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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Work on a new large medium-range bomber began in the late 1950s, in response to the disappointing results obtained with the TU-22 BLINDER, which was intended to replace the TU-16 [which had not met Air Force requirements]. In 1961 the operational and technical requirements for the new airplane were approved, specifying a supersonic missile-carrier with a speed of up to 3,000 km/h [since the overseas XB-70 could fly at a speed of 3,000 km/h] and an operational range of 2000 km. The plane should also be mission capable of hitting enemy aircraft carrier battle groups out in the ocean. The design bureaus A.N. Tupolev, A.S. Yakovlev and P.O.Sukhoi competed for the project, and the results were summed up at the scientific and technical council held in July 1962. The Tupolev design bureau submitted the "aircraft 135" project, whose take-off weight equaled 190 tons. The design failed to match its cruising speed to that of the required one, i.e. 2,500 km/h instead of 3,000 km/h. Yakovlev proposed the Yak-35 aircraft, which resembled the American Hustler, with a take-off weight of 90 tons and a cruise speed of 3,000 km/h. The T-4/S-100 design submitted by KB Sukhoi was selected, with the support of the military and the State Committee Scientific and Technical Council.

The initial design developed in 1964 called for a tailless delta-wing aircraft with four turbojet engines placed in a single "gondola" under the fuselage. The wing had a break in the leading edge, and a small forward stabilizer was included. The plane was to be equipped with three controlled H-45 solid-fuel missiles, located under the fuselage. KB Rybinsk developed the RD-36-41 engines under the direction of P.A. Kolesov. Initially KB Sukhoi was in charge of the project, but ultimately KB Raduga led the design team. During the design process, the arrangement of the aircraft engines was modified and the number of missiles was reduced to two. Construction made extensive use of titanium and steel alloys, and the T-4 used an advanced electrohydraulic, quadruple redundancy fly-by-wire system. It was fitted with a 'droop snoot' that offered good visibility in the landing configuration, but when the nose of the aircraft was up and locked, the pilots had no forward visibility and all flying was on instruments.

The final design was 44.5m long, had a wing span of 22m, a wing surface of 295.7 square meters and a lift-off weight of 114 tons. The calculated flight-characteristics indicated that the bomber would have a range of 6000 km, a maximum speed of 3200 km/hr at an altitude of 20,000-24,000 meters and an absolute ceiling of 25,000-30,000 meters.

In December 1966, the Sukhoi design bureau presented the Air Force with the mock-up of the T-4 strike/reconnaissance aircraft. In 1967, the Soviet government issued a decree ordering an experimental batch of seven T-4 aircraft to be built, of which one should be used for static research and the rest to be flight-tested. A mock-up airplane was built in 1968, and construction of the first prototype began in 1969 at the Series Production Plant 82 in Tushino (Moscow). The first flight of the prototype T-4 took place on 22 August 1972 and subsequently the plane made 10 flights which were completed in 1974. During these flight trials the plane reached an altitude of 12,100 meters high and a speed of Mach 1.28. It is believed that the 'aircraft 101' that set a Mach 1.89 record over 2,000 km closed circuit was a T-4.

Soon after testing began, preparation for construction of the first pilot batch of planes was begun. In 1974, work on the T-4 bomber was cancelled, given the beginning of serial production of the more conventionally designed TU-22M bomber.

Although frequently compared to the American XB-70 intercontinental strategic bomber, which it superficially resembled, the T-4 medium bomber was a rather smaller aircraft intended as a medium-range theater system.

Between 1967-1969, KB Sukhoi also developed a design for the rather larger variable-geometry T-4M strategic bomber, derived from the basic T-4 design. On 10 January 1969 the Minister of Aviation Industry issued an order for research and development of a strategic supersonic bomber. A competition was initiated among the aircraft design bureaus of Tupolev, Myasishchev and Sukhoi. In 1969 and 1970 Sukhoi designed the T-4MS bomber that also had variable wings and which was entered into this competition for building a supersonic strategic bomber. The work proceeded slowly, and the T-4MS design effort was ended in favor of work on the Su-27 and other high priority tactical aircraft. In 1975 the contest between Myasishchev's M-18 design [resembling the B-1 in appearance] and Tupolev's Tu-160 was decided in favor of Tupolev.

Between 1967-1969, KB Sukhoi also developed a design for the rather larger variable-geometry T-4M strategic bomber, derived from the basic T-4 design. On 10 January 1969 the Minister of Aviation Industry issued an order for research and development of a strategic supersonic bomber. A competition was initiated among the aircraft design bureaus of Tupolev, Myasishchev and Sukhoi. In 1969 and 1970 Sukhoi designed the T-4MS bomber that also had variable wings and which was entered into this competition for building a supersonic strategic bomber. The work proceeded slowly, and the T-4MS design effort was ended in favor of work on the Su-27 and other high priority tactical aircraft. In 1975 the contest between Myasishchev's M-18 design [resembling the B-1 in appearance] and Tupolev's Tu-160 was decided in favor of Tupolev. In 1961, a competition was announced to create a percussive missile to destroy enemy aircraft carrier ships. three design offices participated in the competition: AN Tupolev, AS Yakovlev and Sukhoi. Scientific and Technical Council, which included leading specialists of many ministries and departments, the best has been recognized and recommended for further development of the aircraft T-4 project (better known as "weaving") submitted EDO Sukhoi. Soon began his schematic design. At the same time held the first models in the blowdown wind tunnels TsAGI (Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute). In April 1963 it was completed the preliminary conceptual design of the aircraft T-4, which was then considered the Air Force commission. And in December 1963, the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers decided to continue work on aircraft design. Order of the Minister of the aviation industry to work together with EDO chapter 0.. Dry branch research organizations were involved. In the first quarter of 1964 the final draft of the aircraft project was reviewed and approved by the Commission for the Air Force and the State Committee for Aviation Technology. To ensure construction and bench testing prototypes of T-4 to the connected Tushino Machine Building Plant (TMZ) under the technical guidance of the Sukhoi Design Bureau. In parallel, the study of aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft of the future, as well as testing of its various systems together with research institutes in the aviation industry. The Design Bureau designed bays, units, laboratory benches systems "weave." In 1964 specifically to serve "high" officials built the first full-scale wooden model with air intake - the so-called inverse wedge. A great contribution and the search for the optimal shape of the aircraft T-4, introduced design department EDO chapter 0.. Dry. As a result, in August 1965 found a new, final layout missile, which has passed the approval TsAGI and CIAM (Central Institute of Aviation Motors) and adopted as a basic for further work on the topic. At the same time audited aerodynamics "weave" to flying laboratories established on the basis of the Su-9, had the notation - "100L". Teens indicted also prepared drawings of the wing and fuselage sections, designed for static and dynamic tests. At the same time it agreed with the developers and receives approval of the MAP (Ministry of Aviation Industry) schedule creating the T-4 complex. Already in early 1966, ready to sketch the plane project with the BBC notes. In the same year there was a decision on the continuation of the works and the construction of three prototypes in conjunction with TMZ. EDO, finishing the preliminary design of the aircraft, immediately started to produce working drawings. Simultaneously started construction of a second full-size model of the future of the machine; it was completed in early 1967. On TMZ in chapter 0. EDO. Sukhoi prepare stands for testing of aggregates and construction elements. And together with TsAGI LII (Flight Research Institute) conducted tests of the new aircraft wing with sharp leading edge of flying laboratory "100L". In 1967, during flight tests of various systems of the aircraft used for the first time flying Laboratory (LL), created on the basis of the Su-7U and Tu-22: they perfected the automatic control system and radar. Also continued test flights at LL "100L-1" and "100L-2", which was carried out on 20 and 15 missions. In 1968 he completed the release of drawings on planes "101" and "100C" (code "C" was appropriated aircraft designed for static strength tests). Parallel shoved into production drawings prototype "102", with advanced design vertical tail, wing and consoles gondolas - to reduce the complexity of their manufacture. By the beginning of 1969 at TMZ has conducted assembly airframe "101" and "100 C" went manufacture parts prototype design "102". During this period, we carried out extensive work on the study of new materials for aircraft. In particular, questions have been studied weldability of titanium alloys BT-21 and BT-22 in combination with the BT-20 and OT-4, vibration strength and reliability of high pressure pipes welded titanium alloy. Improved technology for welding alloys Hiv-3 and CEP-2, formulation and use of radio transparent material for a radome radar, as well as sealants and high rubber. In Tushino engineering plant gliders built in 1970, the aircraft "101" "100 C". Final assembly of the "one hundred and first" car was carried out in chapter 0. EDO. Dry and static test aircraft - TsAGI. The LII on flying laboratories Tu-16 and "100LDU" brought an automatic engine control system (ADCS-3 OA) and myself RD-36-41 engine. At this point Packaged ground crew for flight tests and started his training. In December 1971, after the relocation of the aircraft "101" in Zhukovsky on the flight test station (LIS), in chapter 0. EDO. Sukhoi began assembling the aircraft "102". On TMZ, & turn, started the production of aggregates of the third and fourth experimental machines. Aircraft "103" was supposed to have easier and tech in the production of the keel. Prior to June 1972 continued refinement of the aircraft "101 foxes." Then completed 8 rulezhek two aborted take-off and one approaching. Taxiing were performed to assess the quality of control of the aircraft at the rate during taxiing and at speeds from 20 to 290 km / h. August 22, 1972 the first flight of the shock experienced submarine T-4, which is the first time in practice of domestic and world aircraft was conducted using by-wire flight control system and the autothrottle. From this date began the first phase of the flight test aircraft T-4, which was successfully completed in July 1973. In total for this time it was carried out 9 missions, the results of which have been assessed the stability of the aircraft, landing gear systems-cleaning and braking of the aircraft in flight, the power plant. It was reached the speed of 1.3 meters at an altitude of 10 000 m and a maximum height of 12,000 m. Flights revealed some shortcomings (in particular hydraulic motors and control system), which was supposed to resolve after the first stage. But the work on the aircraft "101" gradually began to "wind down." "Top" in relation to the plane blew cold. Nevertheless, January 22, 1974 "I-101" car made its tenth flight. At the T-4 program for the creation of modern aircraft was interrupted due to sharply negative attitude to her leadership of the country and MAP. The fate of the "weave" was sealed ... TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE AIRCRAFT Plane T-4 was carried out on the aerodynamic configuration "tailless" with canards. The fuselage of the aircraft had a high aspect ratio deviating nose section, which allows to improve the view from the cockpit at subsonic flight regimes, when refueling in flight and take-off and landing modes. At the top of the cabin compartment housed tandem seat pilot and navigator, aircraft controls, engines and equipment and the impact of navigation and navigation equipment. Each place is equipped with a folding hatch for the emergency evacuation of the airplane and landing crew. In podkabinnyh compartments were units of life support systems and components suspension deflectable forward fuselage. Radio-electronic equipment (REO) of the aircraft mainly housed in the compartment behind the cockpit. To ensure the efficiency of electronic equipment in the long supersonic flight instrument compartment was sealed with a heat-insulating coating on the inside. There were blocks Jammer, infrared direction finder, radar, aircraft transponder onboard digital computer stations, missile control instrumentation, electronic intelligence systems, IFF, communication, astroinertial, short- and long-range navigation, etc. Three fuel compartment located behind REO compartment. Above them, in the lines of communication gorgrote aircraft systems were built. The rear fuselage housed chetyrehkupolnaya drogue parachute. Under the fuselage and wing center section is allocated for the gondola with four packages mounted engine. Sock front of the nacelle has a vertical wedge that is installed on the left and right shutters multicell adjustable air intake and air intake itself. The gondola was wearing a niche nose landing gear. In the central zone between the nacelle air channels was expendable fuel tank, and on its left and right sides - the main landing gear niche. The aft engine nacelle housed package separated by fire walls. The wing of the aircraft, which had a triangular in shape with a kink on the leading edge, technologically and structurally divided into the center section and wing panel. Profile wing - balanced with a relative thickness of 2.7%. The central part of the wing was a mnogobalochnuyu design with often located cross set (ribs) and cladding panels, backed by stringers. She, in turn, consists of 2 parts - the sealed front, where there was a fuel tank, and a leaky rear. Each wing panel - welded construction, the elements of which were made of titanium alloys. Vertical tail of the aircraft had a trapezoidal shape in plan with a sweep angle of the leading edge 51 degrees. It consisted of the keel and rudder, are divided by height into two parts. Canards (PGO) trapezoidal in plan, with a sweep on the leading edge of 55 degrees was performed tselnopovorotnym and consisted of interchangeable left and right consoles. The chassis of the aircraft - three-point circuit with nose wheel. Key support supplied with two-axle bogies with four dual wheels. The front landing gear was suspended lever-wheel brakes with start. The aircraft is equipped with two control systems: electro-hydraulic (SDE) and the mechanical backup. If necessary switching systems produced simultaneously in the longitudinal, transverse channels, and a channel of the rudder. CDS is the central control system samopetom, provides the necessary stability and controllability characteristics. Fourfold duplication remote systems guarantee reliable operation without derating at two successive failures of any type. The mechanical system - the usual type. Each of its channels is set automatic tension cables and systems switching mechanism. The like CDS channels and mechanical systems had common boot devices and mechanisms trimmer effect. The aircraft used packet scheme of the power plant with four single-shaft turbojet engines RD-36-41 and two inlet channels, each of which is supplied by two engine. These motors are distinguished by extensive mechanization of the compressor in the form of adjustable front and rear guide vanes, cooled rotor blades of the turbine, afterburner and adjustable supersonic nozzle. For the first time in practice of domestic aircraft engine on the RD-36-41 engines find application system: ignition of the afterburner by injection of fuel through the turbine ( "fire lane"); emergency drain using afterburner pump motor to feed the discharged fuel at the nozzle exit, as well as automatic remote motor control. The structure of the aircraft armament was planned to include guided missiles "air - surface" - X-45 bomber unguided weapons as well as containers with reconnaissance equipment and individual-group protection of defense complex. Armament, external fuel tanks and containers are planned to be installed on five external hardpoints: three under and two nacelles under the wing consoles. Plane T-4, built with the latest science and technology of the time, and there is little in what would be lost to his younger brothers. However, there was unfairly forgotten, and it can be seen only in an open area Monino Aviation Museum. In the T-4 (T stands for delta wing), Tu-135 and Yak-33 supersonic bomber plans submitted by the Sukhoi, Tupolev and Yakovlev Design Bureau, the Yak-33 was too small ( It is only equivalent to the British TSR.2), which can not meet the requirements at all, so it is out first. Although the Tu-135 looks like a B-70, it is actually an aluminum airplane at Mach 2.35. Only the Sukhoi T-4 uncompromisingly chose the Mach 3 design from the beginning, and therefore won in April 1963. Even the heads of many departments within the Sukhoi Design Bureau did not support the development of T-4, believing that they had betrayed the development of the design bureau. The main business of fighter aircraft, demanding performance requirements and limited resources will make the design bureau unable to bear. After a large number of wind tunnel tests, the aerodynamic layout of the T-4 is locked on the canard delta. Tests show that this layout can reduce the subsonic speed by 2% and the supersonic trim resistance by 3-5%, which increases the range of the aircraft. 7%. In 1966, the Sukhoi Design Bureau modified a Su-9 interceptor and conducted flight tests on various wing configurations of the T-4. Also in 1968, the T-4 canard was also installed in a A test flight was carried out on the Su-7U trainer aircraft. In addition, there are more flight test benches to test the avionics and other systems that T-4 will use. Unlike the XB-70, the main mission of the "Soviet Valkyrie" is not to carry out a strategic attack on the enemy, but to destroy the US aircraft carrier battle group and perform strategic reconnaissance missions. The aircraft will be a medium-range tactical bomber, even It will also become the starting point of the Soviet supersonic passenger plane. The pre-research of the new bomber has been arguing since the beginning, and the focus is on whether it should spend a huge price to develop a Mach 3 stainless steel/titanium alloy aircraft. Mach 2 aluminum aircraft is obviously more realistic. The new bomber project began pre-research in December 1962. Although the Soviet Air Force had begun to equip the Tu-22 "Blindfold" supersonic bomber at this time, the maximum speed of the aircraft was only 1.42 Mach, the practical ceiling was 13,100 meters, and the range was 4,800 kilometers. The beginning of the 1960s was a difficult time for domestic aviation, there was a significant reduction in funding for programs related to manned aircraft. The experimental design bureaus, which were left without promising work in the aircraft industry, were re-profiled. At the highest state level, preference was given to rocketry, which sometimes turned into a kind of rocketry. Nevertheless, the Air Force formulated the task of creating a new carrier aircraft for long-range aviation with a very high level of flight performance: the flight range is about 7000 km, and the cruising speed is 3000 km / h. Advertising from RtbSape NO TASKS IMPOSSIBLE The level of the specified characteristics was due to the concept of application, which was based on the possibility of a quick exit to the area of ??the detected target and its guaranteed no-reflection. At the same time, it was assumed that the carrier would not be able to effectively counteract the enemy's air defense systems. The State Committee for Aviation Technology (GKAT) organized, so to speak, an unofficial competition for the creation of an aircraft, in which the Design Bureau of Sukhoi, Tupolev and Yakovlev participated. On November 13, 1961, under the chairmanship of the Minister of Aviation Industry P.V. Dementyev, the first meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council of the GKAT was held to consider the proposals of all OKBs. In the future, two more meetings were held, some of which were held in rather heated discussions. The meetings were attended by developers from the Aircraft and Engine Design Bureau, scientists from the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute and the Central Institute of Aviation Motors. The results of the "competition" were summed up in December 1961, the decision stated that further work on the topic of the new carrier would be continued at the P.O. Sukhoi and A.N. Tupolev. Andrei Nikolaevich was entrusted with the development of a project for a machine with a flight range of 10,000 km, and Pavel Osipovich - 7000. At the Sukhoi Design Bureau, Deputy General Designer N.S. Chernyakov. The work was carried out in several stages. To select the optimal aerodynamic layout and structural-power scheme in the "general types" brigade of the OKB from 1961 to 1966, more than 40 variants of the aircraft layout were worked out. FROM AVANPROJECT TO EXPERIMENTAL COPIES The OKB built a viewing layout and prepared a preliminary design, its defense took place in May 1963. Based on the results of successful protection, a decision was made to continue the work, and on December 3, 1963, a government decree was issued, which the OKB officially asked to create a new aircraft. In June 1964, the draft design was defended, after which the OKB began a working project. Since 1965, the Tushinsky Machine-Building Plant (TMZ) and the Burevestnik Design Bureau were involved in the production of an experimental batch of aircraft, which took part in the detailed design. Note that at the initial stage, the Sukhoi Design Bureau developed not only an aircraft, but also a weapon for the complex - the Kh-30 cruise missile ( Kh-33) long range. Later this work was transferred to the specialized enterprise MKB "Raduga". The result was the creation of the X-45 hypersonic aeroballistic missile . The rocket provided a flight range of 500 km, with a speed corresponding to M = 6.5-7. From the very beginning of work on the T-4it was clear that the creation of the complex is a very difficult scientific and technical task, since it was necessary to provide high, previously unrealized performance characteristics in terms of flight speed, and this meant the need to create a design and selection of materials that could ensure operation at high operating temperatures - 220-330 C. This required a large complex of research in the field of structural strength, materials science, manufacturing technology, as well as in various other related areas. The main structural materials of the airframe are titanium and steel. It was the development of the technology of their use in the design of the aircraft that the main efforts of the designers and technologists of the OKB were devoted to. A large number of fundamentally new technological processes have been mastered, such as automatic through-penetration welding, automatic submerged arc welding using a sheet attachment, chemical milling of titanium alloys, etc. For each of the T-4 systems, taking into account the stringent requirements for the conditions of their operation on an aircraft, the designers had to develop many fundamentally new solutions. For example, for the first time in domestic practice, a four-channel fly-by-wire control system was used, which provided the necessary stability and controllability characteristics of the aircraft in the entire range of its flight modes. Other important innovations are the hydraulic system with a working pressure of 280 kg / cm 2.and a fundamentally new type of steering drive with the division of power and distribution units into separate blocks, which was required to ensure their layout. For the T-4, a fundamentally new fuel system with hydraulic turbopumps was designed, which is used both for pumping fuel to engines and for pumping from regular tanks and a centering tank, as well as a new system for emergency fuel discharge through engine afterburner pumps. TARGET FOR THE FUTURE 1967 became a kind of Rubicon for the T-4 theme. The work came to a point when it was required to make a decision on the practical implementation of the project, that is, to continue the work, it was necessary to allocate a serial plant. As a result, a compromise decision was made - to build the T-4. but only by the forces of the Tushino Machine-Building Plant (TMZ), which did not have the required production capacity. This led to the fact that the work on the project was significantly limited in scope and dragged on for a long time. In total, in the period 1966-1974, four airframes were assembled: one for static and three for flight tests. The first flight on the first prototype T-4 (product "101") the crew consisting of test pilot Vladimir Ilyushin and test navigator Nikolai Alferov performed only on August 22, 1972. Flight tests continued until January 1974. In total, 10 flights were performed during this period, a speed of M = 1.36 was achieved at an altitude of 12,000 meters. In 1974, flight tests of the first prototype T-4 aircraft were suspended, and soon, without any explanation, the entire program, in fact, was curtailed. At the same time, the military department made no claims to the created product, and representatives of the Ministry of Aviation Industry avoided communicating on this topic. The works were officially closed after the death of Pavel Osipovich. By order of the Minister of Aviation Industry of the USSR Dementyev, the Sukhoi Design Bureau presented an estimate of the costs of the T-4 aircraft, which at that year's prices amounted to 1 billion 300 million rubles, including the costs of the OKB - 182 million rubles. In general, it should be noted that the work on the T-4 was not in vain. For ten years, this topic was one of the main ones for the OKB and played an important role in the further development of the entire team, since participation in this program made it possible in practice to carry out a complete technical re-equipment of the entire enterprise, to seriously expand and improve the production and experimental laboratory base of the OKB. When creating the aircraft, all the main divisions of design bureaus and production reached a qualitatively new level in their development. As part of the work on the T-4 theme, almost all the main components, systems and assemblies on the aircraft were developed at the level of inventions. In total, the designers of the OKB introduced 208 inventions, and taking into account those that were implemented in the development of component units and products, about 600. Not on a single aircraft, built by that time in the USSR, there were not so many original designs. All this made it possible to create the necessary scientific and technical groundwork, which was subsequently successfully used in work on new aircraft projects. ????????: https://testpilot.ru/biblioteka/publikatsii/istrebitel-avianostsev-t-4-sotka/ ?????????? www.testpilot.ru

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