Federal Agency on Atomic Energy
The Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom - FAEA) (the Ministry of Atomic Energy prior to March 2004) and Rosenergoatom, a state-owned nuclear power concern, operate Russia's nuclear power reactors. On 09 March 2004 Russian President Vladimir Putin broke up the Russian Atomic Energy Ministry and assigned its activites to other ministries. Under the new structure, civilian nuclear activities were handled by the Federal Atomic Energy Agency, under the newly created Industry and Energy Ministry. Former Atomic Energy Minister Alexander Rumyantsev headed the new, lower-level agency. Initially it was reported that military aspects of the former Atomic Energy Ministry were transferred to the Defense Ministry. However, subsequently it was understood that the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy was subordinated to the Ministry of Defense on matters related to nuclear weapons, and was responsible for the production of all nuclear materials and the development, testing, and production of all nuclear weapons, as well as the elimination of nuclear warheads and nuclear munitions.
Thee presidential edict of March 9, 2004 placed the agency officially under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense as far as issues related to the nuclear weapons complex are concerned. The Ministry of Defense was always involved in these issues, but former Minister of Atomic Energy Viktor Mikhailov has opined that the new legal language may result in increased Ministry of Defense influence over the state defense order-the Ministry's requisition for nuclear weapons-in the nuclear weapons complex, with the funding for the state defense order coming via the Defense Ministry's new Federal Defense Order Service, rather than being transmitted directly to the FAAE, as was the case for Minatom.
The Federal Agency on Atomic Energy was formed on 9 March 2004, by the President's Decree of Russia # 314 "about system and structure of the federal organs of executive power" on the base of the abolished RF Ministry of Atomic Energy. President's Decree RF of 20 May 2004, "questions of the structure of the federal organs of executive power" extended a number of the authorities of agency.
The Federal Agency on Atomic Energy is the authorized federal organ of executive power, which achieves functions on conducting of state policy, to normative- lawful regulation, to the rendering of state services and to control of the state asset in the sphere of the use of atomic energy, development and safe functioning of atomic power engineering, nuclear weapons complex, nuclear- fuel cycle, atomic science and technology, nuclear and radiation safety, nondissemination of nuclear materials and technologies, and also international collaboration in this sphere.
The Federal Agency on Atomic Energy is the organ of the state administration of the use of atomic energy, state competent authority for nuclear and radiation safety with the transportation of nuclear materials, of radioactive materials and articles of them, central public body and message center in accordance with the international convention about the physical protection of nuclear material and national competent authority for the fulfillment of commitments of the Russian Federation in the region of guaranteeing the physical protection of nuclear material in the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international organizations.
Management of the activity of The Federal Agency on Atomic Energy is under the government of the Russian Federation.
According to the decision of the government RF of 28 June 2004. #316 "about the assertion of the position of federal agency on atomic energy" to the agency, in particular, is entrusted the fulfillment of the following functions on control of the state asset and rendering of the state services:
In April 2007 the US National Nuclear Security Administration and Rosatom (Russia) agreed to sustain security upgrades at nuclear material facilities. Security enhancements that the United States installed over the last 14 years at Russian nuclear sites will be preserved by Russia under the new plan. The plan by NNSA and Russia's Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) outlines specific details for how the upgrades will be sustained so that they can be transitioned to sole Russian support for the future, as mandated by US law. It covers sustainability at nuclear material sites. Since 1993, NNSA's programs had spent approximately $1.6 billion in Russia to enhance security for several hundreds of nuclear warheads and hundreds of metric tons of nuclear material at approximately 75 percent of Russia's nuclear material storage and warhead sites of concern. This includes all 50 of Russia's Navy nuclear sites, 11 of Russia's Strategic Rocket Forces sites and over 175 buildings within the Russian nuclear complex. Work is underway at the balance of sites and will be completed by 2008.
In a message to the Federal Assembly on 26 April 2007, President Vladimir Putin suggested establishing a special corporation uniting the country's nuclear power companies, which will work on both domestic and foreign markets and will ensure the government's interests in the sphere of defense. "For this purpose, we will have to adopt a special law. I would like to stress that I am speaking about nuclear energy," Putin said. Putin suggested setting up a special state corporation for uniting the civil and military sectors of the nuclear industry. The corporation will manage the competitive sector (Atomenergoprom concern comprising nuclear power companies) and the state monopolies (science, nuclear safety, nuclear weapons sector). The corporation was to replace the Federal Agency for Nuclear Energy. It was supposed to foster Russia's interests in the field of defense.
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