Tupolev Tu-135 Strategic Bomber
In 1958 under the code "135" OKB-156 began work on a strategic shock [ie, attack / strike] aviation system close to the design parameters for the M-56 of V.Myasishev. Work on the topic was under the leadership of S.M.Egera. Until the fall of 1960 working on the Tu-135 did not go beyond exploratory research, and several preliminary drafts of the strategic supersonic aircraft were prepared, basically repeating variations on the American B-70 projects. Related works intensified since the autumn of 1960.
On 03 October 1960 the USSR Council of Ministers published decree #1057-437, according to which: EDO V. Myasishev was passed into a branch in the bureau Chelomei and was dismissed from the design and development of supersonic aircraft carrier M-56 [the issue of project M-50, M-52 and RSR had to be resolved additionally]; Tupolev Design Bureau, in connection with the cessation of work on the M-56, was given a 3-month period to make proposals on creating long-range supersonic carrier aircraft and long-range supersonic spy plane with the consideration of series-built capabilities to their factory #22 in Kazan. Materials on CB VM Myasischev projects were transferred to the Tupolev Design Bureau.
As part of this work, which received the designation by CB plane "135" (Tu-135), the department of technical projects S.M.Egera considered a large number of projects on creation of aviation and missile and strategic intelligence systems based on different versions of supersonic long-range aircraft. For nearly five years, it had carried out extensive work on the justification and the choice of the main parameters of the system and the aircraft carrier. Projects were developed dozens of variants of the aircraft "135" projects with the implementation of a large number of aerodynamic layout solutions for different types of engines. During the design and creatively reworked experience of designing long-range strategic supersonic aircraft, which were developed in the KB. They carefully studied the progress of work on the American strategic delivery vehicles Valkyrie B-70. Total project management of the "135" Tupolev planned to select L.L.Selyakova, one of the main ideologists [ie, designers] of Myasischev aircraft M-50, M-52 and M-56, who in 1962 was transferred to the Tupolev CB.
During research works on the program of the creation of a strategic shock-intelligence system and the aircraft "135" the KB, TsAGI, and engine builders made estimates of the system configuration, its possible effectiveness and ways of development, addressed the specific scheme of carrier aircraft and their power plants, and weapons systems and equipment.
The following types of engines were considered for aircraft +135:
|engine||maximum takeoff thrust||specific fuel consumption at supersonic cruising|
|NC-6||23000-23500 kg||1,5-1,7 kg / kg.ch|
|NK-6B||22480 kg||1,5-1,5-1,75 kg / kg.ch|
|NK-6B||18700 kg||1.7-1.9 kg / kg.ch|
|TC-6C||22500 kg||1.6-1.7 kg / kg.ch;|
|NC-10||24000 kg||1.4-1.6 kg / kg.ch|
|R15B-300||15000 kg||1.8 kg / kg / h|
|R23-300||21000 kg||1.6-1.75 kg / kg.ch|
|VD-19P||13500 kg||2.0-2.5 kg / kg.ch|
|R17-117||17,000 kg||1,7-1,1,8 /kg.ch kg)|
Aircraft "135" also considered a variant with a nuclear power plant.
The number of engines, depending on the magnitude of thrust, varied from four to six. During the work on the optimal aerodynamic circuit 14 aircraft models of the "135" aircraft were manufactured, which TsAGI tested with 6 wing option schemes and more than 10 engine layout options. In 5 cases the optimal wing profile was determined. On 6 variants, takeoff and landing characteristics and general characteristics were tested at subsonic speeds. On models, selected controls, stability and controllability characteristics. Is the shape and location of the nacelle, the air intakes, nozzles, form the air supply channels for engines, investigated the mutual influence of the motor nacelles, wing and fuselage.
As a result, work on the optimal aircraft layout was chosen - a delta wing with variable sweep on the leading edge, one keel and twin engine nacelles spaced along the span of the wing. The selected arrangement allowed obtaining sufficiently high design values of the aerodynamic quality of the aircraft in various flight conditions, which were confirmed in studies in TsAGI (for M = 0.9 - R = 10.5, with M = 1.2 - 8.3 K = , with 2.5 M - K = 6.5, when M = 3 - K = 6.0).
Separately, considerion was given to the introduction of cruise missiles and airborne ballistic missiles for various purposes. Much attention was paid to development of navigation and piloting and sighting systems, onboard equipment RAP based on the latest achievements of domestic electronic industry. As a result, the design of shock-intelligence system of Tu-135 were developed in KB's basic concept of creating a strategic aircraft carrier and systems based on it.
The maximum speed of the aircraft was limited to the value of 3000 km / h (M = 2,82M) and cruising speed - 2500-2650 km / h (M = 2,35-2,5). It is possible to use in the construction of aircraft duralumin alloys, with only a few loaded elements of heat-resistant alloys and materials, allowing use of familiar and proven technology and manufacturing capabilities at series production aircraft plants without significant rework and shortening the design and manufacturing tiem be a factor of two.
The power plant of the aircraft would be based on a double-circuit (turbofan) engines type NC-6. This provided a greater flight distance of 10 - 20% in the main supersonic flight conditions and at 30-40% mixed and subsonic regimes when compared with other types of motors offers, and the possibility of prolonged low-level flight. In addition, the use of DTRD type NC-6 allows you to have the same type of propulsion system with the aircraft Tu-22 2NK-6 (plane "106"), as well as provide an additional effect of the modifications to the NK-6 or its main units for power plants civil aircraft as well as projects for the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing (NK-8, SC-144, SC-36, SC-38).
Based on the large amount of research and analysis of the proposed aircraft Tu-135, options for further design variant with the following dimensions were chosen: the wing area - 400-450 m 2, takeoff weight - 160000-200000 kg. The selected dimensions ensure normal practical flight range supersonic cruise (2650 km / h) - 8,000 km, maximum practical flight range -10000 km and range from one refueling in flight -12 000 km, obtaining maximum practical flight range at subsonic (920 km / h) - 12000-13000 km and refueling in flight - 14000-15000 km, and obtaining the maximum practical range of flight at low altitudes - 6,000 km.
In the case of the creation on the basis of attack aircraft Tu-135, its passenger version Tu-135P plane), such a machine could provide practical flight range at supersonic speed - 6500 km (non-stop flight from the territory of the USSR in the USA).
Based on the requirements of the Air Force for the possibility of heavy aircraft operating from airfields with a weak concrete surface or from the ground, the aircraft was equipped with multiwheel or ski-wheel chassis. It is possible to use the aircraft at takeoff weight of 160,000 kg airfields 1st class and unpaved airfields improved type. The accelerated version at takeoff weight of 200,000 kg - with airfields outside the band of 1st class.
Work on the Tu-135 was not confined only to just getting a highly effective medium impact, it was about creating a multi-purpose system capable of tackling a wide range of operational and strategic objectives on the basis of one of the base plane. On the plane Tu-135 assigned tasks:
- search and destruction of attack ["shock"] aircraft carriers, transport vessels and convoys. In these cases, the aircraft had to arm themselves with 2-4 cruise or ballistic missiles with a range of 500-600 km range, the range of aviation-missile system should be without in-flight refueling 5000 km, with refueling - 6000 km;
- search and destroy cruise missilec carryig ships, as well as SSBNs at distances exceeding the range of their missile launch. The aircraft was to provide time loitering at a distance of 2,000 km for 8 hours, at 3,000 km for 5.3 hours, at 4,000 km for 2.7 hours, and be equipped with a search-and-shock anti-ship and anti-submarine systems based cruise and ballistic missiles, anti-submarine bombs and torpedoes;
- disruption or destruction of military air transport, in this case, the aircraft was equipped with radar interception and guidance and armed with 4-6 missiles +vozduh-vozduh- time loitering in this version was supposed to be at a distance of 2,000 km - 8 hours 3000 km - 5.3 hours, 4,000 km - 2.7 h, the information about the departure of military transport aircraft had come from satellite intelligence system;
- conducting aerial radar, radio, photographic and special reconnaissance flight at supersonic speed without refueling in flight within a radius of 5000 km, with refueling - 6000 km, subsonic - 6000-6500 and 7000-7500 km away respectively, at altitudes of 20000-24000 km , to expand the range of the intelligence system and its efficiency and resistance to air defense, to be used dorazvedchik-plane, suspended by reconnaissance aircraft;
- hit small strategic objectives protected powerful air and missile defense system with the flight to the target and back to their areas of action at low altitudes, the system operating range should be 3000 km and weapons - two cruise or ballistic missiles with a range of 150-350 km range, and and nuclear bombs.
- As auxiliary problem for aircraft "Tu-135" considered a defeat of strategic targets at a distance up to 7500 km. In this case, the plane had to carry ballistic missiles with a range of 4,000 km.
It is evident from considering the Tu-135 system, in the form as it was formed in the mid-1960s, represented an Aviation and missile system designed to address the largely operational and operational-strategic tasks. Purely strategic objectives assigned to it at both the strategic framework and the second blow to strike against small well-protected targets (underground ICBM silos, groundwater management and supply centers). This versatility was to reduce the overall cost of deployment.
But Khrushchev relied on a complete rejection of the manned strategic bombers in favor of ICBMs. He did not dare to act directly against the Soviet Air Force Tupolev patriarch and stop the Tu-135. Tupolev Design Bureau was asked to study the possibility of increasing the cruising speed of the Tu-135 to 3000 km/h, like the XB-70. At the same time, as opposed to Tupolev, the single-mode aircraft for combating aircraft carrier strike groups (CSGs) were undertaken at the Sukhoi Design Bureau (T-4) and Yakovlev (Yak-35). In July 1962 a scientific and technical council summed up the contest. In the course of discussion on the proposals of the Tu-135 aircraft, the project was criticized for the takeoff weight of 190 tons, and inconsistencies in the cruise speed specified (2500 instead of 3000 km/h).
The arguments from KB AN Tupolev were very objective and literate - from the perspective of saving public money is better to build only one type of aircraft, the Tu-135, which would decide strategic objectives (with the attacks on the United States), and the problem long-range aircraft for which sufficient range of 3000-3500 km, where the flight time at a speed of 2,500 km/h increases by only 12 minutes (72 minutes instead of 60). This Tupolev plane could carry 4-6 missiles against the two projects in OKB PO Dry and AS Yakovlev. The results failed in September 1962. AN Tupolev realized that the Tu-135 aircraft project will be removed from the competition and therefore gave the team its design office on the preparation of the terms of the contest developed to replace the Tu-22, Tu-125.
In December 1963 the Resolution of the CC CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers of the development of the Tu-135 was closed in favor of the shock-reconnaissance aircraft T-4. By the mid 1960s of the design work of the Tu-135 systems had been completely phased out. The main factors were Air Force rejection of the concept of single-mode strategic supersonic aircraft carrier and the transition to the idea of ??the creation of the multi-purpose vehicle based on the heavy aircraft with variable sweep wing (similar changes occurred in the United States - the rejection of the B-70 was followed by the start of work on the B-1); structural and technological complexity that accompanied the creation of the system, especially related to the design of modern navigation equipment and its associated sighting system, the high cost of deploying such a system. Although the Tu-135 system work was stopped, many achievements, especially conceptual obtained during the design were used in later developments KB, in particular when working on the Tu-22M and Tu-160.
|Wing area, m2||417.00|
|engine type||4 DTRDF NC-6|
|Thrust unforced, kgf||4 x 23500|
|Maximum speed km / h||3000|
|Cruising speed, km / h||2650|
|Practical range, km|
|at supersonic speed||7800-8000|
|max (M 1)||10000|
|refueling one (M 1)||12000|
|at subsonic speeds (920 km / h)||12000-13000|
|refueling one (M 1)||14000-15000|
|at low altitudes||6000|
|Practical ceiling, m||19000-22000|
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