System A-235 /
RTC-181M complex 14TS033 /
The A-235 "Nudol" has missiles capable of operating at three different ranges: long-range, based on the 51T6 and capable of destroying targets at distances up to 1500 km (930 miles), at altitudes up to 800,000 m; medium-range, an update of the 58R6, designed to hit targets at distances up to 1000 km (620 miles), at altitudes up to 120,000 m; and short-range (the 53T6M or 45T6 (based on the 53T6)), with an operating range of 350 km (215 miles) and a flight ceiling of 40,000-50,000 m. The long-range missiles will most likely be equipped with nuclear warheads, while the others will have kinetic energy warheads. Testing of new missiles for the A-235 Samolyot-M system began in August 2014.
In 2014 it became known that Russia is testing elements of the new anti-missile defense system A-235 Nudol. It will replace the A-135 Amur system, which covers Moscow and the central industrial region (from Bryansk to Kostroma, about 486,000 sq. Km) and equipped with silo-based antimissiles. In December 2014, the general designer of Almaz-Antey Pavel Sozinov said that in the near future the Russian military will receive domestic counterparts of US missile defense systems THAAD and GMD. At the same time, the analogue of GMD, Sozinov noted, is being created in the mobile version and should be more efficient than the system from the USA.
According to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty signed by the US and the Soviet Union in 1972, both sides committed to deploying no more than two antimissile defense systems, one near their nations' capitals and one directly near the concentration of intercontinental ballistic missile launching installations. However, two years later Moscow and Washington agreed to limit themselves to just one system of their choosing. The USSR deployed their system near its capital to protect itself from nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles while the U.S. installed their complex at the Grand Forks Air Force Base in North Dakota.
According to military experts, the future of missile defense system A-235 and S-500 will form the basis for comprehensive, integrated aerospace defense system of Russia, which will include a variety of modern ground-based detection tools, which include included missile attack warning stations. Head developer of the complex is Concern PVO "Almaz-Antei". The development of long-range intercept missiles is probably done by OKB "Innovator".
Strategic missile defense system of the Russian capital, which can shoot down missiles in space is one of the most interesting and sensitive Russian projects. Its performacne characteristics are unknown, only that it will be applied the world's fastest anti-missile missiles that will be able to use to defeat nuclear ballistic missiles with a kinetic warhead. With the commissioning of the system A-235 and new anti-aircraft missile system S-500 in the sky over Moscow there appeared a serious "umbrella" multi-stage system of strategic missile defence, which in the future may serve as a basis for the development of the antinuclear protection system for the whole of Russia.
This system was intended to defend against a limited force nuclear strike on Moscow and the central industrial district. Head developer of the complex PRO A-235 within developmental works on the theme of "Nudol" is from concern PVO Almaz-antey.
It is worth mentioning that all the data about the new Russian ABM system were only suggestive in nature and are based on information from the media and public sources, including reports from the Russian defense industrial complex.
Modernization of the antimissile defense system from the A-135 to the A-235 for protecting Moscow has been going on since the 2000s. Currently the system is equipped with new missiles. Aerospace forces tested a new missile for their A-235 Nudol system as part of this program on June 21, 2016. The system is deployed at the 9th division of the antimissile defense systems in the Sofrino-1 settlement 31 miles north of Moscow. Nearby is the Don-2N radar station, which resembles a Maya pyramid. Its objective is to detect enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles and direct the A-235 Nudol antimissile system.
According to Victor Litovkin, a military analyst for the TASS news agency, the antimissile defense system near Moscow, which is capable of striking objects in short-distance space, is one of Russia's most secret programs. It was only at the end of 2015 that a film crew from the Zvezda state TV channel, which directly collaborates with the Russian Ministry of Defense, received access to the testing of the new missile.
Originally the A-135 system was equipped with the 53T6 missiles, which are called “Gazelle” according to NATO classifications. These missile systems were capable of intercepting enemy ballistic missiles travelling at a speed of seven kilometers per second [4.3 miles] and at a height of five kilometers [3.1 miles]. The intercontinental strategic missile moves at supersonic speed in a cloud of false targets. Detecting one nuclear warhead in such a ‘mass’ is an incredibly difficult technical challenge. That is why originally the 53T6s were equipped with a nuclear warhead that simultaneously intercepted all the enemy's missiles and destroyed all its advancing objects with a nuclear explosion. The new model's main difference from previous incarnations is the presence of a kinetic and not a nuclear warhead. A kinetic warhead relies on its high velocity to inflict maximum damage.
Originally missile interceptors of the A-135 system were equipped with nuclear warheads only. In February 1998, it was officially announced that Russia renounced the use of nuclear warheads, and that conventional warheads on the interceptors would be deployed in the nearest future. However, the capability for deploying nuclear warheads on A-135 missiles is likely to be retained as well.
The contract for the creation of the A-235 system was signed in 1991, and the completion of the project was scheduled for 2015. The main contractor for the project is Almaz-Antey, who created the S-300, S-400 and is working on the S-500. Presumably, the A-235 will receive a supercomputer "Elbrus-3M", a radar station "Don-2N" and two echelons of large and medium-range interceptors. All the main parameters of the prospective system are classified, but it can be assumed that the S-500 systems will be able, in particular, to exchange data with the "Samolyot-M", which will improve the accuracy of target destruction.
According to what information is available, the new-generation system should include upgraded Don-2NP radar receiver sections and transition section units, which will be replaced soon by the Don-2M radar. The upgradation was done in 2009 by RTI Systems. The computer and control centres will be given a new Elbrus-3M supercomputer in place of the outdated Elbrus-2. The system is expected to be used along with the Taiga early warning system now being developed.
In May 2016, military expert Mikhail Khodarenok confirmed that work on the creation of Nudol is not just continuing, but is being very successful. “We can assume that the following three principles are taken into account in the tactical and technical assignment for the development of a new system (ABM. - Note by FAN ),” said Khodarenok. - Firstly, the system must be capable of non-nuclear interception, since the previously developed missiles were mainly with a special warhead, which sharply reduced the area of their possible application. The use of an anti-missile with a special charge actually meant the beginning of a nuclear war. Secondly, the system must be mobile, that is, not rigidly tied to any object or center. Thirdly, to ensure interception at an altitude of at least 500-750 km, that is, in near space. "
US intelligence confirmed the continuation of tests in Russia of the modernized anti-missile missile system PRS-1M (53T6M) near the echelon of the new missile defense system in Moscow and the Central Industrial Area A-235. According to US estimates, the deployment of the PRS-1M (53T6M) anti-missile interceptor in the Moscow ABM system could begin as early as the end of 2018.
Federal News Agency on 04 June 2019 turned to Alexei Leonkov, a military expert and permanent contributor to the Arsenal of the Fatherland magazine. " After being adopted, the A-235 missile defense system will use mobile launchers. This will make it possible not only to noticeably improve the survivability of the complex, but also to strengthen the missile defense system of certain Russian strategic objects, depending on the current situation, with the help of operational maneuvers. And this is another significant plus of our missile defense system in comparison with GMD, which uses stationary launchers."
Nudol - Nomenclature
The meaning of the word "Nudol" is obscure. The plain meaning of Nudal is noodle. Nudal is a type of beech tree (group of types of geobiocens Fageta paupera typica inferiora, type of geobiocen Carex pilosa nudum). The drug nudal hdis a combination product is used to treat symptoms caused by the common cold, flu, allergies, hay fever, or other breathing illnesses (e.g., sinusitis, bronchitis). The Urban Dictionary defines nudal as a full frontal photo of the nude genitals of a male, typically posted online at sex-oriented dating websites.
System A-235 Nudol appears to follow the traditional nomenclature of naming strategic defense systems after rivers. The Nudol is a river in the Moscow region of Russia, the right tributary of Istra. It forms 1.5 km to the west of the Nudol village of the Klin region by the confluence of the Boldenka and the upper Velgi rivers. It flows into the Istra Reservoir, 75 km from the mouth of the Istra River. The length is 26 km, the catchment area is 320 km˛. Nudol is a settlement in the Klin district of the Moscow region of Russia, the administrative center of the Nudol village settlement. Population - people. In the village there are secondary general school, kindergarten, post office, rural district administration, district hospital.
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