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Federal Protective Service (FSO)
Federal'naya Sluzhba Okhrani

The 20,000 members of the Federal Protective Service (FSO - Federal'naya Sluzhba Okhrani) work in one of the successors of the KGB, assuming functions of the Ninth Directorate which guarded the Kremlin and key offices of the CPSU. The FSO, headquartered in Block 14 in the Kremlin, supervises top-level government communications, operates and protects underground command centers, maintains the special underground train system that connects key government facilities in the Moscow area, and protects other strategic facilities, and executive aircraft and special trains. Leadership communications are carried out from the trains when Soviet/Russian leaders travels by train [the trains are also used for strategic rocket forces].

In the United States, the Federal Protective Service protects Federal Facilities, their occupants, and visitors by providing superior law enforcement and protective security services and leveraging our access to the intelligence and information resources of a network of federal, state, local, tribal, territorial, and private sector partners. Headquartered in Washington, DC, FPS is divided into 11 regions nationwide and is responsible for protecting over 9,000 Federal Facilities. Regional headquarters are located in metropolitan areas across the country, with approximately 200 field offices and 4 MegaCenters provide responses to over 534,000 calls for service annually.

The FSO was formerly known as the Main Administration for the Protection of the Russian Federation (GUO - Glavnoye Upravlenie Okhrani). Until 1990, the state continued to perform protection functions of the 9th Directorate of KGB of the USSR. At this time, the leadership of the 9th Department headed by NS Zakharov (1958-1961), V.Y. Chekalova (1961-1967), SN Antonov (1968-1974), Y.Storoshevim (1974-1983), Y.S.Plekhanov (1983-1991). In 1990-1991, after the election of President of the USSR, it was created Guard Service of the President of the USSR, headed by Lieutenant-General JS Plekhanov. It becomes the legal successor of the 9th Department of the KGB of the USSR. In 1991, the authorities of the state protection have been combined under the Chief Directorate of the Russian guards. Presiding GUO Russia in 1991-1992 - Major General V.S.Redkoborody, in 1992-1995 - Lt. Gen. M.I.Barsukov, in 1995-2000 - Colonel-General Yu.Krapivin. Under Barsukov the GUO was transformed into a very powerful and capable organization with a staff 50-100 percent bigger than that of the Ninth Directorate, which included some 10,000 personnel. At Barsukov's initiative in 1992, GUO assumed responsibility for presidential communications [formerly run by FAPSI [Federal Government Communications and Information Agency]], with GUO alone deciding who gets ATS-1 and ATS-2 "hot lines."

Beginning in the late 1960s several thousand leaders of ministries, departments, and central newspaper editorial offices were connected using the ATS-II [Automatic Telephone Exchange-II] ("hot line") government communications telephone system. Although following Stalin's death the Party adopted a decision prohibiting the special services from listening to the telephones of party functionaries, this decision was not consistently implemented, and in the post-Soviet period such monitoring was regarded as pervassive.

The Law of the Russian Federation "On State Protection" was adopted May 27, 1996, in accordance with which was created by the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, and August 2, 1996 approved the Regulations on the Federal Guard Service of the Russian Federation.

President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree on 19 June 1996 which reorganized the GUO as the Federal Protection Service (FSO). The change was mandated by recently approved law on state protection which regulated the provision of bodyguards to senior state officials. According to the law, the FSO and the Presidential Security Service (PSB) are under the command of the president. Their powers include the right, in relation to their duties, to conduct searches, check identity papers, make arrests, give orders to other state organs, enter premises without the owners' consent, ban access to public places, and recruit and use secret informants.

In 1993-1996, as an independent federal agency in the sphere of state protection, the Russian Presidential Security Service (SBP Russia), headed by Lieutenant-General AV Korzhakov. Paradoxically, under the "all- powerful" Korzhakov, the President's security service was a much more open organization than under Krapivin. It was known only that the leaders of the Presidential Security Service divisions were now called adjutants. The laws on the state protection service and on operations and investigation activity continued to give the Federal Protection Service no fewer rights and capabilities than the Federal Security Service [FSB] or the Internal Affairs Ministry. The FSO was permitted to conduct surveillance and searches, to monitor postal, telegraph, telephone and other communications, and to conduct clandestine agents activities. These measures do not require that a warrant be obtained from a court.

In July 1996, Y.V.Krapivin was appointed the head of the Russian CBP. The reorganization coincided with with the appointment of Yuri Krapivin, the head of the Federal Protection Service since 1995, as acting chief of the Presidential Security Service (PSB), replacing Maj. Gen. Alexander Korzhakov, Yeltsin's longtime bodyguard, sidekick, and chief of presidential security. Korzhakov, like FSB Director Mikhail Barsukov who was dismissed the same day, began his career in the 9th KGB Directorate.

The President of Russian Federation Security was merged with the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation.

In March 2003 at the Russian Federal Security Service was established Service for Special Communications and Information, headed by Colonel-General Kornev Yuri Pavlovich. Since 2004, this service was a subdivision of FSS of Russia.

The U.S. Department of the Treasury on 28 April 2014 designated seven Russian government officials, including two key members of the Russian leadership’s inner circle, and 17 entities pursuant to Executive Order (E.O.) 13661. E.O. 13661 authorizes sanctions on, among others, officials of the Russian Government and any individual or entity that is owned or controlled by, that has acted for or on behalf of, or that has provided material or other support to, a senior Russian government official. “In the April 17 Geneva Joint Statement, Russia agreed to take concrete steps to deescalate the situation in Ukraine, but has thus far utterly refused to do so,” said Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence David S. Cohen. Evgeniy Murov was the Director of Russia’s Federal Protective Service and an Army General. Murov has worked in Russian state security services since 1971 and became Head and Director of the Federal Protective Service in May 2000.




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