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Spetsnaz Russian Interior Troops - History

Russia's president signed a decree April 05, 2016 to create a national guard tasked with fighting terrorism and organized crime. The new federal agency will be led by Vladimir Putin's former chief bodyguard, Viktor Zolotov. Formed out of the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the National Guard, according to the president, will continue to work "in close cooperation" with the ministry.

Special units in the structure of Ministry of Internal Affairs existed almost since the inception of the Soviet regime. Anyway, part of the special-purpose CHUN successfully fought the peasants (kulaks) riots and carried requisitioning. During the war some parts of special purpose were formed, the most famous of which - the first brigade.

Moscow was to host the Olympic Games in 1980. As the Moscow Olympic games approached, the influential Minister of Internal Affairs (MVD) Nikolay Shchelokov wanted his ministry to have its own special forces in the preparation for the games. On 29 December 1977 the Soviet MVD set up its own special purpose training company. The unit known originally the Special Reconnaissance Unit was subsequently renamed “Vityaz” – the Knight.

One of the companies of the 2nd Regiment began to advertise to outsiders formation of a new division. It was called a training company of special purpose, but was not sent to recruits, but rather the best fighters of the division athletes, and exclusively on a voluntary basis. They explained that the company was preparing for the Moscow Olympics.

Vityaz took most of its fighters from the 9th company of the 3rd battalion of the MVD Dzerzhinskiy division, which collected the top sportsmen of the ministry. Its relations with the KGB were occasionally bordering on hostile. The MVD was not allowed to touch any threat or crime with foreign links, it had no experience of antiterrorist operations and could not train with the new super-secret KGB group. It turned to the Tula Air Assault Division in general and to its in-depth recce company in particular for combat training.

Throughout the Olympic Games and the existence of the USSR, Vityaz performed its duties discreetly and efficiently, always in the shadow of the KGB's more powerful unit “Alfa”. However, even before the Olympic Games, the MVD began to form another special unit, “Kobalt”, which was to assist the Afghan police after the planned Soviet invasion.

Trained soldiers often worked with colleagues from "Alpha". And in the physical preparation of the 18-19-year-old trained guys, they even surpassed Alfa officers, but were inferior to them on the shooting range. The "Olympic" company fulfilled the task perfectly, and it was decided not to disband.

Until the Soviet involvement in Afghanistan in 1979, all its special forces units had no real combat experience. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan changed it all – almost all special forces units took part in the conflict and the experience had a profound impact on most young officers who are today in charge of special operations at every level in every ministry or service.

In 1981, a special purpose company was involved in the release of children taken by terrorists in a village near Izhevsk. In 1986, with its participation, a group of criminals who tried to hijack a plane in Ufa was eliminated. And in the 1990s "Hero" with a group of "Alfa" cleared detainees rioted at the Sukhumi detention facility.

Soon, special forces of internal troops became involved in the carrying out of other operations to free hostages, they went through all the hot spots of the former Union. A battalion and a detachment of special purpose "Hero" appeared in 1991 on its base. A total of 180 troops were awarded state awards Warriors squad. Five of them - Colonel Sergei Lysyuk, Alexander Nikishin, Oleg Kublin, Private Nikolai Sitnikov (posthumous), Sergeant Sergei Burnaev (posthumous) - awarded the title of Hero of Russia.

The Chechen campaign was a special milestone in the annals of combat detachment "Vityaz". Boys in Green Beret (and the idea to pass a special examination for the right to wear berets of this color born precisely in "Hero") - the distinguishing sign of special forces units explosive - operated in the most dangerous areas - in the mountains, in isolation from the main forces in small groups.

In late 1993, the regiments and brigades based reconnaissance reconnaissance were created and allocated to a group of special purpose (GOS), two assault platoons URSN. In some parts of the operational use of the process of creating the GOS and intelligence mouth did not take place on the basis of URSN and directly. In connection with the reorganization in 1998-99 Special Operations Group (GOS) were disbanded. The regiments and brigades were only reconnaissance company.

In 1999, the squad was the only regiment of special forces, there was even an idea - for example, "Alpha" - made fully of officers. But the idea did not become a reality, and in the current application of the concept of the rule of law forces large military units did not fit.

One of the central tasks of special forces of internal troops of the Russian Interior Ministry is the fight against terrorism. Particularly acute, this problem arose in the early 2000s with the start of the second Chechen campaign. In April 2002, generated 10 summary special groups, which included investigators from the regional offices of the Federal Security Service and staff SWAT teams. The main purpose of these groups was to carry out special operations on the territory of Shali, Vedeno, Nozhai-Yurt and Kurchaloy districts of Chechnya.

The official name of these groups according to the documents - consolidated special group of the Regional Operational Headquarters Operations FSB. Already in autumn 2002 in the operations in Chechnya, the group replaced the special forces of internal troops. They acted independently of the local counter-intelligence, and reported directly to the Interim Joint Group of agencies and departments.

In September 2003 the command of the internal troops gained control of the joint grouping of troops (forces) in the North Caucasus.

In August 2004, further operational management of the Group (OCG) was established in every region of the North Caucasus, headed by colonels placed Interior Ministry troops. The purpose of the formation of these groups was to create a permanent ad hoc bodies, which are designed for direct control of the combined forces and funds allocated to prevent subversive and terrorist acts, as well as the elimination of their consequences. As a result, the internal troops have been assigned responsibility for coordinating the activities of various law enforcement agencies of the country in the event of terrorist attacks.

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Page last modified: 01-05-2016 20:02:35 ZULU