Soviet Solid Propellant SLBMs
The combination of a harsh marine environment and explosive liquid fuels is not the best neighborhood. Therefore, since the 1960s, the USSR was working on the development of solid-fueled SLBMs. However, with the existing traditional leadership of the USSR in developing liquid rockets and lagging behind the United States in developing solid fuel, it was not possible to create a complex with acceptable characteristics at that time. Two versions of the D-6 launch system for solid-fuel missiles were researched by OKB-7 (KB Arsenal) in Leningrad between 1958 and 1960. One used a missile with a cluster of four separate motors using propellants that were already in production for use in used on the 3P9 missile of the 2K6 Luna complex unguided tactical rockets. The second version focused on a new missile incorporating new solid propellants using a crystal oxidizer and fuel, with the first and second stages consisting of a single of rocket motor. The overall dimensions of either missile would have been too large for a launching tube inside the pressure hull, so the D-6 launcher design called for two tubes on each side of the outside of the hull.
The first Soviet two-stage solid-fueled SLBM with R-31 solid fuel as part of the D-11 complex entered trial operation only in 1980. The only one of the 12 missiles was a single SS-140 SS that received a design index of 667AM (Yankee-II, or Navaga -M ").
The new R-31 missile, with a starting mass of 26.84 tons, close to the already-existing P-29 (33.3 tons) liquid-fueled, had a half-way range (4200 km against 7800 km), half the weight to be thrown and low accuracy (KVO 1.4 km). Therefore, it was decided not to launch the D-11 in a series production, and in 1989 it was withdrawn from service. A total of 36 R-31 serial missiles were produced, 20 of which were spent in the process of testing and practical shooting. In mid-1990, the Ministry of Defense decided to dispose of all available missiles of this type by the method of shooting. From September 17 to December 1, 1990 all the missiles were successfully launched, after which on December 17, 1990 the K-140 went to Severodvinsk for cutting into metal.
The next Soviet solid-propellant missile - a three-stage R-39 - turned out to be very large (length 16 m and diameter 2.5 m). To accommodate the D-19 complex consisting of twenty R-39 missiles, the 941 Akula submarine (NATO designation Typhoon) of a special configuration was developed. This largest submarine ship in the world had a length of 170 m, a width of 23 m and an underwater displacement of almost 34,000 tons. The first submarine of this type became part of the Northern Fleet on December 12, 1981.
This submarine was, in the words of the KB "Malachite" - "the victory of technology over common sense". After a series of unsuccessful launches, the development of a rocket and trial operation at the head "Akula" in 1984, the D-19 complex was adopted. However, this missile was inferior in performance to the American complex Trident. In addition to the dimensions (length 16 m vs. 10.2 m, diameter 2.5 m vs. 1.8 m, weight with starting system 90 tons vs. 33.1 tons), the P-39 also had a shorter range - 8,300 km against 11 000 and accuracy - KVO 500 m against 100 m. Specialists from the SRC created a solid-propellant rocket, but it turned out to be huge and huge boats must be made for it (which greatly "pleased" the military budget and the secrecy of these submarines).
Therefore, from the mid-1980s, work was begun on a new solid-fueled SLBM for the "Akul" - the D-19UTTK Bark missile. The new SLBM was commissioned by MIT, which always dealt only with land-based missiles. The key goal was the creation of a compact solid-propellant marine missile.
Makeyev very successfully modernized the RSM-54 missile, which was named "Sineva". According to the characteristics of energy efficiency (the ratio of the launch weight, 40.3 tons, and the combat load, 2.8 tons), reduced to the range of flight. In 2007, President Putin signed a decree on the adoption of the Sineva missile. According to the resolution of the government, the serial production of the modernized RSM-54 missile is urgently resumed at the Krasnoyarsk machine-building plant. The production capacities that were recently closed down by the decision of the same government are resumed.
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