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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


MiG type 301/321 (3.01) Maximum - hypersonic reconnaissance / bomber

In 1975-1989, research was carried out in the USSR under the "Maximum" program, with the goal to build a hypersonic combat aircraft - reconnaissance, fighter, bomber. Information on this topic is rather scarce. In the 1990s, OKB Mikoyan-Gurevich continued work on a hypersonic aircraft (type 3.01). The USSR's Air Force had treated the program as an «extreme priority» project. It was planned that the Type-301 aircraft will produced in two major variants: reconnaissance and bomber missile-carrier variants carrying 4 extreme range air-to-ground missiles in the internal tanks. The main purpose of the strike version of the project 301/321 could be the fight against aircraft carrier strike groups.

The topic "Maximum" was essentially a program of work to create a family of hypersonic aircraft for various purposes using hydrocarbon fuels, as well as related weapons and infrastructure. Work on the program at the Mikoyan Design Bureau was led by N.Z.Matyuk. The operating experience of the MiG-25 and T-4 in the USSR and information on flights of the SR-71 and Valkyrie in the USA indicated that an increase in speed, and, consequently, in flight altitude using fuel, is thermostable kerosene (or based on it ) can be achieved only through the development of an engine that has received the name "ramjet" in the west.

In addition to the dual-circuit engine with afterburner, the similar engine has another operating mode - a ramjet engine when flying with a M number greater than 3. In this mode, the second compressor stages and turbines We are working in a mode close to "low gas", while ensuring the operation of hydraulic pumps and power system generators. The second problem - ensuring the operability of the fuel system at high temperatures is solved by the composition of the fuel (thermostable), its nitriding, thermal protection of the tanks and a number of additional measures. As a result, the project provided for a significant increase in the cruising number of M flights, and an increase in altitude with a sufficiently large range.

Work began in 1975. It was possible to create cooperation, to release all the necessary documents for the development of a hypersonic aircraft, which received the code "Maximum" in three versions: strike aircraft; intelligence; and interceptor. According to “Maximum”, in the strike and reconnaissance versions at the turn of the 1990s, draft designs were successfully defended, a multi-volume report on research was presented on the interceptor.

The Air Force Commission for the acceptance of preliminary designs noted the completeness of the study and the high degree of development of issues related to the organization of the construction of experimental aircraft (when choosing the design of the aircraft, factors such as the size of the assembly shop, its gate, the possibility of transporting the structure on a trailer for transportation to the airfield, the capabilities of the machine park, thermal equipment, etc.). Glider Aircraft welded from sheet steel, the power plant consists of 2 engines - a combination of turbojet and ramjet. Up to a speed of M = 3.5, they can work like ordinary turbofan engines, and then go into ramjet mode.

According to Western observers, the cruising speed of the aircraft should reach 4250 km / h (M = 4) at an altitude of 25-27 km. In order to operate from existing airfields, the aircraft could have a variable sweep wing. The estimated take-off weight is about 80 tons, of which about half will be fuel. The power plant consists of 2 engines - a combination of turbojet and ramjet. Up to a speed of M = 3.5, they can work like ordinary turbofan engines, and then go into ramjet mode.

The maximum speed of the carrier is M = 5 at an altitude of 40,000 m, the speed of sound at this altitude is 1143.4 km / h, the flight speed is 1143.4 km / h * 5 = 5717 km / h. The cruising speed is 4500 km / h or M = 4, the flight altitude is 34000 m, the speed of sound at this altitude is 1104.6 km /h.

The plane could have a variable sweep wing. The estimated take-off weight is about 80 tons, of which about half will be fuel. the plane could have a variable sweep wing. The estimated take-off weight is about 80 tons, of which about half will be fuel.

Typical use of cruise missile launcher in high speed missions mighgt be take-off flight at subsonic speed with climb for two hours, range 1900 km. Five-minute acceleration and climb 34,000 m and a speed of 4500 km / h, 5 minutes at an average speed of 2250 km / h, range 188 km, cruising at a speed of 4500 km / h, 15 minutes, 1200 km. The distance reached at this point in time from the basing airfield is 1900 + 188 + 1200 = 3300 km, 140 minutes after takeoff. Missile launch and the defeat of two sea or ground targets at a range of 700 km. U-turn and return at a subsonic speed of 3300 km: 915 km / h = 3.6 hours. The total flight time is 120 min + 5 min + 15 min + 216 min = 356 min / 5.9 hours. The range of 3300 km. The attack of the first targets at a distance of 3300 + 700 = 4000 km from the place of basing of the interceptor after 140 minutes of flight plus a flight time of the rocket of 700 km: 6000 km / h = 7 + 140 = 147 minutes / 2.45 hours.

Long range missions might consist of subsonic flight at a speed of 915 km / h for 3.83 hours at a range of 3,500 km. The launch of two X-101 missiles at a range of 4,500 km at a speed of 915 km / h, travel time 4.9 hours. Return at a speed of 915 km / h for 3.83 hours at a range of 3,500 km. The entire flight is 7.7 hours. An attack of two ground targets at a range of 3500 + 4500 = 8000 km from the base after 8.74 hours.

It was planned that the Type 301 aircraft would exist in two versions: a reconnaissance vehicle equipped with electronic reconnaissance equipment and side-view radars and an air-to-surface UR bomber carrier located in the weapons compartment. It was possible to create cooperation, to release all the necessary documents for the development of a hypersonic aircraft, which received the code "Maximum" in three versions: strike aircraft; intelligence officer; interceptor. It was planned that the Type 301 aircraft would exist in versions for a reconnaissance vehicle equipped with electronic reconnaissance equipment and side-view radars and an air-to-surface UR bomber carrier located in the weapons compartment.

The main purpose of the strike version of the project 301/321 could be the fight against aircraft carrier strike groups.




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Page last modified: 31-10-2019 16:54:17 ZULU