Operational Terms and Graphics
abatis - A vehicular obstacle constructed by felling trees (leaving a 1- to 2-meter stump above the ground on both sides of a road, trail, gap, or defile) so that they fall, interlocked, toward the expected direction of enemy approach. The trees should remain attached to the stumps and be at a 45-degree angle to the roadway. The obstacle itself should be at least 75 meters in depth to be most effective. See FM 5-102 .
abort criteria - A predetermined set of circumstances, based on risk analysis, which make the success of an operation no longer probable; thus the operation is terminated. These circumstances can relate to changes in safety, equipment or troops available, preparation or rehearsal time, weather, enemy, losses during execution, or a combination of the above. (See also air assault and deep operations.) See FMs 71-100-2, 90-4, and JP 3-18.1.
above ground level (AGL) - The altitude of an aircraft as measured between the terrain (excluding vegetation and man-made structures) and the aircraft. The altitude is usually not the same as measured from sea level. (See also coordinating altitude.) See FMs 1-111, 17-95, 90-4, and 100-103.
absorbed dose (JP 1-02, NATO) - The amount of energy imparted by nuclear (or ionizing) radiation to unit mass of absorbing material. The unit is the rad. (Army) - 1. This term is being replaced by the term centigray that is the equivalent of 100 rads. 2. A unit of energy absorbed by a material, such as body tissue, from nuclear (ionizing) radiation, equal to 100 ergs per gram of material. (See also centigray and dose rate.) See FMs 3-3-1 and 3-4.
accompanying supplies (JP 1-02) - Unit supplies that deploy with forces. (Army) - All classes of supplies carried by units and individual soldiers during deployment to, and redeployment from, an area of operations or training exercise area. (See also basic load, classes of supply, and combat load.) See FMs 100-10 and 100-16.
acknowledge - A directive from the originator of a communication requiring the addressee(s) to advise the originator that his communication has been received and understood. This term is normally included in the electronic transmission of orders to ensure the receiving station or person confirms receipt of the order. (See also acknowledgment.)
acknowledgment (JP 1-02, NATO) - A message from the addressee informing the originator that his or her communication has been received and is understood. (See also acknowledge.)
acoustical surveillance (JP 1-02) - Employment of electronic devices, including sound-recording, -receiving, or -transmitting equipment, for the collection of information. See FM 34-10-1.
active air defense (JP 1-02, NATO) - Direct defensive action taken to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air attack. It includes such measures as the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, weapons not used primarily in an air defense role, and electronic warfare. (Army) - Direct defensive action taken to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles. See FMs 44-63 and 44-100.
active component (Army) - That portion of each of the armed forces (such as the Regular Army) that serves 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, until retired; transferred to a reserve unit, inactive reserve, or National Guard; or discharged from service. This does not include those in an active duty guard or a reserve status but does include reserve officers serving a contractual period of active duty after commissioning.
active defense (Army) -Applies to operations initiated to protect assets against a tactical missile attack by destroying theater missile (TM) airborne launch platforms or destroying TMs in flight. Active defense includes multitiered defense in depth via multiple engagements using air, land, and sea theater missile defense systems. It also includes using electronic warfare to disrupt enemy remote or onboard guidance systems. See FM 44-100 and JP 3-01.5.
active duty for training (JP 1-02) - A tour of active duty which is used for training members of the Reserve Components to provide trained units and qualified persons to fill the needs of the Armed Forces in time of war or national emergency and such other times as the national security requires. The member is under orders which provide for return to nonactive status when the period of active duty for training is completed. It includes annual training, special tours of active duty for training, school tours, and the initial duty for training performed by nonprior service enlistees.
add (NATO) - In artillery, naval gunfire, mortar, and other types of gunnery, a correction used by an observer or a spotter to indicate that an increase in range along the observer target line is desired. See FMs 6-20, 17-12, and 23-1.
adjust (JP 1-02) - An order to the observer or spotter to initiate an adjustment on a designated target. See FM 6-20.
adjust fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support: 1. An order or request to initiate an adjustment of fire. 2. A method of control transmitted in the call for fire by the observer or spotter to indicate that he will control the adjustment. (Army) - Pertains to mortar fire also. See FM 6-20.
adjustment of fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - Process used in artillery and naval gunfire to obtain correct bearing, range, and height of burst (if time fuzes are used) when engaging a target by observed fire. (Army) - Pertains to mortar fire also. (See also call for fire.) See FM 6-20.
administrative control (JP 1-02) - Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations. (See also command relationship.) See FMs 1-111, 71-100, 100-5, 100-7, 100-15, and JP 0-2.
administrative landing (JP 1-02) - An unopposed landing involving debarkation from vehicles which have been administratively loaded. (See also administrative movement.) See FM 71-100-2 and JP 3-02.
administrative movement (JP 1-02, NATO) - A movement in which troops and vehicles are arranged to expedite their movement and conserve time and energy when no enemy interference, except by air, is anticipated. (See also administrative landing.) See FM 101-5.
advanced operations base (AOB) (JP 1-02) - In special operations, a small temporary base established near or within a joint special operations area to command, control, and/or support training or tactical operations. Facilities are normally austere. The base may be ashore or afloat. If ashore, it may include an airfield or unimproved airstrip, a pier, or an anchorage. An advanced operations base is normally controlled and/or supported by a main operations base or a forward operations base. (See also forward operations base (FOB) and main operations base (MOB).) See FM 100-25.
advance guard (JP 1-02) - Detachment sent ahead of the main force to ensure its uninterrupted advance; to protect the main body against surprise; to facilitate the advance by removing obstacles, and repairing roads and bridges; and to cover the deployment of the main body if it is committed to action. (Army) - A task- organized combined arms unit or detachment that precedes a column or formation to protect the main body from ground observation or surprise by an enemy. It operates within the supporting range of the main body. (See also exploitation, movement to contact, pursuit, and reconnaissance in force.) See FMs 17-95, 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15.
advance party - A team that coordinates the convoy's arrival at the destination. It may move with the main body initially but must arrive at the destination sufficiently ahead of the main body. (See also march column and quartering party.) See FM 55-30.
aerial port (JP 1-02) - An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air movement of personnel and materiel, and to serve as an authorized port for entrance into or departure from the country in which located. See FMs 55-12 and 100-17.
aerial port of debarkation (APOD) - An airfield for sustained air movement at which personnel and material are discharged from aircraft. APODs normally serve as ports of embarkation for return passengers and retrograde cargo shipments. See FM 55-12.
aerial port of embarkation (APOE) - An airfield for sustained air movement at which personnel and material board or are loaded aboard aircraft to initiate an aerial movement. APOEs may serve as ports of debarkation for return passengers and retrograde cargo shipments. See FM 55-12.
aeromedical evacuation (JP 1-02) - The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation. (Army) - Movement of patients usually from a lower echelon medical treatment facility to a higher echelon medical treatment facility. See FM 8-10-6.
aerospace defense (JP 1-02) - 1. All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles after they leave the Earth's surface, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attacks. 2. An inclusive term encompassing air defense and space defense. (See also air defense.) See FM 44-100.
afloat support (JP 1-02, NATO) - A form of logistic support outside the confines of a harbor in which fuel, ammunition, and supplies are provided for operating forces either underway or at anchor. See FM 71-100-2 and JP 3-02.
agility - The ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy and is a prerequisite to seizing and holding the initiative. Agility is a mental as well as a physical quality. See FM 100-5.
aid station - The first medical treatment "facility" that can provide advanced trauma management to a battlefield casualty. It provides first level of triage evaluation of casualties and conducts routine sick call. (See also medical care echelon.) See FMs 8-10-3, 8-10-4, 8-10-5, 8-10-24, and 8-55.
air (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that a burst or group of bursts occurred before impact. (Army) - Pertains to mortar fire also. (See also adjustment of fire.) See FM 6-20.
air assault (Army) - Operations in which air assault forces (combat, combat support, and combat service support), using the firepower, mobility, and total integration of helicopter assets in their ground or air roles, maneuver on the battlefield under the control of the ground or air maneuver commander to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. (See also abort criteria, airhead, air mission brief (AMB), and air mission commander (AMC).) See FMs 71-100-3, 90-4, and JP 3-18.1.
airborne (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. In relation to personnel, troops especially trained to effect, following transport by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchdown. 2. In relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation. It also designates some aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 3. When applied to materiel, items that form an integral part of the aircraft. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained. A lighter-than-air aircraft is not considered to be airborne when it is attached to the ground, except that moored balloons are airborne whenever sent aloft. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, and JP 3-18.1.
airborne battlefield command and control center (ABCCC) (JP 1-02) - A United States Air Force aircraft equipped with communications, data link, and display equipment; it may be employed as an airborne command post or as a communications and intelligence relay facility. See FMs 71-100-2 and 100-8.
airborne early warning and control (JP 1-02, NATO) - Air surveillance and control provided by airborne early warning aircraft which are equipped with search and height-finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems. See FMs 44-100 and 100-15.
airborne force (JP 1-02, NATO) - A force composed primarily of ground and air units organized, equipped, and trained for airborne operations. (Army) - A force with a great capability for large-scale force-projection operations by conducting combined arms assaults by parachute or air landing. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, 101-5, and JP 3-18.1.
airborne operation (JP 1-02) - An operation involving the air movement into an objective area of combat forces and their logistic support for execution of a tactical or a strategic mission. The means employed may be any combination of airborne units, air transportable units, and types of transport aircraft, depending on the mission and the overall situation. See FMs 7-30, 71-100, and JP 3-18.1.
airburst (JP 1-02, NATO) - An explosion of a bomb or projectile above the surface as distinguished from an explosion on contact with the surface or after penetration. (See also weapons of mass destruction.) See FMs 3-3-1 and 6-series.
air controller (JP 1-02, NATO) - An individual especially trained for and assigned the duty of the control (by use of radio, radar, or other means) of such aircraft as may be allotted to him for operation within his area. See FMs 1-111 and 100-103.
air control point (ACP) (Army) - An easily identifiable point on the terrain or an electronic navigational aid used to provide necessary control during air movement. ACPs are generally designated at each point where the flight route or air corridor makes a definite change in direction and at any other point deemed necessary for timing or control of the operation. (See also air corridor, communications checkpoint (CCP), and minimum-risk route (MRR).) See FMs 1-111, 71-100-3, and 100-103.
air corridor (JP 1-02, NATO) - A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and established to prevent friendly aircraft from being fired on by friendly forces. (Army) - Used to deconflict artillery firing positions with aviation traffic, including unmanned aerial vehicles. (See also air control point (ACP).) See FMs 1-111, 71-100-3, and 100-103.
air defense (JP 1-02) - All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the Earth's envelope of atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. (See also active air defense, aerospace defense, air defense suppression, and passive air defense.) See FMs 44-63 and 44-100.
air defense suppression (JP 1-02) - In air operations, actions taken to degrade fixed and mobile surface-based components of enemy air defense systems so that offensive air forces may effectively attack a target. See FMs 1-111, 6-20 series, 44-63, and 44-100.
air defense warning (local) (LADW) (Army) - See FM 44-100.
- Dynamite- Aircraft are inbound or attacking now. Response is immediate.
- Lookout- Aircraft are in the area of interest but are not threatening or are inbound but there is time to react.
- Snowman- No aircraft pose a threat at this time.
air defense warning conditions (JP 1-02) - A degree of air raid probability according to the following code. The term air defense division/sector referred to herein may include forces and units afloat and/or deployed to forward areas, as applicable. The initial declaration of air defense emergency will automatically establish a condition of air defense warning other than white for purposes of security control of air traffic. See FMs 44-63 and 44-100.
- a. Air defense warning yellow - attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is probable. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are en route toward an air defense division/sector, or unknown aircraft and/or missiles suspected to be hostile are en route toward or are within an air defense division/sector.
- b. Air defense warning red - attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is imminent or is in progress. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are within an air defense division/sector or are in the immediate vicinity of an air defense division/sector with high probability of entering the division/sector.
- c. Air defense warning white - attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is improbable. May be called either before or after air defense warning yellow or red.
air defense weapon control status - The degree of fire control imposed upon Army units having assigned, attached, or organic air defense weapons. Weapons control status terms are: weapons free, weapons tight, and weapons hold. (See also weapons free, weapons hold, and weapons tight.) See FMs 44-63 and 44-100.
airhead (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. A designated area in a hostile or threatened territory which, when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and material and provides maneuver space necessary for projected operations. Normally it is the area seized in the assault phase of an airborne operation. 2. A designated location in an area of operations used as a base for supply and evacuation by air. (Army) - The airhead contains enough drop zones (DZs), landing zones (LZs), and extraction zones (EZs) to ensure mass, interior lines of communication, and defense in depth. (See also air assault and airborne operation.) See FMs 71-100-2, 90-4, and JP 3-18.1.
airhead line - The limit of the objective area, assault objectives determine the size and shape of the airhead and the trace of the airhead line. (See also air assault and airborne operations) See FMs 7-30, 71-100-2, and JP 3-18.1.
air interdiction (AI) (JP 1-02, NATO) - Air operations conducted to destroy, neutralize, or delay the enemy's military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces at such distance from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required. (Army) - Normally conducted forward of the land component commander's forward boundary. See FM 100-103.
air landed (JP 1-02, NATO) - Moved by air and disembarked, or unloaded, after the aircraft has landed or while a helicopter is hovering. (See also air assault and airborne operation.) See FMs 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100-2, 71-100-3, 90-4, and 90-26.
air liaison officer (ALO) (JP 1-02) - An officer (aviator/pilot) attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air operation matters. (Army) - The senior Air Force officer at each tactical air control party who provides advice on the capabilities, limitations, and employment of fixed wing aircraft and coordinates close air support missions with the fire support element. (See also tactical air control party (TACP).) See FMs 6-20 and 101-5.
air mission brief (AMB) - 1. The last coordination meeting of key participants in an air assault operation which ensures that key aviation soldiers are briefed and that the plan is finalized. It covers the operation from beginning to end. 2. Briefing of the pilots prior to any aviation mission. (See also abort criteria, air assault, airhead, and air mission commander (AMC).) See FMs 90-4, 71-100-3, and JP 3-18.1.
air mission commander (AMC) - Commander of the largest aviation unit supporting the air assault. He is responsible for all embarked soldiers and for coordinating all support from liftoff to touchdown. (See also abort criteria, air assault, and air mission brief (AMB).) See FMs 90-4, 71-100-3, and JP 3-18.1.
air movement (JP 1-02, NATO) - Air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment including airdrops and air landings. (See also aerial port of embarkation (APOE), aerial port of debarkation (APOD), air landed, and tanker airlift control element (TALCE).) See FMs 7-30, 55-12, 71-100-2, and JP 3-18.1.
air/naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO) (JP 1-02) - An organization composed of Marine and Navy personnel specially qualified for shore control of naval gunfire and close air support. See FM 71-100-2.
air parity - The functional equivalency between enemy and friendly air forces in strength and capability to attack and destroy targets.
air reconnaissance (JP 1-02) - The acquisition of intelligence information by employing visual observation and/or sensors in air vehicles. (Army) - The use of air vehicles (fixed wing, rotary wing, or unmanned air vehicles) to obtain information concerning terrain, weather, and the disposition, composition, movement, installations, lines of communication, and electronic and communications emissions of enemy forces. Also included are artillery and naval gunfire adjustment, and systematic and random observation of ground battle areas, targets, and/or sectors of airspace. (See also reconnaissance (recon, recce).)
airspace control area (ACA) (Army) - That airspace defined by the boundaries of the area of operations and which may be divided into airspace control subareas. See FM 100-103.
airspace control authority (ACA) (JP 1-02, NATO) - The commander designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. (Army) - The joint force air component commander has responsibility for all airspace operations above the coordinating altitude and forward of the joint force land component commander's forward boundary, if so designated. See FMs 100-15 and 100-103.
airspace control in the combat zone (JP 1-02) - A process used to increase combat effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. Airspace control is provided in order to prevent fratricide, enhance air defense operations, and permit greater flexibility of operations. Airspace control does not infringe on the authority vested in commanders to approve, disapprove, or deny combat operations. (See also airspace control authority (ACA), airspace control order (ACO), and airspace coordination area (ACA).) See FM 100-103.
airspace control measures - Rules, mechanisms, and directions governed by joint doctrine and defined by the airspace control plan which control the use of airspace of specified dimensions. (See also high-density airspace control zone (HIDACZ), low-level transit route (LLTR), minimum-risk route (MRR), and standard use Army aircraft flight route (SAAFR).) See FM 100-103.
airspace control order (ACO) (JP 1-02) - An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace control measures. It is published either as part of the air tasking order or as a separate document. (Army) - It includes temporary airspace control measures and designates which organization is the controlling authority for each. See FMs 100-15 and 100-103.
airspace coordination area (ACA) (Army) - In fire support operations, a restrictive fire support coordination measure that establishes a three-dimensional block of airspace in the battle area in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. Aircraft and indirect fire are separated by time, space, or altitude. The purpose of the ACA is to allow the simultaneous attack of targets near each other by multiple fire support means, one of which normally is air. (See also Army airspace command and control (A2C2).) See FM 100-103 and JP 3-56.
air strike (JP 1-02) - An attack on specific objectives by fighter, bomber, or attack aircraft on a mission. May consist of several air organizations under a single command in the air. See FMs 71-100 and 100-15.
air superiority (JP 1-02, NATO) - That degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea, and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force.
air support (JP 1-02, NATO) - All forms of support given by air forces on land or sea. See FMs 71-100 and 100-15.
air support operations center (ASOC) (JP 1-02, NATO) - An agency of a tactical air control system collocated with a corps headquarters or an appropriate land force headquarters, which coordinates and directs close air support and other tactical air support.
air supremacy (JP 1-02, NATO) - That degree of air superiority wherein the opposing air force is incapable of effective interference.
alliance (JP1-02) - The result of formal agreements (for example, treaties) between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives which further the common interests of the members. (See also coalition and multinational operations.) See FMs 100-5, 100-8, and JP 5-0.
allocation (JP 1-02) - In a general sense, distribution of limited resources among competing requirements for employment. Specific allocations (e.g., air sorties, nuclear weapons, forces, and transportation) are described as allocation of air sorties, nuclear weapons, etc. See FM 100-15.
allowable combat load (ACL)(JP 1-02, NATO) - The total load that an aircraft can transport over a given distance, taking into account weight and volume. See FM 55-12.
alternate command post (JP 1-02) - Any location designated by a commander to assume command post functions in the event the command post becomes inoperative. It may be partially or fully equipped and manned or it may be the command post of a subordinate unit. (See also combat trains command post (CTCP), command post (CP), and tactical operations center (TOC).) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.
alternate position - The position given to a weapon, unit, or individual to be occupied when the primary position becomes untenable or unsuitable for carrying out its task. The alternate position is located so that the individual can continue to fulfill his original task. (See also primary position, successive positions, and supplementary position.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 17-12, 17-95, 23-1, and 71-123.
alternate supply route (ASR) - A route or routes designated within an area of operations to provide for the movement of traffic when main supply routes become disabled or congested. (See also main supply route (MSR).) See FMs 17-95, 55-10, and 71-100.
ambulance exchange point (AXP) (Army) - A location where a patient is transferred from one ambulance to another en route to a medical treatment facility. This may be an established point in an ambulance shuttle system or it may be designated independently. See FMs 8-10-1, 8-10-3, 8-10-4, 8-10-6, 63-2, and 63-20.
ambush - A surprise attack by fire from concealed positions on a moving or temporarily halted enemy. See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 17-95, and 71-123.
ammunition supply point (ASP) - An area designated to receive, store, reconfigure, and issue class V material. It is normally located at or near the division area. See FM 9-6.
ammunition transfer point (ATP) - A designated, temporary site from which class V material is transferred from corps transportation to unit vehicles. See FMs 71-100 and 100-10.
amphibious operation (JP 1-02) - An attack launched from the sea by naval and landing forces embarked in ships or craft involving a landing on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. As an entity, the amphibious operation includes the following phases: a. planning - The period extending from issuance of the initiating directive to embarkation. b. embarkation - The period during which the forces, with their equipment and supplies, are embarked in the assigned shipping. c. rehearsal - The period during which the prospective operation is rehearsed for the purpose of: (1) testing adequacy of plans, the timing of detailed operations, and the combat readiness of participating forces; (2) ensuring that all echelons are familiar with plans; and (3) testing communications. d. movement - The period during which various components of the amphibious task force move from points of embarkation to the objective area. e. assault - The period between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission. See FM 71-100-2 and JP 3-02.
analysis and control element (ACE) (Army) - The G2's primary organization for controlling intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) operations. The ACE performs collection management, produces all-source intelligence, provides IEW technical control, and disseminates intelligence and targeting data across the range of military operations. See FM 34-1.
analysis and control team (ACT) (Army) - An organic team within the direct support military intelligence company that provides the maneuver brigade S2 with automated intelligence processing, analytical, and dissemination capabilities. Unlike the analysis and control element at higher echelons, the ACT is not normally under operational control (OPCON) of the brigade S2.
antiterrorism (AT) (JP 1-02) - Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military forces. (See also counterterrorism.) See FMs 31-20 and 100-20.
apportionment (JP 1-02) - In the general sense, distribution for planning of limited resources among competing requirements. Specific apportionments (e.g., air sorties and forces for planning) are described as apportionment of air sorties and forces for planning, etc. (Army) - The determination and assignment of the total expected effort by percentage or by priority that should be devoted to the various air operations or geographic areas for a given period of time. (See also allocation.) See FMs 100-103 and 100-15.
approach march (JP 1-02, NATO) - Advance of a combat unit when direct contact with the enemy is imminent. Troops are fully or partially deployed. The approach march ends when ground contact with the enemy is made or when the attack position is occupied. (Army) - A tactical movement that emphasizes speed over tactical deployment. It is used when the enemy's approximate location is known, allowing the attacking force to move with greater speed and less physical security or dispersion. The approach march terminates in an attack position, assembly area, or assault position or can be used to transition to an attack. Follow and assume and reserve forces may also conduct an approach march. (See also movement to contact.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
area air defense commander (AADC) (JP1-02) - Within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force, the commander will assign overall responsibility for air defense to a single commander. Normally, this will be the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the command, control, and communications capability to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. Representation from the other components involved will be provided, as appropriate, to the AADC's headquarters. See JP 3-12.1.
area assessment - In unconventional warfare, the collection of specific information prescribed by the commander to commence immediately after infiltration. It is a continuous operation, and it confirms, corrects, refutes, or adds to intelligence acquired from area studies and other sources prior to infiltration.
area command (JP 1-02, NATO) - A command which is composed of those organized elements of one or more of the armed services, designated to operate in a specific geographical area, which are placed under a single commander. (Army) - In unconventional warfare, the organizational structure established within a joint special operations area to command and control resistance forces. It consists of the area commander, his staff, and representatives of the resistance element, to include Special Forces after infiltration. See FMs 31-20, 100-5, and 100-15.
area damage control (ADC) (JP 1-02, NATO) - Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or man-made disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects. (Army) - The process includes continuous planning and actions designed to minimize damages and a systematic approach to resolving the impact damages have on operations. (See also rear operations.) See FMs 71-100, 100-7, and 100-15.
area defense - A form of defense that focuses on denying the enemy access to designated terrain for a specified time, rather than on the outright destruction of the enemy. A commander may conduct an area defense by using mutually supporting positions in depth. (See defensive operations.) See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
area of influence (JP 1-02, NATO) - A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commander's command or control. (Army) - It includes both organic and supporting combat power, to include joint, multinational, or interagency assets.
area of intelligence responsibility - An area allocated to a commander in which the commander is responsible for providing intelligence within the means at the commander's disposal.
area of interest (AOI) (JP 1-02, NATO) - That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces which could jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission. (Army) - A geographical area from which information and intelligence are required to execute successful tactical operations and to plan for future operations. (See also area of operations (AO) and battlespace.) See FMs 100-5 and 100-15.
area of limitation - A defined area where specific limitations apply to the strength and fortifications of disputing or belligerent forces. Normally, upper limits are established for the number and type of formations, tanks, antiaircraft weapons, artillery, and other weapons systems in the area of limitation.
area of operations (AO) (JP 1-02) - An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. (Army) - A geographical area, usually defined by lateral, forward, and rear boundaries assigned to a commander, by a higher commander, in which he has responsibility and the authority to conduct military operations. (See also area of interest (AOI) and battlespace.) See FMs 100-5, 100-15, 100-20, and JP 5-0.
area reconnaissance - A form of reconnaissance operations that is a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning the terrain or enemy activity within a prescribed area, such as a town, ridgeline, woods, or other feature critical to operations. (See also reconnaissance (recon, recce).) See FMs 1-111, 1-114, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.
area of responsibility (AOR) (JP 1-02) - 1. The geographical area associated with a combatant command within which a combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct operations. 2. In naval usage, a predefined area of enemy terrain for which supporting ships are responsible for covering by fire on known targets or targets of opportunity and by observation. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, 100-15, 101-5, and JP 0-2.
area security - A form of security operations that includes area reconnaissance, rear operations, and security of designated personnel, unit convoys, facilities, and main supply route critical points. (See also area reconnaissance and rear operations.) See FMs 17-95, 19-1, and 71-100.
area support - Method of logistics and combat health support in which direct support (DS) combat service support relationships in effect are determined by the location of the units requiring support. Subordinate DS units provide area support to units located in or passing through their areas of responsibility. (See also area of responsibility (AOR).) See FMs 8-10, 8-10-1, 8-10-4, 8-10-9, 8-10-24, 10-1, and 100-10.
armed reconnaissance (JP 1-02) - A mission with the primary purpose of locating and attacking targets of opportunity, i.e., enemy materiel, personnel, and facilities, in assigned general areas or along assigned ground communications routes, and not for the purpose of attacking specific targets. (Army) - A technique used by Army aviation in the execution of reconnaissance operations whereby targets of opportunity are located and attacked. See FMs 1-111 and 1-112.
armistice demarcation line (Army) - A geographically defined line from which disputing or belligerent forces disengage and withdraw to their respective sides following a truce or cease fire agreement. It is also called cease fire in some United Nations operations.
Army airspace command and control (A2C2) (Army) - The Army's application of airspace control to coordinate airspace users for concurrent employment in the accomplishment of assigned missions. (See also airspace control order (ACO).) See FM 100-103.
Army forces (ARFOR) (Army) - The Army forces headquarters and or forces provided by the Army service component to the joint force commander for the conduct of joint operations. (See also land component commander (LCC) and joint force land component commander (JFLCC).) See FMs 71-100, 100-5, 100-15, and JP 3-0.
Army service component commander (ASCC) (Army) - Serves as the principal advisor to the commander in chief for supporting and employing Army forces (ARFOR) in theater and forces outside the theater tasked to support theater operations. His command consists of those Army individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations. He is responsible for all command aspects of the ARFOR, to include logistics within the unified command. (See also Army forces (ARFOR).) See FM 100-7.
Army special operations forces (ARSOF) (JP 1-02) - Those active and reserve component Army forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations.
Army war reserve stock (Army) - Materiel amassed in peacetime to meet the increase in military requirements at the outbreak of war.
artillery preparation - Artillery fire delivered before an attack to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy's defense and to disrupt communications and disorganize the enemy's defense. The preparation is planned by a direct support field artillery battalion or higher echelon in coordination with the ground commander. It is an intense volume of fire delivered in accordance with a time schedule. The fires normally commence prior to H-hour and may extend beyond it. They may start at a prescribed time or be held on call. The duration of the preparation is influenced by factors such as the fire support needs of the entire force, number of targets and firing assets, and available ammunition. See FMs 6-20-30 and 71-123.
assailable flank(s) - An exposed flank(s) which is vulnerable to envelopment. For a flank to be assailable, there must be sufficient maneuver space to accommodate the attacking force. See FMs 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
assault(JP 1-02) - 1. The climax of an attack, closing with the enemy in hand-to-hand fighting. 2. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission. 3. To make a short, violent, but well-ordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement, a fort, or a machine gun nest. 4. A phase of an airborne operation beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. (See also assault force and assault phase). (Army) - 1.The culmination of an attack which closes with the enemy. 2. In an amphibious operation, the period of time from the crossing of the line of departure by the first scheduled wave to the seizure of the initial objectives. 3. A phase of an airborne or air assault operation beginning with delivery of the assault force into the objective area and extending through the attack of objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. 4. To make a short, violent, but well-ordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement or fortified area. See FMs 7-8, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, and 100-15.
assault breach - A breach tactic used by small units (company, teams, and platoons) to penetrate an enemy's protective obstacles and seize a foothold within his defense. It is normally a very decentralized operation with suppress, obscure, secure, and reduce (SOSR) actions synchronized at the platoon and company level. (See also in-stride breach.) See FMs 5-71-100 and 90-13-1.
assault command post (Army) - An austere, temporary command post established to perform critical command and control functions. The assault command post serves as the early link in the assault or deployment between the forces on the ground and the next higher tactical force headquarters. Doctrinal command post functions are passed to the tactical, main, and rear command posts when they arrive and become operational. (See also command post (CP).) See FMs 7-30, 71-100-2, and 71-100-3.
assault echelon (JP 1-02, NATO) -The element of a force that is scheduled for initial assault on the objective area. (See also follow-on echelon and rear echelon.) See FMs 71-100-2, 71-100-3, 90-26, and JP 3-18.1.
assault fire (JP 1-02) - 1. That fire delivered by attacking troops as they close with the enemy. 2. In artillery, extremely accurate, short-range destruction fire at point targets. See FMs 7-8 and 71-123.
assault force - 1. In an amphibious, airborne, or air assault operation, those units charged with the seizure of the objective or lodgment area. 2. Those forces charged with passing through a breach in an enemy fortified position or strongpoint and seizing an objective or completing destruction of the enemy. 3. Those forces charged with seizure of the objective in the attack. (See also breach force and support force.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100-2, and 71-100-3.
assault phase (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of their mission. 2. In an airborne operation, a phase beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. (Army) - 1. That phase of an airborne, air assault, or amphibious or river crossing operation that begins with the delivery of the assault forces into the objective area and ends when all assault objectives have been seized. 2. That period during an attack which begins when the assault forces advance from their assault position and ends when the objective has been seized and consolidated. (See also air assault, airborne operation, amphibious operation, and river crossing.) See FMs 7-30, 71-100-2, and 71-100-3.
assault position - That position between the line of departure and the objective in an attack from which forces assault the objective. Ideally, it is the last covered and concealed position before reaching the objective. (See limit of advance (LOA) and probable line of deployment (PLD).) See FMs 7-8, 7-20, and 71-123.
assembly area (AA) (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. An area in which a command is assembled preparatory to further action. 2. In a supply installation, the gross area used for collecting and combining components into complete units, kits, or assemblies. See FMs 7-20, 7-30, and 71-123.
asset (intelligence) (JP 1-02) - Any resource-person, group, relationship, instrument, installation, or supply - at the disposition of an intelligence organization for use in an operational or support role. Often used with a qualifying term such as agent asset or propaganda asset. See FM 31-20.
assign (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the functions, of the unit or personnel. 2. To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or functions are primary and/or relatively permanent. (See also attach.) See FM 101-5.
attach (JP 1-02) - 1. The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. 2. The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such functions are secondary or relatively temporary, e.g., attached for quarters and rations; attached for flying duty. (Army) - Subject to limitations imposed by the attachment order, the commander of the formation, unit, or organization receiving the attachment has the responsibility to provide the attached units with sustainment support above its organic capability. However, the responsibility for transfer, promotion of personnel, nonjudicial punishment, courts martial, and administrative actions, such as SIDPERS transactions and unit strength reporting, are normally retained by the parent formation, unit, or organization. (See also assign, operational command (OPCOM), operational control (OPCON), and organic.) See FM 101-5.
attack - A form of offensive operation characterized by coordinated movement supported by fire. It may be designated as a main or a supporting attack. The principal attack options include hasty attack, deliberate attack, spoiling attack, counterattack, , feint, and demonstration. (See also counterattack, deliberate attack, demonstration, feint, hasty attack, offensive operations, raid, and spoiling attack.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5
attack by fire - Fires employed to destroy the enemy from a distance, normally used when the mission does not dictate or support occupation of the objective. This task is usually given to the supporting element during the offensive and as a counterattack option for the reserve during defensive operations. An attack by fire is not done in conjunction with a maneuvering force. The most common attack-by-fire intent is to destroy. (See also frontal attack and support by fire.) See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 7-30, and 71-123.
attack operations (JP 1-02) - Offensive actions intended to destroy and disrupt enemy theater missile (TM) capabilities before, during, and after launch. The objective of attack operations is to prevent the launch of TMs by attacking each element of the overall system, including such actions as destroying launch platforms, RSTA platforms, C2 nodes, and missile stocks and infrastructure. See JP 3-01.5.
attrition (JP 1-02, NATO) - The reduction in the effectiveness of a force caused by loss of personnel and materiel. See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 7-30, 71-123, and 100-5.
augmentation forces (JP 1-02) - Forces to be transferred from a supporting commander to the combatant command (command authority) or operational control of a supported commander during the execution of an operation order approved by the National Command Authorities. (Army) - Forces which are required for specific missions but are not required for day-to-day operations. A command relationship will be specified when these forces are transferred. See FMs 71-100, 100-15, and JP 5-0.
authenticate (JP 1-02) - A challenge given by voice or electrical means to attest to the authenticity of a message or transmission.
authentication (JP 1-02) - 1. A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator. 2. A means of identifying individuals and verifying their eligibility to receive specific categories of information. 3. Evidence by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official.
authorized stockage list (ASL) (Army) - A list of items from all classes of supply authorized to be stocked at a specific echelon of supply. See FMs 10-1 and 100-10.
automatic resupply (JP 1-02) - A resupply mission fully planned before insertion of a special operations team into the operations area that occurs at a prearranged time and location, unless changed by the operating team after insertion. (See also emergency resupply and on-call resupply.)
auxiliary - In unconventional warfare, that element of the resistance force established to provide the organized civilian support of the resistance movement.
avenue of approach (AA) (JP 1-02) - An air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path. (See also intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB).) See FMs 7-8, 7-20, 7-30, 34-130, 44-100, 71-123, and 100-5.
aviation combat element (ACE) (JP 1-02) - The Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) element that is task organized to provide all or a portion of the functions of Marine Corps aviation in varying degrees based on the tactical situation and the MAGTF mission and size. These functions are air reconnaissance, antiair warfare, assault support, offensive air support, electronic warfare, and control of aircraft and missiles. The ACE is organized around an aviation headquarters and varies in size from a reinforced helicopter squadron to one or more Marine aircraft wing(s). It includes those aviation command (including air control agencies), combat, combat support, and combat service support units required by the situation. Normally, there is only one ACE in a MAGTF.
axis of advance (JP 1-02) - A line of advance assigned for purposes of control; often a road or a group of roads, or a designated series of locations, extending in the direction of the enemy. (Army) - A general route of advance, assigned for purposes of control, which extends toward the enemy. An axis of advance symbol graphically portrays a commander's intention, such as avoidance of built-up areas or envelopment of an enemy force. It follows terrain suitable for the size of the force assigned the axis and is often a road, a group of roads, or a designated series of locations. A commander may maneuver his forces and supporting fires to either side of an axis of advance provided the unit remain oriented on the axis and the objective. Deviations from an assigned axis of advance must not interfere with the maneuver of adjacent units without prior approval of the higher commander. Enemy forces that do not threaten security or jeopardize mission accomplishment may be bypassed. An axis of advance is not used to direct the control of terrain or the clearance of enemy forces from specific locations. Intermediate objectives normally are assigned for these purposes. (See also attack, direction of attack, movement to contact, and offensive operations.) See FMs 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, and 100-15.
azimuth (JP 1-02) - Quantities may be expressed in positive quantities increasing in a clockwise direction, or in X, Y coordinates where south and west are negative. They may be referenced to true north or magnetic north depending on the particular weapon system used. (Army) - The horizontal angle, measured clockwise by degrees or mils between a reference direction and the line to an observed or designated point. There are three base (reference) directions or azimuths: true, grid, and magnetic azimuth. (See also grid azimuth, magnetic azimuth, and true azimuth.) See FM 21-26.
azimuth angle (JP 1-02, NATO) - An angle measured clockwise in the horizontal plane between a reference direction and any other line.
|Updated 27 July 1997.|
Table of Contents
Operational Terms Index.
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