Myasischev M-20 Strategic bomber
From 1960 to 1967 V.M. Myasishchev headed TsAGI named after Prof. N.E. Zhukovsky. The design OKB under the direction of Vladimir Myasishchev -- which had built the subsonic M-4 "Bison" and the one-off supersonic M-50 "Bounder" heavy jet bombers before being disbanded in 1960, was resurrected in 1966.
In the mid-1960s, the new Soviet and Air Force leadership realized that the rush to terminate aviation programs was premature. Strategic bombers had proved more flexible weapons than intercontinental missiles. Aircraft equipped with cruise missiles patrolling the very borders of the enemy could defeat targets in a much shorter time and with greater probability than a ballistic missile, which fly almost fifteen thousand kilometers in an increasingly advanced missile defense. In the end, even in local conflicts, it wsa possible to harness the power of strategic aviation, when the missile silo was just useless. In the second half of the 60s. replacing Tu-95, M-4 and ZM stood with a new urgency, and it led to another revival OKB Myasishcheva.
In 1967, the military made the following operational requirements: range 11000 - 13000 miles when flying at subsonic speeds at low altitude; the same range when flying at a speed of 3200 - 3500 km / h at an altitude of 18,000 meters; 16000 -18000 km range when flying at a speed of 800 - 900 km / h at an altitude of 10,000 m.
In response, in 1967-68, there was a project of M-20. There were several variants: one - in a "duck" with a delta wing, the second - "duck" with variable geometry wing, the third looks like a Tu-160, and other options were all they were created under the engine with a variable bypass, developed through OKB Kuznetsov.
When designing, it was possible to use the aircraft under development in three versions:
- strike and reconnaissance variant with missile and bomb weapons;
- aircraft to combat transoceanic air transportation (destruction of transport aircraft and AWACS aircraft);
- long-range anti-submarine aircraft for operations at a distance of 5000-5500 km from the base.
The heavy bomber was developed according to the Air Force requirements for a supersonic high-altitude heavy bomber, introduced in 1967, in several layout schemes using advanced technical solutions. It was planned to use dual-circuit engines of the Design Bureau KMZ "Trud" of the chief designer ND Kuznetsov on the bomber. Painstaking research began to improve the performance and reduce the weight of the structure, equipment and load, improve the aerodynamic layout of all three options for the strategic aircraft. TsAGI wind tunnels were used for aerodynamic research. The leading designer of this direction was Konstantin Pavlovich Lyutikov.
The Myasischevites began work by analyzing the normal pattern, then looked at the “duck” pattern, eventually came to the conclusion that the plane should have a wing of variable geometry. At the same time, technical requirements were developed for engines, missile weapons, airborne complexes, etc.
The design bureau produced I, II, III, IV versions of the bomber project:
- M-20 option I - based on the layout schemes M-20-1, M-20-2, M-20-5, M-20-6
- M-20 option II - based on the layout schemes M-20-7, M-20-9 (aircraft with a system for providing laminar flow around the wing), M-20-10, M-20-11, M-20-12, M -20-14, M-20-15.
- M-20 option III - based on the layout schemes M-20-16, M-20-17, M-20-18, M-20-19, M-20-21
- M-20 option IV - based on the layout schemes M-20-22, M-20-23 with a variable geometry wing, M-20-24 with a control system for the flow around a wing.One of the options for the M-20
Work on the M-20 heavy strategic bomber did not leave the design stage, but served as the basis for the subsequent work of the design bureau. It is noteworthy that the final version of the layout of the M-20 with a variable sweep wing, which served as the basis for the project M-18 and Tu-160, was signed by V.M. Myasishchev in 1969, six months before the approval of a similar layout of the American B-1A bomber. The main competitor of the M-20 was the T-4MS of Design Bureau PO Sukhoi. During the competition, it became clear that satisfy all the tactical and technical requirements was impossible. Air Force and revised them. In this new phase a struggle broke out between Myasischev's M-18 and Tupolev Tu-160 and Sukhoi ended work on strategic aviation. The outcome of this competition is known for sure: the Tu-160 was built, tested and put into service, and M-18 remained on paper.
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