With the creation of the first jet engine, a new era in aircraft construction began - the era of jet aircraft. Undoubtedly, German engineers and designers were pioneers in this promising direction, one of the first to install turbojet engines (TRD) for airplanes. By the end of the Second World War, they had built several successful models of fighter jets and bombers on jet thrust. One of the examples of such aircraft was developed in 1943 by the talented German engineer aircraft builder Hans Wocke. In August 1944, the aircraft built under his direction, which received the designation Ju-278V-1, was first introduced in flight tests. Unfortunately, there are no detailed reports on the results of this and subsequent test flights, that such flights were carried out 17 and they reached a maximum speed of 550 km per hour.
The first experimental Ju-278V-1 was equipped with four Jumo-004B turbojet engines, two mounted in the front of the hull at the sides of the fuselage and two in the wing pylons having a reverse arrow shape, with an angle of 29 degrees. Later G. Vokke begins the development of his next model, which received the designation Ju-278V-2. From the previous sample V-2 differed in that it had already installed six turbojet engines, three on each side, which, according to the designers, allowed it to develop a maximum speed of up to 850 km per hour and made it virtually invulnerable to any enemy piston fighter time. In the spring of the 45th, this prototype Ju-278V-2 went to the USSR, intact, unlike the first sample of the Ju-278V-1, which was virtually destroyed by the bombing of the factory territory by Allied aircraft. According to other sources, it was undermined in order to avoid capture by the advancing parts of the Allies and the Red Army.
It was the second model that later became the basis for the creation of the high-altitude bomber EF-131 and the subsequent EF-126 and EF-132, and then EF-140 (EF - Entwicklungs Flugzeug, which means "experimental aircraft").
After the victory, the German designers were instructed to complete the design of the aircraft and to present it for flight tests, which was done in a short time (three cars were built), then in autumn 1946 one machine was dismantled and sent to the USSR for flight tests. However, for the first time EF-131 took off in the air only in May 1947, piloted by German test pilot Paul Yulge. It is known that the flight was unsuccessful and ended due to the emergence of an emergency. Work on it continued for a year, then, by order of the Ministry of Aviation Industry of the USSR, was curtailed, and all efforts were directed to the EF-140 project, which was developed in OKB-1, created at the aviation plant "Junkers" in Dessau. The head of the project was appointed another German engineer - Brunolph Baade, He was also the leading designer of the aircraft department.
By September 1948, the aircraft was built and prepared for flights, and immediately began to test it. During the flights it was found out that the RD-45 engines installed on the car need serious reworking. By the spring of 1949, new engines were installed on the EF-140 - AM-TKKD-01, the tests were continued. At the helm of the bomber sat an experienced German test pilot Wolfgang Ciese, in the not too distant past, one of the Luftwaffe aces. During the flight, the car showed a maximum speed of 900 km per hour and a flight range of more than 2,000 km. According to the idea of ??engineers, the plane was planned to be armed with two twin 23 mm aircraft guns installed in two rotating towers and having remote control. The maximum bomb load was more than 4,000 kg. The cockpit had a rather large view and was protected by armor plates from 11 to 20 mm in thickness. Among other things, the aircraft was equipped with aerial photography and could be used as a scout.
Nevertheless, there were no state tests, probably because of the successful carrying out at the same time of work on another project of the TU-14 high-altitude bomber. OKB-1 was recommended to begin work on the finalization of the aircraft and the creation on its basis of a high-altitude scout, which was later designated EF-140(P) or 140R. The prototype of the reconnaissance aircraft was built in the autumn of 1949, a distinctive feature of the 140P was the availability of additional fuel tanks located at the ends of the wings, thanks to which the fuel reserve was increased to 14,300 liters. The aircraft did not pass the flight tests and was sent for revision, but it was not possible to get rid of the revealed shortcomings, in particular, from excessive vibration of the wing. As a result, on July 18, 1950, by the decision of the government of the USSR, all work was stopped.
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