TR-1 9K71 Temp
Since the late fifties, Soviet industry had worked to create promising tactical missile systems with a range of firing to several hundred kilometers. The first representative of this class of equipment, brought to the test, was the complex 9K71 "Temp". It had some shortcomings, which did not allow the deployment of mass production and operation in the troops. Nevertheless, work continued in the prospective direction, which resulted in the appearance of the 9K76 Temp-S complex.
The first stage was a bundle of 4 solid fuel engines. The engines are interconnected not only by fastening elements, but there is also a fire connection between them in order to align their thrust forces with each other. Of course, it would be better to make one big engine with several nozzles. But the technologies of that time did not allow making solid-fuel charges of large diameters.
The development of the Temp rocket front-level rocket was initiated by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 839–379 of July 21, 1959. NII-1 was appointed the lead developer. The complex received an index of 9K71, a missile with a special combat unit-9M71, and with a high-explosive warhead 9M72. Initially, the special combat unit was to have a power of 300 kt. The missile part with the instrument compartment had an index of 9D12, and the powder charge was 9X11.
All ground launch equipment for the Temp, including the 9P11 launcher (Br-225 factory index), was manufactured the plant No. 221 (Barricades), tractors and trailers on the chassis MA3-537B were made by the Minsk plant. The rockets were manufactured at the Votkinsk plant.
The Br-225 launcher was placed on a semitrailer. Horizontal installation of the table was carried out by jacks. Charging was made by an arrow placed on the launcher. And to load the rocket into the launcher a special crane was required. On the launcher there was a device for thermal insulation of the head and middle parts of the installation. Drives for vertical guidance and booms were electrohydraulic, and for horizontal guidance they were manual.
The rocket was launched at a constant elevation angle of 90°, that is, strictly vertically. The horizontal guidance was made within 360°. Dimensions of the Br-225 launcher in the stowed position: length 18.18 m, width 3.1 m, height 3.64 m. The total weight of the installation is 30.55 tons. The installation was served by 8 people. The estimated starting time for the transition from the marching position was 30 minutes, and from combat readiness No. 2 - 20 minutes.
According to the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 178-84 of February 19, 1962, the development of the chemical warhead "Tuman-2" for the "Temp" rocket was started. The development of the mobile launcher Br-225 (9P11) was started at the Barrikady plant on February 14, 1959. The prototype was manufactured in 1961-1962.
Flight tests of the Temp rockets were started in May 1961. Since the Br-225 launch vehicle was not yet ready, the Barrikady plant manufactured in 1960 a test range launcher Br-234, from which the first rocket launches were made "Pace". The first launch of Tempa took place on May 20, 1961. The rocket flew 220 km. The shortfall to the aiming point was 4 km, and the lateral deviation was 900 m. Even at the first launch it was noted that when the head part of the rocket was separated, it began to fluctuate within ±60°, which resulted in underflights of up to 40 km. Until the end of 1961, two more launches of Temp rockets were made.
From January to May 1962, three rocket launches were made, but now not from the Br-234 test launcher, but from the regular Br-225. Based on the analysis of six launches of the Temp rockets, it was found that its maximum range would be 425 km, instead of the required 500-600 km. In addition, it was noted that when the head of the rocket was detached in flight, its oscillations again appeared, again leading to underflights.
During the summer of 1962, Temp's modifications were being completed to increase its range to at least 460 km. Experimental production of the Temp rockets was carried out at the plant No. 235. Serial production of the Temp rockets was supposed to begin in 1963. In 1962-1963, part of the launch of the Temp rocket was carried out from the Br-225 launcher.
On June 14, 1960 KB Barrikady factory began to design the launch unit Br-240 for the Temp rockets transported by helicopters. However, work on Br-240 was soon discontinued. On September 9, 1960, in the same design bureau for the Temp missiles, the design of a lightweight Br-249 launcher placed on a semi-trailer began. These works were also not brought to the test stage. And, finally, on September 7, 1961, the KB of Barrikady plant began the development of the Br-264 launcher on the chassis MA3-543.
The second stage of the flight-design tests of the Temp rockets was started in December 1962. But on July 16, 1963, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 800-273 was issued: "Due to the lag in terms of flight design tests and insufficiently high technical characteristics of the product" stop at the stage of flight design tests.
Indeed, the Temp rocket layout was not optimal due to the absence of solid fuel motors of the required diameter, which, in combination with a large payload weight (about 900 kg), resulted in an excessively large starting weight (10.5 tons) for this class of missiles. However, the development work on the Temp product, the first in this country practice of this type of rocket with solid fuel, made it possible to solve and develop a number of fundamentally new design solutions (ring-shaped gas rudders, grate stabilizers, large-sized solid-fuel engine components, etc.) ), many of which were later used in other rockets.
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