Presidential (Kremlin) Regiment - History
In 1918, the leaders of the Soviet state moved to the Moscow Kremlin, the protection of which was carried by the commandant's office of the Moscow Kremlin. Until January 1936 the Moscow Kremlin Commandant's office was not included in the security organs of the Soviet state, and subordinate to the military department on the Rights of the sector of the Moscow Military District.
January 28, 1936 there was a transfer from the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR Office of the Moscow Kremlin Commandant of the NKVD. Thus, it was considered appropriate to focus such an important area of work, as public security, in particular a single block, and UKMK and the 1st Division of the NKVD as operational units are logged in the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs.
It is important to note that UKMK and the 1st Division were independent bodies of the guards, not subordinate to each other, that did not prevent them to work closely and cooperate in the organization of measures to ensure national security.
The day 08 April 1936 marked the 80th anniversary of the founding of the Presidential (Kremlin) Regiment, having begun the chronicle in 1936. April 8, 1936 Order # 122 on the Moscow Kremlin garrison special purpose battalion was reorganized into the regiment of special purpose entities (SPEs) and this date becomes his birthday.
The regiment of special purpose for the staff consisted of five divisions trehvzvodnogo composition (1st, 2nd, 3rd Division by 96 people, the 4th Division - 106, 5th Division - 131 people), regimental schools (121 ), designed to prepare junior officers for the posts squad leaders, bronevzvoda (35) with six combat vehicles and support units (platoon services, the orchestral platoon).
In early 1937, the regiment was transferred to the battalion system, having in its composition of two battalions (the 1st Battalion - Kremlin Guard commander, 2nd Battalion - of the Red Army guard the Kremlin) and technical company. 5th Division is renamed the 7th company. Regimental School, platoon maintenance and orchestral platoon remained in the same composition. In addition, the regiment was included detachment of special purpose. The main effort of the regiment during this period aimed at protecting the public institutions located in the territory of the Kremlin, the Mausoleum of VI Lenin and the provision of government measures. Warriors guard The Kremlin session of the CEC and the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, and the All-Russia Congress of the CPSU (b) perform the tasks to comply with security measures in the Kremlin and the Red Square during the military parade and demonstration on May 1 and November 7.
In December 1937 there was a new reorganization of the regiment. The number of each of the three battalions of the mouth is brought up to 160 people. In the company of - three infantry platoon of 40-45 people each and one platoon of machine gunners in the amount of 28 people. Technical support units made up a company, himvzvod [repair unit], communications platoon, a platoon of orchestral, paramilitary fire brigade.
The regiment at this time was actively completed. Service in the Kremlin garrison had always been considered a responsible and honorable, and therefore the selection of it was carried out a thorough and comprehensive. Picking mainly occurred with recruits industrial regions of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus. The basic amount of replenishment was coming from Voroshilovgrad, Kharkov, Chelyabinsk, Krivoy Rog, Sverdlovsk, Leningrad. The overwhelming majority of recruits were natives of working environment - 85% of employees - 10%. By nationality Russian conscripts were 80% of Ukrainians - 16%. One of the main criteria for selection was the formation of the regiment. Most had a seven-year education - 87%, average - 5%, primary - 8%. Among the recruits in 1937 seven men were members of the CPSU (b), 33 - candidates for members of the VKP (b), 438 - the Komsomol and only 9 people were non-party.
The Great Patriotic War lasted from June 22, 1941 to 1945. This period was the most difficult test of endurance and maturity of the Kremlin garrison. It was necessary to urgently carry out a number of urgent measures to strengthen the protection and defense of the Moscow Kremlin.
Early in the morning of June 22, 1941 the entire personnel of the garrison of the Kremlin was given in full combat readiness. regiment of special forces who were on a training position in a military camp New Kupavna, were alerted and returned to a permanent place of dislocation - in the Kremlin. The main combat mission - the protection and the Kremlin's defense on the territory of which the State Defense Committee and the Supreme Command, Special Purpose Regiment served in conjunction with the individual officer's battalion (GPG), a private company of special purpose (Orcenais), a separate motor battalion (SAR) and military construction battalion (FAB).
Much attention was given to disguise the Kremlin and the surrounding area. For June 26, 1941, when it became real aerial bombardment of the city, the Moscow Kremlin Commandant, Lieutenant-General N. Spiridonov in a secret memorandum to the Deputy Chairman of the SNK LP Beria presented ideas and schemes to disguise the Kremlin and Lenin's Mausoleum. Two variants of camouflage were supposed to "obstruct the opponent while approaching the Kremlin's finding against the background of Moscow ... ... reduce the possibility of sighting dive bombing on individual buildings of the Kremlin."
In the first case it was a question of "imitating the color of the Kremlin buildings, the destruction of the heads of the gilded splendor of the Kremlin cathedrals, the removal of crosses and simulate color and powder in the squares around the Kremlin city blocks." In the second version to be installed "false urban neighborhoods combination of different layouts", and across the Moscow River "for the disorientation of the enemy observers to arrange a false bridge." Executing the planned management of the Kremlin garrison took urgent steps to disguise churches and cathedrals, offices and the Kremlin itself.
When work on the disguise ended, to ensure its effectiveness over Red Square and the Kremlin several test flown the aircraft was carried out with dedicated observers on board. Since July 29, the plane "Douglas" from the height of 1000 meters observers reported: "Painting the Kremlin walls and facades of buildings of the Kremlin under the city-term yields positive results." However, ther were a lot of comments on the Kremlin's disguise. For successful fighting at the front of the Great Patriotic War and exemplary performance of tasks of the Government in the 1942 - 1943 biennium. Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, many of the commandant of the Moscow Kremlin control soldiers were awarded orders and medals of the Soviet Union.
For successful performance of combat tasks of the Soviet government and command many of the regiment took were awarded orders and medals: the Order of Lenin - 3 persons, the Order "Red Banner" - 13, Order of the "Red Star" - 68, the Order "Badge of Honor" - 32 medal "For Valour" - 19, the medal "For Service in battle" - 39.
At the end of the Great Patriotic War the personnel of the commandant of the Moscow Kremlin and the regiment of special purpose, new tasks were to ensure the security of the state leaders, reliable and vigilant protection of the Kremlin, maintaining a high level of combat readiness and improve the service skills. In connection with the transition to a peaceful position of the armed forces, their significant reduction, there have been major changes in the personnel structure of the regiment. It began mass demobilization of the army. By 1946 there were 835 men in the regiment.
A special feature of this period was the fact that at the completion of the authorized strength of the regiment, there began arriving not "green" unprepared and untrained recruits, burt veterans of military combat units who had participated in combat operations and had earned the reputation of winners. In 1946, the regiment came mostly experienced "hardened" fighters. Main reinforcement came from the famed 1st Motorized Rifle Division of the Red Banner Order of Lenin NKVD imeni F.E.Dzerzhinsky. In addition, the regiment was completed with the best soldiers the 2nd, 8th, 24th, 32th, 45th, 53rd, 87th, 98th, 103-106-th Guards Rifle Division, 60th, 99th, 185th infantry division, 12th artillery division, and the 45th Guards mortar Brigade of the Leningrad military District.
Since September 19, 1952 in accordance with the order of the Minister of State Security special purpose regiment became known as a separate regiment of special purpose. Since 1954, the regiment moved to a new type of weapon - a Kalashnikov assault rifle, a carbine Simonov, a Makarov pistol. Combat training by the middle of the 50s has increased markedly. The audit program mastering combat and political training for the first time in 1955 the regiment received an overall assessment of "excellent."
On March 14, 1953 approved a new structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, which was established 10 Office (Office of the Moscow Kremlin Commandant), and March 18, 1954, in connection with the formation of the KGB at the SM USSR, 10 Management (UKMK) was included into the structure of the central apparatus of the KGB.
The country was gradually getting used to peace, and more intensive transition to civilian life. On April 20, 1955 the Government decided on free public access to the Kremlin.
On June 25, 1959 the KGB of the USSR by order of new states and structure of 9 the Office of State Security Committee were approved, which included 10 former Office (Office of the Moscow Kremlin Commandant).
In order to bring the company level to the leadership of the regiment and the achievement of efficiency in dealing with matters of official business in 1961 battalion level, as an intermediate between a company and the regimental commander and his staff, was eliminated. Instead of the three battalions, the new orgnizzation created nine companies, directly subordinate to the commander of the regiment.
The history of the Honor Cavalry Escort goes back to the Emperorís Convoy and the division of the 11th Special Cavalry Regiment formed in 1962. On its basis, the Honored Cavalry Escort (part of the Presidentís Regiment) was formed on September 2, 2002.
In 1991, the Kremlin Regiment Private KGB renamed Separate Kremlin Regiment Protection Administration under the Office of the President of the USSR. In 1992, again there are some changes in the name of the regiment. From this period it became known as a separate regiment Kremlin Moscow Kremlin commandant of the Main Directorate of the Guard. Since January this year on the shoulders of conscripts were removable shoulder straps with embroidered letters "OKP". Presidential Decree of 20 March 1993 Separate Red Banner Kremlin Regiment was reorganized into the Presidential Regiment of the Moscow Kremlin Commandant's Office of the Russian Federation Main Department of protection.
On September 2, 2002, on the basis of the Decree of the RF President, the Presidential Regiment was included cavalry escort of honor, established on the basis of the 11th separate Cossack cavalry regiment. The basis of the escort made two cavalry squadrons. The escort duties were to provide a variety of public and other events and rituals. The emergence of such a specific division set a number of new tasks regiment. In particular, it was necessary to solve the problem selection, procurement and evaluation of equestrian composition. The officers of the regiment began to travel to the stud farms cities Krasnodar, Samara and Kirov, where they carried out the purchase of horses, mostly Russian and Trakehner horse breeds.
Since 2004, the Presidential Regiment organization began to enter into the service of the commandant of the Moscow Kremlin Russia FSO.
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