SS-12 SCALEBOARD 9K76 Temp-S
As the early Soviet test beds reached toward a longer-range missile system, the SS-1 and SS-2 gave way to the SS-1 SHYSTER. However, the SHYSTER's simple rail and pad transport and launch structure would have been extremely vulnerable in combat. The solution was the introduction of the SS-12 SCALEBOARD, first seen in November 1967 and deployed on the same MAZ-543 eight-wheeled transporter- erector- launcher as the SCUD.
Since the late fifties, Soviet industry had worked to create promising tactical missile systems with a range of firing to several hundred kilometers. The first representative of this class of equipment, brought to the test, was the complex 9K71 "Temp". It had some shortcomings, which did not allow the deployment of mass production and operation in the troops. Nevertheless, work continued in the prospective direction, which resulted in the appearance of the 9K76 Temp-S complex.
In the early sixties, the Soviet chemical industry created new recipes for mixed solid fuels, which could be used to develop prospetive rocket engines. The complex was created at SRI-1 (Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering since 1967) under the direction of A.D. Nadiradze. USSR Council of Ministers Decree No. 839-379 NII-1 entrusted the creation of an operational tactical missile system with a Temp solid-fuel rocket , and the Volgograd Plant No.221 Barricades and the SKB-1 Minsk Automobile Plant were assigned to create a launcher complex.
After the development of a composite solid fuel formulation at SRI-125 (later renamed NIHTI, and later - NPO Soyuz, Lyubertsy) under the leadership of the future academician B.P. Zhukov in 1961 at SRI-1 under the guidance of A. D.Nadiradze carried out project estimates of the creation of a new ballistic missile with a solid propellant rocket motor on this fuel. The full-scale development of the Temp-S complex was initiated by the Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers No. 934-405 of September 5, 1962, at the Research Institute-1 (since 1967, MIT, the main contractor for the missile complex and missile), chief designer - AD Nadiradze , NII-592 (control system), NII-125 (engine charge), KB Barrikady plant (SPU and other ground equipment).
In 1962, according to the Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers, preparation was started for the production of 9M76 missiles at the Votkinsk Machine-Building Plant No. 235 (the town of Votkinsk). Joint tests of the Temp-S complex and missiles were conducted at the Kapustin Yar launch site from December 1963 to October 1965. The first launch of the 9M76 Temp-S missile was made on March 14, 1964 (range 580 km).
The SS-12 missile itself is housed and transported inside a ribbed container which is only removed after erection to the vertical launch position. The SS-12 missile was initially assessed as a liquid-fuel, single-stage system similar to the SCUD, but with greater range, accuracy, and size of warhead [in fact, it was a two stage solid propellant missile]. The SCALEBOARD was credited with a maximum range of 900 kilometers; theoretically, launchers in East Germany could strike England. The split cab of the MAZ-543 transporter-erector-launcher houses the firing crew. The vehicle driver sat in the left cab with some crew members behind him while the launch operator sits in the right cab with his control console and other crew members.
In November 1962, the OKB-221 of the Barricades plant began designing a self-propelled launcher Br-278, which subsequently received the additional designation 9P120. This car was based on the special chassis MAZ-543 of the Minsk Automobile Plant. The basic machine was completed with a diesel engine D-12A-525A capacity of 525 hp and hydromechanical transmission, which distributes torque to eight driving wheels. All this allowed the car to carry loads weighing up to 20 tons. It was also possible to tow a 25-ton trailer. The maximum speed of the car reached 55 km / h. Such characteristics were sufficient to use such a chassis as the basis of an operational-tactical missile system.
The SS-12 SCALEBOARD used the same MAZ-543 (8x 8) chassis as the SCUD-B. The primary recognition difference was the environmental protective container that completely encloses the SCALEBOARD missile. Like the SCUD, the SCALEBOARD is designed to be fired from a pre-sited position, and then moved to another prearranged position. The MAZ-543 has centralized tire pressure control.
The 9M76 missile was divided into several main compartments. The conical head fairing contained a warhead with all necessary equipment. After completion of the active leg of the flight, the head part was to be separated. Behind it was located a relatively small instrument compartment connected to the body of the second stage. The first and second stages had a similar structure with a cylindrical body and a nozzle block on the tail end. Between the steps connected by a light farm and an additional casing for control cables. On the tail end of the first stage there were parts needed to support the starting table. At the second stage, the foldable lattice stabilizers were fastened.
Both stages of the rocket had engines of similar design. It was proposed to make motor housings of fiberglass by winding technology. Charges of the PEU-7FG mixed fuel were placed inside the case, providing the required thrust characteristics for a specified time. The tail end of the engine was equipped with a bottom with four nozzles. The total mass of the charges of the engines was 6.88 tons. It was proposed to use moving nozzles to control the rocket on the active part of the flight. The second stage received a cut-off thrust system with the redirection of gases to the nozzles directed forward in the direction of motion. With their help, the body of the second stage had to be discharged from the dropped head part.
At various stages of the Temp-S project, it was proposed to equip the 9M76 missile with four types of combat units, but only two such products reached mass production and operation. The AA-19 warhead with a 300 kt thermonuclear charge was the first to go into the series. Later came the product AA-81 with a capacity of 500 kt. At a certain stage, it was planned to complete the rocket with a chemical warhead created for the Temp complex, but this proposal was not implemented. In 1967, at least six missile regiments were formed, armed with Temp-S systems. The vast majority of such units were based beyond the Urals, which was associated with the deterioration of Soviet-Chinese relations. It was proposed to cover the western direction with the help of other missile systems. The operation of the 9K76 complexes by strategic rocket forces did not last long, until February 1968. After that, an order was issued by the General Staff to transfer existing regiments to the composition of the missile forces and artillery of the ground forces. Now the rocket regiments were to obey the command of the military districts. The SCALEBOARD was a front and theater-level weapon system that gave the Soviet commander a nuclear capability. The SCALEBOARD appeared deployed only with Soviet forces. The mid-range missile can be stationed in the western part of the USSR and still be able to hit important targets in Central Europe. The four transporter-erector-launchers in each of the three launch battalions making up the Front's SCALEBOARD brigade would remain deep in the zone of the front and be controlled by the Front commander and his Chief of Rocket Troops and Artillery.
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