THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS
Functions and Organization
Special Purpose Police (OMON)
Special Purpose Detachments
Special Rapid Response Unit [SOBR]
Control by the Party
The Judiciary and the Legal Profession
Legal Codes and Abuses of the System
Nonpolitical Crime and Punishment
- Russia WORLD FACTBOOK OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS Ilya V. Nikiforov - 1995
- Latest Data on the Performance of Internal Affairs Agencies and Internal Troops in 1996
Ministry of Internal Affairs - MVD - 20 February 1997
- RUSSIA'S INTERNAL FORCES: HOT SPOT STABILIZER WITHIN RUSSIA by Mr. Timothy L. Thomas - Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS. Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement, Vol 3, Winter 1994, No 3, pp 509-525.
- Selected Papers from the Conference "International Terrorism: New Assessments" March 24-26, 1997, Moscow Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, Volume 6, Number 2, Autumn 1997, Frank Cass, London.
- Anatoliy Sergeevich Kulikov: Policeman, Power Minister, Deputy Prime Minister...Politician? Mr. Timothy L. Thomas, Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS. Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement Vol. 7, No. 1 (Summer 1998), pp. 149-178
- Restructuring and Reform in Russia's MVD: Good Idea, Bad Timing? by Mr. Timothy L. Thomas, Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS. Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement Vol. 7, No. 2 (Autumn 1998), pp. 96-106
- Russian Internal Troops and Security Challenges in the 1990s by Colonel General Anatoliy S. Kulikov, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, Commander-in-Chief of Russian Internal Troops -- Low-Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, Frank Cass, London, Volume 3, Autumn 1994, Number 2.
Internal Troops (Vnutrenniye Voiska) Under the Czars
The prototype of the internal troops were military garrisons in the times of Ivan the Terrible, who made for the "care of Moscow" Institute of the so-called tenants. By outfits governor to "the life of the capital" every three months allocated gathered from different cities of the nobles who made up an army of up to 3 thousand. Man. For some time the function of maintaining public order oprichniki performed. Of these, in 1565 the king created a special "oprichnina army." In the future, "residential elements" were deployed to escort the southern borders of Russia by cities.
Under Peter I the "residential elements" became known as garrisons. Report Card on February 19, 1711 the organization provided 43 infantry regiments of the garrison, who were later added and dragoon regiments. In 1764, there was a reformation of the garrison regiments in the border and internal battalions.
Until the beginning of the XIX century in the Russian state of internal troops function together with the police performed the Cossack regiments and provincial teams. In January 1811 the local military command responsible for "guarding peace and tranquility in the country", were withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the civil authorities and transferred to the Defense Ministry. Generally accepted date of birth of the internal troops was on March 27, when the decree of Emperor Alexander I established the provincial company and the team relocated to the provincial capital, and were formed by military battalions inner prison, which became one of the most important parts of the security system of the state.
"Regulations for the Internal Guard" defines its objectives: to assist the authorities in the implementation of laws and sentences of courts, the capture and destruction of the robbers, scattering prohibited by law assemblage, policing at fairs, auctions, national and religious festivals, tracking criminals, treasury, and conducting rescue from fires, floods of rivers, etc. From 1811 to 1828 he headed the internal guard Adjutant General Count EF Komarovsky (1769 - 1843). Warriors Internal Guard took part in the fighting in the Great Patriotic War of 1812 and the Crimean War of 1854-1855, when the ranks of the militia joined 17.5 thousand soldiers of the guard.
Military Reform, held by Alexander III of, and touched the inside of the prison. In May of 1886 by order of the military authorities announced the creation of the convoy guards, consisting of 567 teams to accompany the prisoners of all categories in the administrative and judicial institutions to places of detention and forced labor. About the continuity of internal and convoy guards said the fact that on 27 March 1911 in Russia was celebrated the 100th anniversary of the convoy guards. On this day, Emperor Nicholas II declared all officers and class ranks "Highest pleased", and the lower ranks - "Tsar thank you." special badge was established in honor of the anniversary.
Internal Troops (Vnutrenniye Voiska) - Soviet Period
After the revolution, in 1918, by the order of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the convoy guard was reorganized based on new principles and a year later the Council of Workers' and Peasants Defense adopted a resolution to merge all the troops auxiliary facilities that existed in some departments, and the establishment of internal security forces. Subsequently troops VOHR-VNUS / Cheka-OGPU / NKVD repeatedly reorganized, but the problem remained the same - protection of the population from any threat, including foreign. So it was during the Civil War, and during the incidents at Lake Khasan and Khalkhin goal, and in the Soviet-Finnish war.
Later they were subordinated to the state security police, and then in 1934 they were incorporated into the expanded NKVD. In the 1930's best team cadres were punished, the victim of trumped-up cases of the mythical "conspiracy in the NKVD." In the Great Patriotic War, MVD units and NKVD troops fought the enemy in the border areas, defended Moscow and Leningrad, Brest Fortress, Kiev, Odessa, Voronezh, Stalingrad, defended the North Caucasus, were engaged in heavy fighting at the Kursk Bulge. During the war in the battles participated 53 divisions and 20 brigades of NKVD. 18 military units were awarded orders and honorary titles awarded. In the fight with the enemy lost their lives 97700 military troops. For courage and heroism in the battles for the homeland, more than 100 thousand. Soldiers and officers were awarded state awards, 295 pupils of the internal troops became Heroes of the Soviet Union, and Major-General AI Rodimtsev, Major-General I.I.Fesin and Major V.M.Golubev won this title twice.
After the war's end, Internal Troops played an important role in fighting local anti-Soviet guerrillas in the Baltic states (such as the Forest Brothers) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. With the beginning of the Krushchev era and de-Stalinisation, Internal Troops became significantly reduced in size, but retained their pre-war functions.
They were back under the authority of the security police in the early 1950s, but when the MVD was established in 1954, control of the Internal Troops shifted to the MVD. The chief of the Internal Troops from 1954 to late 1987 was Ivan Iakovlev. Iakovlev’s successor was Uri Shatalin. A new generation of soldiers in the postwar period inherited the glorious military traditions of the Internal Troops. Internal troops were additionally charged with protecting research institutions, enterprises of the nuclear industry and rocket production. In carrying out the task of maintaining public order, important state facilities, correctional labor institutions, by escorting the convicts personnel of military units showed military skill, vigilance and courage. For the dedication and courage in the performance of military duty in parts lists ever enrolled 48 soldiers, sergeants, warrant officers and officers.
In peacetime, soldiers of law and order to protect the population from natural and man-made disasters. The troops took part in liquidation of consequences of accidents at the plant "Mayak" in 1957 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Among the first were deployed in the ruined Spitak earthquake. In Nagorno-Karabakh, Ferghana, North Ossetia and Ingushetia, in other hot spots warriors suppress collision of the opposing sides, disarmed the bandits guarding the refugees.
Like the regular army, the Internal Troops for the most part were composed of conscripts, who were obliged to serve for a minimum of two years. The Internal Troops accepted candidates for commission both from the ranks of the armed forces and from civilian society.The MVD had four schools for training members of the officer corps, as well as a separate school for political officers.
The Internal Troops supported MVD missions by supplementing the police in ensuring crowd control in large cities and, in emergencies, by helping to fight fires. These troops also guarded large-scale industrial enterprises, railroad stations, certain large stockpiles of food and material, and certain communication centers that were strategically significant. One of their most important functions was that of preventing internal disorder that might threaten the regime’s political stability. They took a direct role in suppressing anti-Soviet demonstrations in the non-Russian republics and strikes by Soviet workers. In this capacity, the Internal Troops probably worked together with the MVD Security Troops. There was little evidence to support the theory that the Internal Troops would serve as a counterweight to the regular armed forces during a political crisis. Most Internal Troops units were composed of infantry alone and were not equipped with artillery and tanks; in 1989 there was only one operational division of the Internal Troops in Moscow. According to some Western analysts, the Internal Troops were to perform rear security functions in the event of war, just as they did in the Great Patriotic War.
Internal Troops (Vnutrenniye Voiska) - Recent History
The servicemen of internal troops faithfully carried out by the President of Russia set the task to resolve the Chechen crisis in 1994-1996. Participating since 1999 in counter-terrorism operations in the North Caucasus region of the Russian Federation, more than 11 thousand. Officers, warrant officers, sergeants and soldiers were awarded state awards.
Recognition of internal troops of the Russian Interior Ministry in the merits of protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens from criminal and other illegal encroachments by Presidential Decree ?394 of March 19, 1996 set the Day of the Interior Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. According to historical tradition it is celebrated every year on March 27.
Now law enforcement soldiers taking part in the maintenance of public order in the streets and other areas of cities and towns of the Russian Federation. Under the protection of the internal troops are important government facilities, including nuclear power companies. The presence of soldiers of law and order in the Southern District of the North Caucasus region remains a major stabilizing factors in the south of Russia.
The focus of the content and nature of the reforms in the country, including in the field of internal security of the Russian Federation, demanded a qualitative increase in the efficiency of the entire Russian Interior Ministry system and its component parts - the inner forces to ensure public safety, protection of all forms of property, prevention and suppression of criminal manifestations of political extremism and terrorism, the maintenance of public order and effective solution service and combat missions in the areas of ethnic conflict. This is what is dictated and determined by the need to bring the Russian Interior Troops in the state corresponding to the needs of the Russian Federation, internal security and the maintenance of readiness, to ensure full implementation of tasks.
Today troops are developing ways to optimize the composition and strength, improve the combat use, development and deployment of new military training programs, the implementation of measures to improve the education of the personnel system, improve the comprehensive combat, technical and logistic support activities of formations and military units. Further development of internal troops provided to enhance their role in the fight against crime and policing in the country.
Russian President Vladimir Putin on the expanded board of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, held in February 2003, he noted the work of internal military forces, particularly their special units, in connection with the implementation of tasks in the fight against terrorism and the strengthening of the system of government in the Chechen Republic. Until 2004, the Interior Troops planned to establish special forces as a separate component of the internal troops, designed to strengthen the fight against organized crime in the federal districts, the tasks in the North Caucasus region of Russia.
February 21, 2002 at the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin Russian President Vladimir Putin in a solemn atmosphere handed in chief of internal troops of Army General Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Banner Russian Interior Ministry troops. Banner of the internal troops - a symbol of success, which achieved the internal troops of their nearly two centuries. It will contribute to further growth of authority of law enforcement troops, support the troops in their pursuit of high results of performing the tasks.
November 10, 2002 in Moscow near the building of the General Command of Russian Interior Ministry troops, a monument "Soldiers of internal troops." It perpetuated the memory of all the generations of the military forces of law and order, killed in the line of military duty. The composition is a granite stele height of 9 meters and a sculpture of a grieving mother. At the opening ceremony of the monument was attended by Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Since 2008 significant changes have occurred in the internal troops of the Russian Interior Ministry. District Office transformed into 7 regional commands (North-West, Central, North Caucasus, Volga, Urals, Siberian, East), the boundaries of which are associated with the boundaries of the federal districts. Military units operational assignment transferred to the brigade base, which increased the mobility and manageability of these formations.
In order to strengthen law-enforcement orientation is an active army rearmament of their composition withdrawn and transferred to the established order in the Armed Forces of the Russian heavy weapons, including tanks. Priority is given to the so special weapons and special armored wheeled vehicles. Well established special cars hidden booking, which are actively used in the North Caucasus region.
The troops entered a fundamentally new command and staff car on the basis of "Tiger" vehicle, which has the most advanced radio systems, satellite, special and governmental communication. There is an active introduction of forces into the latest digital communications technology management system, the forming of information telecommunication system, which includes the regional command and control point of the Joint Group of Troops (Forces) in the North Caucasus region of Russia.
Further development of internal troops provided to enhance their role in the fight against terrorism and crime in the Russian Federation. So, in the Southern Federal District of Russia, they are integrated into the existing security system. Created by order of the President of the Russian Federation in 2004, the operational management of the Group's combined forces and means at the operational headquarters of the Russian Federation have proven effective. As events had shown in Dagestan, Ingushetia and Kabardino-Balkaria, the creation of these groups proved to be correct, thoughtful and timely step.
On July 27, 2006, Federal Law No. 153-FZ5 was adopted, introducing amendments to the Federal Law on the Internal Troops of the Interior Ministry of the Russian Federation, in accordance with which, the Internal Troops were assigned an additional mission—i.e., participation in the fight against terrorism and ensuring the enforcement of law and order in the course of counterterrorist operations. This law is in conformity with at least three provisions of the National Security Concept of the Russian Federation, reflecting the main tasks of ensuring national security: implementation of short- and long- term measures to prevent and neutralize internal and external threats; ensuring the personal security of the individual and citizen, as well as constitutional rights and freedoms in the territory of the Russian Federation; streamlining the state power system in the Russian Federation, federative relations, local government and legislation of the Russian Federation; harmonizing interethnic relations; strengthening law and order, and preserving the socio-political stability of society.
Internal forces took an active part in liquidation of consequences of humanitarian disaster in South Ossetia in August 2008, during the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict. Troops in those difficult days perform tasks to ensure the safety of road works and traffic routes humanitarian convoys, supported together with the members of the Interior order in the border with South Ossetia, the Russian Federation regions.
One of the most important areas of service and combat activity of troops remains the execution of tasks in the North Caucasus region of the Russian Federation, including in the composition of the Joint Group of Troops (Forces). In this case the main burden of the fight against gang bear our troops special forces and intelligence units.
The troops are new in its structure and objectives of the military units - Special Purpose Centers. Their equipment is supplied modern military equipment, the newest samples of small arms and special means. Establishment of special purpose Interior Troops of Russia is the next step in the further development of the forces that will bring special forces units to a new professional level, improve their combat capability and significantly expand the range of combat capabilities. In 2008, the first such center wascreated as part of the separate operative division of internal troops on the basis of special forces "Vityaz" detachment.
The troops established a system of military training, including special forces and intelligence operations in the mountains. A unique training center of mountain training in Krasnodar Territory. Implemented training program for action in the mountains, purchased mining equipment, climbing equipment and special equipment.
One of the links in the system of government measures to counter terrorism in the region and covering the state border is a regiment of operational use Russian Interior Ministry troops stationed in Nalchik. The personnel of the regiment prepared specifically for operations in mountainous conditions.
Since 2009, the Interior Troops launched international cooperation in matters of mountain training. The training center of mountain training of internal troops held joint military exercises with the participation of Russian Interior Ministry and the staff of a special unit of the National Gendarmerie in France. During the return visit of Internal Troops special forces officers, they, together with their colleagues from the law enforcement agencies of France practiced climbing skills training in winter conditions in the Alps.
Today Russian Interior Ministry troops are considered to be one of the most important units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, have a strong personnel and technical capacity, operational capability, well-equipped and mobile units. They play a major role in the suppression, containment and neutralization of internal armed conflicts, and the troops of constant readiness to represent the main component of the military organization of the state to ensure the internal security of the Russian Federation.
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