Nikolay Antonovich Dollezhal
Nikolai Antonovich Dollezhal, who died in Moscow in November 2000, for a long, long time, remained perhaps the most classified nuclear specialist. And therefore, in Zaporozhye and directly in his homeland - in the Orekhovsky district, few knew that it was he, the designer of the first Soviet industrial reactors, who created, as it was customary to say, the USSR nuclear shield. The reactor for the exploded power unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was also his brainchild.
N.A.Dollezhal - patriarch of the Soviet nuclear reactor engineering. Together with I.V. Kurchatov and other prominent Soviet scientists and engineers, he stood at the origins of the creation of domestic nuclear weapons, the nuclear submarine fleet and peaceful nuclear energy, devoting his life, knowledge and talent to serving the motherland. Outstanding scientist-designer N.A. Dollezhal forever entered the history of reactor engineering as the creator of a number of unique reactor installations. N.A.Dollezhal - Chief Designer of the first Soviet industrial reactors, which became the basis for the creation of the country's nuclear shield. The world's first nuclear power plant, nuclear power plant for the first domestic nuclear submarine, steam superheated reactors, nuclear rocket engines, high-power channel uranium-graphite reactors, a large number of research reactors - this is not an exhaustive list of what was made by the remarkable designer N.A.Dolezhal and collectives, which he led. Constructor N.A. Dollezhal is a man who always knew how to take unexpected steps into the unknown.
Nikolai Antonovich was born on October 27, 1899 in the family of a zemstvo engineer in the village of Omelnik, Ekaterinoslav province, in the Orekhovsky district of the Zaporizhzhya region. Why did he have such a strange, clearly not Russian or Ukrainian name? In the middle of the nineteenth century, the grandfather of Nikolai Antonovich, the Czech engineer Ferdinand Dollezhal, brought the surname to Russia. Having fallen in love with a Russian girl and accepting Russian citizenship, he remained in Russia until the end of his days.
From the Yekaterinoslav province, which at the beginning of the 20th century included the Orekhov district, the Dollezhale family left in 1913 - to Podolsk. There Nikolai graduated from a real school, and from there, like his father, like his elder brother Vladimir, he entered the Moscow Higher Technical School [in the mechanical department] in 1917. And he graduated from it six years later with the title of mechanical engineer. “In the autumn of 1923,” Nikolai Antonovich will write in his autobiography in June 1964, “I went to work as a design engineer in the management of the coal basin near Moscow. At the same time, he was elected as an assistant to the Department of Heat Engineering at the Plekhanov Institute of National Economy, where, in combination, he began classes from 1924. In January 1925, he joined the Heat and Power joint-stock company, where he worked in various positions until October 1930. In 1929 he was on a scientific trip to Germany, Czechoslovakia, Austria. From January 1932 to October 1933 he worked in a special design bureau No. 8 as deputy chief engineer, from where he transferred to Giproazotmash [the city of Leningrad] as technical director.
Nikolai Antonovich for some reason omitted the important fact of his biography: after returning from abroad, he fell under investigation. Perhaps they intended to convict of espionage activity against the USSR. After a year and a half, the investigatory red tape of Dollezhal was fully justified.
Engineer N.A. Dollezhal began with the development of thermal equipment for reconstructing factories and plants, later working in various organizations of the chemical industry. In the prewar years N.A. Dollezhal - technical director of the Leningrad Institute of Nitrogen Engineering, then chief engineer of the Bolshevik plant in Kiev; holds leadership positions in the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry.
In October 1934 he was transferred to work in Khimmashtrest [Kharkov city] as chief engineer and deputy manager. In November 1935 he was appointed chief engineer of the Bolshevik plant [Kiev], from where in June 1938 he was transferred to Glavkhimmash [Moscow] as deputy chief engineer. In December 1938, he joined the VIGM [All-Union Institute of Hydraulic Engineering] research institute, where he worked until July 1941. From this time to September 1942, he was the chief engineer of the Ural Heavy Engineering Plant [city of Sverdlovsk].
In 1942, the Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Engineering (NIIkhimmash) was created in Moscow, with N.A.Dolezhal being appointed director and supervisor. It is here that the long-standing idea of Nikolai Antonovich for the construction of an integrated research and development institute with a developed experimental, scientific and industrial base is realized for the first time. The successful implementation of this idea, the knowledge and experience of the employees of NIIkhimmash, the ability to solve non-standard engineering problems and the ability to work in extreme conditions - these, obviously, are the reasons that N.A. Dollezhal and his team were involved in the creation of atomic weapons.
NIIkhimmash, for example, was not only concerned with mechanical engineering for the chemical industry, but also with the creation of the first Soviet atomic reactor - to produce plutonium for the first Soviet atomic bomb, work on which officially began ... September 28, 1942. It was on this day that Stalin signed the decree of the State Defense Committee "On the organization of work on uranium." Among others, it contained the following clause: “Submit a short-term credit report on April 1, 1943 on the possibility of creating a uranium bomb or uranium fuel”. On the basis of the "uranium" Stalinist decree, a special scientific unit will soon be created under the leadership of the outstanding Soviet atomic physicist Igor Kurchatov - Laboratory No. 2 of the USSR Academy of Sciences [subsequently transformed into the Institute of Atomic Energy]. But the “Special Institute”, which Nikolai Antonovich headed for 34 Years and which bears his name today, is the Scientific Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET).
Fate brought Nikolai Antonovich to Kurchatov in January 1946. Taking a closer look, Igor Vasilievich invited the chemical engineer from Ukraine, who headed the NIIkhimmash, to work on the construction of a nuclear “boiler”, the end product of which was to be plutonium - the stuffing for the atomic bomb. From intelligence reports, Kurchatov knew that Americans produced plutonium in reactors with a horizontal arrangement of channels with uranium blocks.
Not having a physical education, but always remaining an excellent mechanic, Dollezhal, however, did not agree with the American version and proposed his own - vertical. The vertical placement of all these elements made it easier and more reliable to deal with hydraulics and heat transfer in the channels, preventing deformation of graphite blocks and the channels themselves, easing the organization of the processes of loading and unloading blocks, and providing a number of other advantages. The Scientific and Technical Council supported the idea, and in December 1946, the F-1 nuclear reactor [Physical-First] was launched on the territory of Laboratory No. 2 of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
In January 1948, the installation of the reactor beginsat the site in Chelyabinsk-40 (now Ozersk), and on June 10, the physical launch took place;tats which confirmed the design data. By June, the reactor, designated "A", was brought to a design capacity of 100 MW, starting to produce plutonium for the first Soviet atomic bomb. The ending of this tense job was a successful bomb test at Semipalatinsk test site August 29, 1949, doing away with US monopoly on possession of nuclear weapons.
His team was instructed in the early 1950s to ensure the development of a power plant for the first domestic nuclear submarine. In 1952, by the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the Scientific Research and Design Institute of Energy Engineering (NII-8, later NIKIET) was created, with N.A.Dolezhal becoming its director and supervisor. The institute was called upon to ensure, along with the continuation of work previously undertaken at the NIIkhimmash on industrial and energy reactors, the development of a nuclear power plant for the first domestic nuclear submarine. In this post, Nikolai Antonovich worked for 34 years.
N.A.Dollezhal had always shown great interest in scientific and teaching work. Already in the 1930s, he (without interruption from his main job) helped to create a department of chemical engineering at the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, headed it and gave a course of lectures on high-pressure compressors. The same course N.A. Dollezhal continues to read in 1944 in the "alma mater" - MVTU im. N.E. Bauman. Caring for the future of reactor engineering, N.A. Dollezhal in 1961 created and for almost 25 years led the department of “Energy Machines and Installations” at MVTU im. N.E. Bauman, training designers of nuclear power plants for various purposes.
After leaving the post of director of NIKIET in 1986, despite accusations and accusations of involvement in the Chernobyl accident, he waited for official rehabilitation. Anti-nuclear sentiment was warmed up by concealment by government authorities of the truth about the scale of the accident, in the wake of reports on the particular danger of the RBMK design.
Elder of Russian Academicians N.A.Dollezhal, until the last days continued to live in the cares of the institute he had created, generously sharing invaluable experience with successors and actively participating in the search for a solution to the issues that developing science and technology pose to nuclear scientists today.
Outstanding contribution by N.A. Dollezhal in the formation and development of domestic nuclear energy was duly noted by the Motherland. He is twice a Hero of Socialist Labor, awarded six orders of Lenin, orders of the Red Banner of Labor, Red Star, October Revolution, “For Merit to the Fatherland”, 2nd degree, and “Gold Medal. I.V. Kurchatov »of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Nikolai Antonovich Dollezhal - laureate of the Lenin and five State Prizes of the USSR.
By the centenary of his birth - in the fall of 1999, Nikolai Antonovich received the Order of Merit for the Fatherland from the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin of the second degree. A year later, after the death of the academician, another Russian president, Vladimir Putin, was one of the first to send a telegram of condolences to the widow of Dollezhal, Aleksandra Grigoryevna: “Nikolai Antonovich was one of the founders of the nuclear industry and industry. He made a huge contribution to strengthening the country's defense capabilities. His name will forever remain among the great scientists who stood at the origins of the conquest of the atom. Please accept my deepest condolences. ”
Nikolai Dollezhal, instilled his employees with professional ambitions and a passion for work. His motto was the words of the poet Valery Bryusov: "If you can, go ahead of the century, if you can’t, go with the century, but never be behind the century."
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