs 21-26 and 1-111.
deconflict - To reconcile or resolve a conflict in responsibility, area of operations, airspace, or interests in order to accomplish smooth operations without undesired redundancy or threat of fratricide. (See also air mission brief (AMB), airspace control area (ACA), area of operations (AO), battlefield coordination element (BCE), and boundary.) See FMs 1-111, 71-100, 100-15, 100-103, and 101-5.
decontaminant - Any substance used to break down, neutralize, or remove a chemical, biological, or radioactive material posing a threat to personnel or equipment. See FM 3-5.
decontamination (JP 1-02, NATO) - The process of making any person, object, or area safe by absorbing, destroying, neutralizing, making harmless, or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging to or around it. (Army) - The reduction of the contamination hazard by removal or neutralization of hazardous levels of nuclear, biolodougical, and chemical (NBC) contamination on personnel and materiel. The three levels of decontamination are immediate, operational, and thorough. (See also patient decontamination.) See FMs 3-5 and 8-10-7.
decoy (JP 1-02) - An imitation in any sense of a person, object, or phenomenon which is intended to deceive enemy surveillance devices or mislead enemy evaluation. Also called dummy. See FM 90-2 and JP 3-58.
deep maneuver - An offensive operation that employs ground or aviation maneuver forces in support of deep operations which involve the movement of combat forces in relation to the enemy, supported by fires or fire potential from all available sources. (See also deep operations and deep supporting fire.)
deep operations (Army) - Those operations directed against enemy forces and functions which are not in contact at the forward line of troops (FLOT), line of departure, or friendly perimeter and are between the FLOT or perimeter and the forward boundary of the unit conducting the operation. These operations employ long- range fires, air and ground maneuver, and command and control warfare to defeat the enemy by denying him freedom of action; disrupting his preparation for battle and his support structure; and disrupting or destroying the coherence and tempo of his operations. (See also decisive point, forward boundary, and simultaneous attack in depth.) See FMs 1-112, 6-20-30, 100-5, and 100-15.
deep supporting fire (JP 1-02) - Fire directed on objectives not in the immediate vicinity of our forces, for neutralizing and destroying enemy reserves and weapons, and interfering with enemy command, supply, communications, and observations. (See also deep operations, forward boundary, and simultaneous attack in depth.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.
defeat (Army) - A tactical task to either disrupt or nullify the enemy force commander's plan and subdue his will to fight so that he is unwilling or unable to further pursue his adopted course of action and yields to the will of his opponent. (See also decisive point.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
defeat mechanism (Army) - That singular action, not necessarily the type of force or unit, that ensures the success of a course of action. It includes locating objectives and identifying specific targets. (See also center of gravity.) See FM 101-5.
defend - A combat operation designed to defeat an attacker and prevent him from achieving his objectives. It employs all means and methods available to prevent, resist, or destroy an enemy attack. Forms of defensive operations are area and mobile. Choices of defensive operations are in-depth and forward. The defensive techniques are defend in sector and defend a battle position. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
defend a battle position - A technique that places a unit in a battle position (BP) to concentrate its fires, to limit its maneuver, or to place it in an advantageous position to counterattack. The BP is a general location on the ground. The commander positions his forces on the best terrain within and in the vicinity of the BP. The commander may position security forces forward of and about the BP. He can also locate combat support and combat service support elements outside the BP. The commander can maneuver his forces freely within the BP and seize the initiative to maneuver outside of the BP to attack enemy forces provided that it does not interfere with the commander's concept. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
defend in sector - A technique that requires a defending unit to prevent enemy forces from passing beyond the rear boundary of the sector while retaining flank security and ensuring integrity of effort within the parent unit's scheme of maneuver. Initial positions generally are established as far forward as possible, but a commander may use any technique to accomplish the mission. The higher commander will normally assign a no-penetration criteria. Example: Do not allow penetration of PL NAME by 12 or more tanks or infantry fighting vehicles. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
defense in depth (JP 1-02, NATO) - The siting of mutually supporting defense positions designed to absorb and progressively weaken attack, to prevent initial observations of the whole position by the enemy, and to allow the commander to maneuver his reserve.
defense readiness conditions (DEFCON) (JP 1-02) - A uniform system of progressive alert postures for use between the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commanders of unified and specified commands and for use by the Services. Defense readiness conditions are graduated to match situations of varying military severity (status of alert). Defense readiness conditions are identified by the short title DEFCON (5), (4), (3), (2), and (1), as appropriate. See FM 100-5.
defensive counterair (DCA) (Army) - Operations conducted to protect against attack from enemy systems that operate in the atmosphere (for example: a system used to destroy enemy aircraft attacking friendly surface forces.).
defensive counterspace (DCS) (Army) - Operations conducted to defend against attacks by systems operating in space.
defensive operations - Operations conducted with the immediate purpose of causing an enemy attack to fail. Defensive operations also may achieve one or more of the following: gain time; concentrate forces elsewhere; wear down enemy forces as a prelude to offensive operations; and retain tactical, strategic, or political objectives. (See also area defense, defend, and mobile defense.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
defilade (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. Protection from hostile observation and fire provided by an obstacle such as a hill, ridge, or bank. 2. A vertical distance by which a position is concealed from enemy observation. 3. To shield from enemy fire or observation by using natural or artificial obstacles. See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 17-12, 23-1, and 71-123.
defile - A narrow gorge or pass that tends to prevent easy movement of troops. See FM 7-7, 7-8, and 7-10.
degree of risk (nuclear) (JP 1-02) - As specified by the commander, the risk to which friendly forces may be subjected from the effects of the detonation of a nuclear weapon used in the attack of a close-in enemy target; acceptable degrees of risk under differing tactical conditions are classified as emergency, moderate, and negligible. (See also emergency risk (nuclear), moderate risk (nuclear), negligible risk (nuclear), operation exposure guide (OEG), and radiation status (RS).) See FM 3-3-1, JPs 3-12.2, and 3-12.3.
delay from alternate positions - Requires two maneuver units in a single sector. While the first is fighting, the second occupies the next position in depth and prepares to assume responsibility for the operation and support by fire the disengagement of the first force. The first force disengages and passes through or around the second, moving to resume the delay from a position in greater depth, while the second force takes up the fight.
delay forward of a specified line for a specified time or specified event - Used to prevent enemy forces from reaching the specified area earlier than the specified time or event, regardless of the cost; presents a higher risk to the unit. This can be done by units in the covering force area or in the main battle area. (See also retirement, retrograde, and withdrawal.)
delaying operation (JP 1-02, NATO) - An operation in which a force under pressure trades space for time by slowing down the enemy's momentum and inflicting maximum damage on the enemy without, in principle, becoming decisively engaged. (Army) - Usually conducted when the commander needs time to concentrate, preserve, or withdraw forces; to establish defenses in greater depth; to economize in an area; to cover a defending or withdrawing unit; to protect a friendly unit's flank; or to complete offensive actions elsewhere. In the delay, the destruction of the enemy force is secondary to slowing his advance to gain time. See FMs 17-95, 71-100, and 100-15.
delay in sector - Used to slow and defeat as much of the enemy as possible without sacrificing the tactical integrity of the unit; presents low risk to the unit. Delay in sector can be done by forces in the covering force area or in the main battle area.
delay from successive positions - Performed when a sector is so wide that available forces cannot occupy more than a single tier of positions at a time. Maneuver units delay continuously on and between positions throughout their sectors, fighting rearward from one position to another, holding each as long as possible or for a specified time.
delegation of authority (JP 1-02, NATO) - The action by which a commander assigns part of his or her authority commensurate with the assigned task to a subordinate commander. While ultimate responsibility cannot be relinquished, delegation of authority carries with it the imposition of a measure of responsibility. The extent of the authority delegated must be clearly stated. (See also command.) See FM 100-34.
deliberate attack (JP 1-02, NATO) - A type of offensive action characterized by preplanned coordinated employment of firepower and maneuver to close with and destroy or capture the enemy. (Army) - An attack planned and carefully coordinated and rehearsed with all concerned elements based on thorough reconnaissance, evaluation of all available intelligence and relative combat strength, analysis of various courses of action, and other factors affecting the situation. It generally is conducted against a well-organized defense when a hasty attack is not possible or has been conducted and failed. (See also attack.) See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 17-12, 23-1, and 71-123.
deliberate breaching (JP 1-02, NATO) - The creation of a lane through a minefield or a clear route through a barrier or fortification, which is systematically planned and carried out. (Army) -- A deliberate breach is conducted when it is not possible or necessary to cross an obstacle in stride, or after an in-stride breach has failed. A deliberate breach is characterized by detailed planning and preparation, and executed with whatever resources are available. (See also assault breach, assault force, breach, breach force, covert breach, in-stride breach, and support force.) See FMs 5-71-100, 5-101, 7-8, 7-20, 17-12, 71-123, and 90-13-1.
deliberate crossing (JP 1-02, NATO) - A crossing of an inland water obstacle that requires extensive planning and detailed preparation. (Army) - A deliberate river crossing is centrally controlled. (See also bridgehead, bridgehead line, hasty crossing, and river crossing.) See FM 7-7, 7-20, 23-1, 71-123, 90-13, and 100-15.
deliberate defense (JP 1-02, NATO) - A defense normally organized when out of contact with the enemy or when contact with the enemy is not imminent and time for organization is available. It normally includes an extensive fortified zone incorporating pillboxes, forts, and communications instructions. (See also defend, defense in depth, and forward defense.) See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 17-12, 23-1, and 71-123.
deliberate planning (JP 1-02) - 1. The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System process involving the development of joint operation plans for contingencies identified in joint strategic planning documents. Conducted principally in peacetime, deliberate planning is accomplished in prescribed cycles that complement other Department of Defense planning cycles in accordance with the formally established Joint Strategic Planning System. 2. A planning process for the deployment and employment of apportioned forces and resources that occurs in response to a hypothetical situation. Deliberate planners rely heavily on assumptions regarding the circumstances that will exist when the plan is executed. (See also contingency, fragmentary order, operation order (OPORD), and warning order (WARNO).) See FM 101-5 and JP 5-0.
deliberate smoke - smoke operations characterized by integrated planning and extended duration of smoke support. See FM 3-50.
demilitarized zone (DMZ) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A defined area in which the stationing, or concentrating of military forces, or the retention or establishment of military installations of any description, is prohibited. (Army) - That space created to neutralize certain areas from military occupation and activity; generally speaking, they are areas that both sides claim and where control by one could constitute a direct threat to the other. Third-party forces are usually not present and the space is patrolled by observer teams or surveyed from observation posts. (See also buffer zone and zone of separation (ZOS).) See FMs 100-20 and 100-23.
demobilization (Army) - The act of returning the force and materiel to a premobilization posture or to some other approved posture. It also involves returning the mobilized portion of the industrial base to peacetime conditions. (See also mobilization.) See FMs 100-15 and 100-17.
demolition (JP 1-02, NATO) - The destruction of structures, facilities, or material by use of fire, water, explosives, mechanical, or other means. See FMs 5-71-100 and 5-100.
demolition firing party (JP 1-02) - The party at the site which is technically responsible for the demolition. (Army) - The group of soldiers who actually initiate detonation or fire the demolitions. (See also demolition guard and state of readiness.) See FMs 5-71-100 and 5-100.
demolition guard (JP 1-02, NATO) - A local force positioned to ensure that a target is not captured by an enemy before orders are given for its demolition and before the demolition has been successfully fired. The commander of the demolition guard is responsible for the tactical control of all troops at the demolition site, including the demolition firing party. The commander of the demolition guard is responsible for transmitting the order to fire to the demolition firing party. See FMs 5-71-100 and 5-100.
demolition target (JP 1-02, NATO) - A target of known military interest identified for possible future demolition. See FMs 5-71-100 and 5-100.
demonstration (JP 1-02, NATO) - An attack or show of force on a front where a decision is not sought, made with the aim of deceiving the enemy. (Army) - 1. Type of attack that is a deception similar to a feint, with the exception that no contact with the enemy is sought. 2. In stability and support operations, an operation by military forces in sight of an actual or potential enemy to show military capabilities. (See also show of force and deception operation.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 90-2, 100-5, and 100-15.
denial measure (JP 1-02, NATO) - An action to hinder or deny the enemy the use of space, personnel, or facilities. It may include destruction, removal, contamination, or erection of obstructions.
denial operation (Army) - An operation designed to prevent or hinder enemy occupation of, or benefit from, areas or objects having tactical or strategic value. See FM 100-25.
denied area (JP 1-02) - An area under enemy or unfriendly control in which friendly forces cannot expect to operate successfully within existing operational constraints and force capabilities. (Army) - An area that is operationally unsuitable for general purpose forces due to political, tactical, environmental, or geographic reasons. It is a primary area for special operations forces. See FM 100-25.
departure point (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. A navigational check point used by aircraft as a marker for setting course. 2. In amphibious operations, an air control point at the seaward end of the helicopter approach lane system from which helicopter waves are dispatched along the selected helicopter approach lane to the initial point. (Army) - That point, assembly area, airfield, or other location from which an aircraft begins an aeronautical mission. (See also air control point (ACP), air corridor, and pickup zone (PZ).) See FMs 1-111, 1-112, 1-116, and 100-103.
deployable intelligence support element (DISE) (Army) - A tactically tailored intelligence support team, uniquely configured commander's intelligence staff with assured communications, automated intelligence processing, and broadcast downlink systems needed to conduct split-based operations. The DISE is not a permanent organization, specific unit, or specific quantity of equipment. As the forward element of the analysis and control element (ACE), the DISE is normally the foundation on which a full ACE is formed, if formed, after the lodgment is secured and subsequent operations begin. See FM 34-1.
deployment (Army) - 1. The movement of forces within areas of operation. 2. The positioning of forces into a formation for battle. 3. The relocation of forces and materiel to desired areas of operations. 4. Deployment encompasses all activities from origin or home station through destination, specifically including intracontinental United States, intertheater, and intratheater movement legs, staging, and holding areas. (Army) - Those activities required to prepare and move a force and its sustainment equipment and supplies to the area of operations in response to a crisis or natural disaster. (See also force projection.) See FM 55-12, 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and 100-17.
depot (JP 1-02) - 1. supply - An activity for the receipt, classification, storage, accounting, issue, maintenance, procurement, manufacture, assembly, research, salvage, or disposal of material. 2. personnel - An activity for the reception, processing, training, assignment, and forwarding of personnel replacements. (See also classes of supply and combat service support (CSS).) See FM 10-1.
depth (Army) - The extension of operations in time, space, resources, and purpose. See FM 100-5.
desired ground zero (DGZ) (JP 1-02, NATO) - The point on the surface of the Earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of a planned nuclear detonation. (Army) - The aiming point for the weapon.
destroy - 1. A tactical task to physically render an enemy force combat-ineffective unless it is reconstituted. 2. To render a target so damaged that it cannot function as intended nor be restored to a usable condition without being entirely rebuilt. Artillery requires 30 percent incapacitation or destruction of enemy force. (See also defeat.) See FMs 1-111, 5-100, 6-20, 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.
destruction - 1. When referring to the effects of field artillery fires, a target out of action permanently, or 30 percent casualties or material damage. Destruction requires large expenditures of ammunition and is prohibitive unless using improved conventional munitions (ICM) or "smart weapons." 2. When used in an attack helicopter mission, the percentage of destroyed or disabled vehicles must be specified by the higher commander. See FMs 1-112 and 6-20 series.
detachment (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. A part of a unit separated from its main organization for duty elsewhere. 2. A temporary military or naval unit formed from other units or parts of units. (Army) - 1. A unit that is serving away from the organization to which it is organic and to which it remains assigned. 2. A detached unit may function as an independent organization, or it may be attached to or serve with or under another organization. (See also assign, attach, command relationship, and operational control (OPCON).) See FMs 7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
detachment left in contact (DLIC) - An element at any echelon conducting a wia large expenditurpressure. This element may comprise as much as one-third of the next higher command's organization. Its primary purpose is to remain behind to deceive the enemy into believing the parent unit is still in position as the majority of units withdraw. If the withdrawal is discovered and the enemy attacks, the DLIC defends or delays within its capability. It disengages and withdraws after the main body has begun movement to the next mission. (See also breakout, delaying operation, and retrograde.) See FM 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.
detailed equipment decontamination - In thorough decontamination, removing, neutralizing, or reducing contamination on interior and exterior surfaces of unit equipment to negligible risk levels to allow the removal of mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) gear or reduction in MOPP level for extended periods. See FM 3-5.
detailed troop decontamination - In thorough decontamination, reducing mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) levels for extended periods by decontaminating individual fighting equipment to negligible risk levels, removing contaminated MOPP gear including protective masks, decontaminating protective masks, and monitoring personnel and equipment for effectiveness of decontamination. See FM 3-5.
detainee (JP 1-02) - A term used to refer to any person captured or otherwise detained by an armed force. See FMs 34-1 and 100-20.
deterrence (JP 1-02) - The prevention from action by fear of the consequences. Deterrence is a state of mind brought about by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction. See FM 100-20.
dew point spread - The degrees of difference between the air temperature and the dew point that indicate if fog will begin to form. See FMs 1-111, 1-112, and 1-116.
diamond formation - A tactical or movement formation that is a variation of the box formation with one maneuver unit leading, maneuver units positioned on each flank, and the remaining maneuver unit to the rear. (See also box formation and formation.) See FMs 7-7 and 71-123.
died of wounds received in action (DWRIA) (JP 1-02) - A casualty category applicable to a hostile casualty, other than the victim of a terrorist activity, who dies of wounds or other injuries received in action after having reached a medical treatment facility.
digitization - 1. The near-real-time transfer of battlefield information between diverse fighting elements to permit a shared awareness of the tactical situation. 2. Leveraging information-age technologies to enhance the art of command and facilitate the science of control. (See also command and control warfare (C2W) and information warfare (IW).) See FMs 71-100 and 100-15.
direct action (DA) (JP 1-02) - Short-duration strikes and other small-scale offensive actions by special operations forces to seize, destroy, capture, recover, or inflict damage on designated personnel or materiel. In the conduct of these operations, special operations forces may employ raid, ambush, or direct assault tactics; emplace mines and other munitions; conduct standoff attacks by fire from air, ground, or maritime platforms; provide terminal guidance for precision-guided munitions; and conduct independent sabotage. See FM 31-20.
direct action mission - In special operations, a specified act involving operations of an overt, clandestine, or low-visibility nature conducted primarily by special operations forces in hostile or denied areas. (See also direct action (DA) and direct action operations.) See FM 31-20.
direct action operations - Short-duration offensive actions by special operations forces (SOF) to seize, destroy, or inflict damage on a specified target; or to destroy, capture, or recover designated personnel or materiel. In the conduct of these operations, SOF may employ raid, ambush, or direct assault tactics; emplace mines and other munitions; conduct standoff attacks by fire from air, ground, or maritime platforms; provide terminal guidance for precision-guided munitions; and conduct independent sabotage. See FMs 31-20 and 100-25.
directed energy (DE) (JP 1-02) - An umbrella term covering technologies that relate to the production of a beam of concentrated electromagnetic energy or atomic or subatomic particles. (Army) - Lasers, high- energy microwave, and particle beams are all examples. (See also directed-energy warfare (DEW).)
directed energy warfare (DEW) (JP 1-02) - Military action involving the use of directed-energy weapons, devices, and countermeasures to either cause direct damage or destruction of enemy equipment, facilities, and personnel, or to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum through damage, destruction, and disruption. It also includes actions taken to protect friendly equipment, facilities, and personnel and retain friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. (Army) - Directed-energy weapons are used like direct fire weapons. (See also directed energy (DE) and direct fire.) See FM 71-123.
directed obstacle - An obstacle directed by a higher commander as a specified task to a subordinate unit. See FM 90-7.
directed target - Target directed by the responsible commander to be prepared for demolition or destroyed to support his intent. See FMs 5-71-100 and 5-100.
direct exchange (JP 1-02) - A supply method of issuing serviceable materiel in exchange for unserviceable materiel on an item-for-item basis. See FMs 10-1 and 63-20.
direct fire (JP 1-02) - Gunfire delivered on a target, using the target itself as a point of aim for either the gun or the director. (Army) - Fire includes gun, missile, or rocket fire. Fire directed at a target that is visible to the aimer or firing unit. See FMs 1-112, 7-7, 7-8, 7-20, 7-95, and 71-123.
direction of attack (JP 1-02) - A specific direction or route that the main attack or center of mass of the unit will follow. The unit is restricted, required to attack as indicated, and is not normally allowed to bypass the enemy. The direction of attack is used primarily in counterattacks or to ensure that supporting attacks make maximal contribution to the main attack. (Army) - Normally used at battalion and lower levels. Direction of attack is a more restrictive control measure than axis of advance, and units are not free to maneuver off the assigned route. It usually is associated with infantry units conducting night attacks, or units involved in limited visibility operations and in counterattacks. (See also axis of advance.) See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
direction finding (JP 1-02) - A procedure for obtaining bearings of radio frequency emitters by using a highly directional antenna and a display unit on an intercept receiver or ancillary equipment.
direction of fire - The direction on which a cannon, rocket, gun, or missile is laid. It represents the direction to the most significant threat in the target area. See FMs 6-20, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.
direct laying (JP 1-02) - Laying in which the sights of weapons are aligned directly on the target. (Army) - Normally used in conjunction with mortars and sometimes artillery. See FMs 6-20 and 7-90.
direct pressure force - A force employed in a pursuit operation that orients on the enemy main body to prevent enemy disengagement or defensive reconstitution prior to envelopment by the encircling force. It normally conducts a series of hasty attacks to slow the enemy's retirement by forcing him to stand and fight. (See also encircling force and pursuit.) See FMs 1-112, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
direct support (DS) (JP 1-02) - A mission requiring a force to support another specific force and authorizing it to answer directly the supported force's request for assistance. (NATO) - The support provided by a unit or formation not attached to, nor under command of, the supported unit or formation, but required to give priority to the support required by that unit or formation. (See also general support (GS), general support reinforcing (GSR), and reinforcing (R).) See FMs 6-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
direct support artillery (JP 1-02 NATO) - Artillery whose primary task is to provide fire requested by the supported unit. (See also general support (GS).) See FM 6-series.
direct support unit (DSU) - Unit providing supply and maintenance support directly to a using or consuming unit.
disengagement - Breaking contact with the enemy and moving to a point where the enemy can neither observe nor engage the unit by direct fire. See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
dislocated civilian - A generic term that describes a civilian who has been forced to move by war, revolution, or natural or man-made disaster from his or her home to some other location. Dislocated citizens include displaced persons, refugees, evacuees, stateless persons, or war victims. Legal and political considerations define the subcategories of a dislocated civilian. See FM 100-20.
dispersion (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. A scattered pattern of hits around the mean point of impact of bombs and projectiles dropped or fired under identical conditions. 2. In antiaircraft gunnery, the scattering of shots in range and deflection about the mean point of explosion. 3. The spreading or separating of troops, materiel, establishments, or activities which are usually concentrated in limited areas to reduce vulnerability. 4.In chemical or biological operations, the dissipation of agents in liquid or aerosol form. 5. In airdrop operations, the scatter of personnel and/or cargo on the drop zone. See FMs 6-20, 17-12, 23-1, 44-100, 71-100-2, and 71-123.
displace - To leave one position and take another. Forces may be displaced laterally to concentrate combat power in threatened areas. (See also defend and delaying operation.) See FMs 6-20, 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 17-95, and 71-123.
displaced person (JP 1-02, NATO) - A civilian who is involuntarily outside the national boundaries of his or her country. (See also dislocated civilian and refugee.) See FMs 100-20 and 100-23.
display - A deception technique to mislead the enemy's visual senses, including his observation by radar, camera, infrared device, or the human eye. Displays include simulations, disguises, portrayals, or some combination of these measures. See FMs 71-100, 90-2, 100-5, and 100-15.
disposition(JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. Distribution of the elements of a command within an area, usually the exact location of each unit headquarters and the deployment of the forces subordinate to it. 2. A prescribed arrangement of the stations to be occupied by the several formations and single ships of a fleet, or major subdivisions of a fleet, for any purpose, such as cruising, approach, maintaining contact, or battle. 3. A prescribed arrangement of all the tactical units composing a flight or group of aircraft. (DOD) 4. The removal of a patient from a medical treatment facility by reason of return to duty, transfer to another treatment facility, death, or other termination of medical case. (See also deployment and dispersion.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, 100-15, and 101-5.
disrupt - A tactical task or obstacle effect that integrates fire planning and obstacle effort to break apart an enemy's formation and tempo, interrupt the enemy's timetable, or cause premature commitment of enemy forces, or the piecemealing of his attack. See FMs 90-7 and 100-5.
distribution point (JP 1-02, NATO) - A point at which supplies and/or ammunition, obtained from supporting supply points by a division or other unit, are broken down for distribution to subordinate units. Distribution points usually carry no stocks; items drawn are issued completely as soon as possible. See FM 10-1.
distribution system (JP 1-02) - That complex of facilities, installations, methods, and procedures designed to receive, store, maintain, distribute, and control the flow of military materiel between the point of receipt into the military system and the point of issue to using activities and units. See FMs 10-1 and 100-10.
diversion (JP 1-02) - 1. The act of drawing the attention and forces of an enemy from the point of the principal operation; an attack, alarm, or feint that diverts attention. 2. A change made in a prescribed route for operational or tactical reasons. A diversion order will not constitute a change of destination. 3. A rerouting of cargo or passengers to a new transshipment point or destination or on a different mode of transportation prior to arrival at ultimate destination. (See also deception operation and demonstration.) See FMs 55-12, 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.
division PSYOP support element (DPSE) (Army) - A tactical psychological operation support element that provides PSYOP support to a division. See FM 33-1 and JP 3-53.
division support area (DSA) (Army) - An area normally located in the division rear and often positioned near air-landing facilities along the main supply route. The DSA contains the portions of the division rear command post, DISCOM CP, and units organic and attached to the DISCOM. It may also contain COSCOM units supporting the division and nondivisional units in the division area. See FM 63-2.
doctrinal template - A model based on postulated enemy tactical doctrine. It generally portrays frontages, depths, echelon spacing, and force composition, as well as his disposition of combat, combat support, and combat service support units for a given type of operation. It portrays how the enemy would like to fight if he was not constrained. (See also decision support template (DST), event template, intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB), and situational template.) See FMs 34-1 and 34-130.
doctrine (JP 1-02, NATO) - Fundamental principles by which the military forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative but requires judgment in application. See FM 100-5.
domestic emergencies (JP 1-02) - Emergencies affecting the public welfare and occurring within the 50 states, District of Columbia, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, US possessions and territories, or any political subdivision thereof, as a result of enemy attack, insurrection, civil disturbance, earthquake, fire, flood, or other public disasters, or equivalent emergencies that endanger life and property or disrupt the usual process of government. The term domestic emergency includes any or all of the emergency conditions defined below: a. civil defense emergency - A domestic emergency disaster situation resulting from devastation created by an enemy attack and requiring emergency operations during and following that attack. It may be proclaimed by appropriate authority in anticipation of an attack. b. civil disturbances - Riots, acts of violence, insurrections, unlawful obstructions or assemblages, or other disorders prejudicial to public law and order. The term civil disturbance includes all domestic conditions requiring or likely to require the use of Federal Armed Forces pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 15 of Title 10, United States Code. c. major disaster - Any flood, fire, hurricane, tornado, earthquake, or other catastrophe which, in the determination of the President, is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant disaster assistance by the Federal Government under Public Law 606, 91st Congress (42 United States Code 58) to supplement the efforts and available resources of State and local governments in alleviating the damage, hardship, or suffering caused thereby. d. natural disaster - All domestic emergencies except those created as a result of enemy attack or civil disturbance. See FM 100-20.
dominant terrain - Terrain that because of its elevation, proportions, or location, commands a view of, and may offer fields of fire over, surrounding terrain. (See also critical point and key terrain.) See FM 34-130.
dominant user concept (JP 1-02) - The concept that the Service which is the principal consumer will have the responsibility for performance of a support workload for all using Services. See FM 10-1.
dose rate - The amount of ionizing or nuclear radiation that an individual would receive during a unit of time. It is usually expressed in centigray (cGy) per hour. Dose rate is commonly used to indicate the level of radioactivity in a contaminated area. See FM 3-3-1.
dose rate contour line (JP 1-02, NATO) - A line on a map, diagram, or overlay joining all points at which the radiation dose rate at a given time is the same. See FM 3-3-1.
double envelopment (Army) - A choice of maneuver executed by forces that move around both flanks of an enemy position to attack the flanks or objectives in the rear of the enemy. The enemy normally is fixed in position by a supporting frontal attack or by indirect or aerial fires. (See also choices of maneuver, envelopment, and turning movement.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
doubtful (JP 1-02) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a term used by an observer or spotter to indicate that he was unable to determine the difference in range between the target and a round or rounds. (Army) - Includes mortars and direct fire. See FMs 6-20, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.
down (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support: 1. A term used in a call for fire to indicate that the target is at a lower altitude than the reference point used in identifying the target. 2. A correction used by an observer/spotter to indicate that a decrease in height of burst is desired. (Army) - Includes mortars and direct fire. See FMs 6-20, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.
downed aircrew pickup point - A point to where aviators will attempt to evade and escape to be recovered by friendly forces. See FM 1-111.
downwind hazard area - The area downwind of a nuclear, biological, or chemical attack that may present a hazard to unprotected troops. See FM 3-3 and 3-3-1.
downwind hazard prediction - A prediction of the possible extent of chemical hazard prepared by a corps or division nuclear, biological, chemical center (NBCC) following an attack. See FM 3-3.
drop (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a correction used by an observer/spotter to indicate that a decrease in range along a spotting line is desired. (Army) - Parachute jump, individual or in mass, or supply delivery by parachute from an aircraft in flight, or the act of making such a jump or delivery. See FMs 6-20, 7-90, 23-1, 71-100-2, and 90-26.
dual-firing circuit (JP 1-02) - An assembly comprising two independent firing systems, both electric or both non-electric, so that the firing of either system will detonate all charges. (See also demolition and state of readiness.) See FMs 5-71-100 and 5-100.
dummy minefield (JP 1-02, NATO) - In naval mine warfare, a minefield containing no live mines and presenting only a psychological threat. (Army). It is also known as a phoney minefield. (See also deception operation.) See FMs 5-100 and 90-2.
|Updated 27 July 1997.|
Table of Contents
Operational Terms Index.
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