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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Project 955 Borey - Units

As of late 2005 two submarines were being constructed at the Sevmash plant in Severodvinsk in the Arkhangelsk region. At that time it was reported that the first submarine, the Yury Dolgoruky, was to be commissioned in 2006 and the second, the Alexander Nevsky, in 2007. In late 2005 it was reported that a third would be ready by 2010.

The Alexander Nevsky and the Vladimir Monomakh, will join the Pacific Fleet in 2015 and 2016 respectively, a source at the fleet’s headquarters has told the media 25 April 2015. "In August-September this year only one Borei submarine, The Aleksandr Nevsky will make a voyage from the Northern Fleet to Vilyuchinsk. Just recently it joined the permanent combat readiness naval force. The submarine carries 16 inter-continental ballistic missiles Bulava," the source said. The original intention was two Borei subs would leave for the Pacific 2015," he recalled. The arrival of the Vladimir Monomakh was postponed because the submarine would have no time to pass all trials and be loaded with missiles, he said.

1 - Yuri Dolgoruky

As of May 2000 the Yuri Dolgoruky, which was reported in 1998 to be only 2-3% complete, was said to be 47% complete. Government funds were approved in December 2000 for construction of the SSBN. The new design is intended to carry a dozen naval variants of the Topol-M ballistic missile.

Little progress had been made on the first submarine due to the lack of funding. In 2003, Sevmash reportedly received extra funding to accelerate the completion of this submarine. In July 2003 it was reported that construction of Yuri Dolgoruky was 40% complete.

On 19 March 2004 Sevmash laid down a second strategic missile submarine of the Project 955 Borey class. The Aleksandr Nevskiy was designed from the outset to carry a new solid-propellant Bulava missiles. Alexander Nevsky was born on May 30, 1219 at Pereaslavl, a fief of his father, Prince Yaroslav, who was of the house of the Grand Prince of Suzdal. Alexander's fame was a warrior and savior of his people. It is to St. Alexander Nevsky that the Russian people are wont to address their prayers at times when great misfortunes befall the nation and threaten its existence. Alexander is venerated as a saint without having been a hermit, an ascetic or a martyr.

The Sevmashpredpriyatiye shipbuilding plant launched the first Project 955 strategic submarine, Yuri Dolgorukiy, on 15 April 2007. The vessel was evidently incomplete, lacking forward planes either on the bow or sail. The new submarine, the Yuri Dolgoruky, was reported to be 82% complete and should embark on its maiden voyage by October 2007. Speaking at the launching ceremony, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said the Yury Dolgoruky was actually Russia's first new-generation strategic nuclear submarine in the past 17 years. The first deputy prime minister earlier said the submarine will undergo sea trials in 2007 and will be fully equipped with weaponry in 2008. After that, it will become operational in the Russian Navy.

Russia’s first Borey class ballistic missile nuclear submarine, the Yury Dolgoruky, was officially put into service with the Russian Navy on Sunday, 30 December 2012. “The hoisting of the flag and the signing of the acceptance act will be held at the Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk on Sunday, December 30,” the Rubin design bureau said in a statement. On the same day, the Sevmash floated out a third Borey class submarine, the Vladimir Monomakh. A second Borey class vessel, the Alexander Nevsky, was undergoing sea trials and could join Russia’s Pacific Fleet in 2014.

2 - Alexander Nevsky

Two other Borey-class nuclear submarines, the Alexander Nevsky and the Vladimir Monomakh, were under construction at the Sevmash plant, with a fourth submarine on the future production schedule list. As of 2007 it was reported that Alexander Nevsky (the second sub) will be ready by 2009 and Vladimir Monomah - by 2011.

The Russian Navy commissioned its second Borey-class nuclear missile submarine, Alexander Nevsky, into service 23 December 2013. The Defense Ministry said in November 2013 the boat's acceptance would be delayed until 2014 following a mishap during a test-firing of a Bulava nuclear ballistic missile in September 2013. The missile – developed specifically for the new Borey-class – had suffered a string of failures in tests and was still not operational according to a senior naval officer.

Nuclear submarine "Alexander Nevsky", the second representative series of submarines of "Borey", was recruited to combat-ready forces of the Navy of Russia, a source in the Defense Ministry told Tass 14 April 2015. "The ship has worked successfully and passed all course objectives with the performance of firing all weapons. He was adopted 16 intercontinental ballistic missile" Bulava "and put in the combat-ready naval forces," - a spokesman said.

3 - Vladimir Monomakh

On 19 March 2006 Severodvinsk witnessed the keel-laying ceremony for the third submarine to be built under the Borei project, the Vladimir Monomakh. Deputy Defense Minister Gen. Alexey Moskovsky said that the Defense Ministry will create an infrastructure to provide comprehensive maintenance for the country's new Borei-class nuclear submarines. "We are coming to realize that not only the weaponry itself is important, but its life cycle is, too..." Nuclear submarines' maintenance should cover every stage of their life cycle, from development through salvage, Moskovsky said. Construction had already begun on two other submarines of the same type. As of early 2006 it was reported that the first such boat was to be commissioned in 2008 [a two year delay from estimates reported a year earlier].

Vladimir Monomakh played a most important part in the development of Russia during the Middle Ages. His grandfather Yaroslav gave him the Russian name of Vladimir and the Christian name of Vasili, and his father and mother that of Monomakh; either because Vladimir was really through his mother the grandson of the Greek emperor Constantine Monomachus, or because even in his tenderest youth he displayed remarkable warlike valor. In 1113 an uprising of the Kievans, determined to accept no one but Monomakh, succeeded in bringing the large part of Russia under his house. A popular story had it that Prince Vladimir Monomakh received the insignia of tsardom from the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus.

On the basis of this legend, the jeweled and fur-trimmed crown of the Moscow rulers became known, in the 16th century, as Monomakh's crown (Shapka Monomakhova). The crown is masterpiece of Central Asian art of the late 13th or early 14th century. But contemporary accounts tell nothing of all this, and it is inherently improbable that Byzantium would bestow upon the Russian grand prince, who was no longer formidable, a title whose exclusive possession is so jealously guarded. He was in his 61st year when he became grand-prince, and he avoided fighting as far as possible. As far as circumstances permitted, he was a prince of peace, and a number of most important legislative measures are attributed to him.

Russia's third Borei-class nuclear-powered strategic submarine, Vladimir Monomakh, finished state sea trials in September 2014, the vessel’s builders at Sevmash shipyard announced. The advanced vessel is virtually ready for deployment by the Navy. Vladimir Monomakh returned from a trial run in the White Sea, during which the sub successfully test-fired a Bulava strategic missile. "This is basically the last stage of the state trials. Now the submarine's mechanisms will be re-examined, finishing work completed, and spare parts, tools and accessories furnished,’ Mikhail Budnichenko, Sevmash CEO, is cited by Itar-Tass news agency. According to Budnichenko, the new submarine might be officially handed over to the Russian Navy as early as 10 December 2014.

RIA Novosti reported 12 September 2014 Vladimir Monomakh was the third Borei-class – or Project 955 according to the Russian disambiguation – vessel to be built by Sevmash, based at the Russian White Sea port of Severmorsk. The Vladimir Monomakh, was officially inducted in the Russian Navy on 19 December 2014, the Sevmash shipyard reported. "The ceremony of raising the Russian Navy colors on the Vladimir Monomakh submarine on Friday, December 19, at Sevmash," the shipyard's press-service said in a statement. According to the statement, the submarine would soon leave a naval base in Severodvinsk in northern Russia to join the 25th Submarine Division of the Pacific Fleet based in Russia's Far East.

Vladimir Monomakh joined Russia’s Pacific Fleet, the Russian Ministry of Defense announced on 26 September 2016. “The submarine force of the Pacific Fleet has been reinforced by the newest strategic nuclear-powered submarine of project 955 The Vladimir Monomakh. The submarine has completed its voyage from the Northern Fleet to the Pacific Fleet to arrive at the permanent base Viliuchinsk, in the Kamchakta Peninsula,” according to a defense ministry press release cited by TASS news agency.

#4 - Prince Vladimir

“Prince Vladimir” is the fourth nuclear-powered submarine of project 955 “Borey” and the first modernized cruiser of the “Borey-A” series. It was designed by Rubin Central Design Bureau and belongs to the fourth generation of nuclear submarines.

Underwater strategic missile "Prince Vladimir" was laid in 2012 and launched on November 17, 2017. He became the fourth submarine in a series of eight "Boreans" and the first representative of the improved project "Borey-A." Three submarines of the Borey project had already joined the Russian Navy, the "Prince Oleg" and "Generalissimo Suvorov" (2014), "Emperor Alexander III" (2015) and "Prince Pozharsky" (2016) have been laid and are being built. Each such submarine carries 16 intercontinental ballistic missiles "Bulava".

The Russian Navy will receive a strategic nuclear submarine "Prince Vladimir" - the first submarine of the Borey-A type in 2019, after the planned time. Vice-Admiral Viktor Bursuk, Deputy Commander of the Russian Navy for Armament, told journalists on 25 April 2018. Earlier it was expected that the submarine would be delivered to the fleet in 2017, but then the date of its transfer was moved to 2018. "Yes (in 2019 - TASS comment.) The vessel will have an extended set of tests, including those that have not previously been carried out," he said, adding that the fleet should receive a ship that is fully prepared to carry out tasks for its intended purpose.

The strategic submarine cruiser Project 955A (code "Borey-A") "Prince Vladimir" will be surrendered to the Russian Navy in the first half of 2020. This was reported by TASS 30 December 2019 from a source in the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation. "Prince Vladimir" in December completed state tests at sea, during which certain shortcomings were identified. It takes time to eliminate them, so the delivery of the ship to the fleet is shifted to 2020. We hope that this will happen in the first quarter of the new year, "the source said. He did not rule out new outings of "Prince Vladimir" at sea before surrendering to his fleet in 2020. "Such a development of events cannot be ruled out, it all depends on the decision of the state commission," the source said.

The strategic nuclear missile carriers of the Borey project 955 received a new look. The first updated boat was Prince Vladimir, whose tests are now drawing to a close. According to Izvestia sources in the military department, the superstructure was redone on the nuclear submarine, the contours of the nose end became more streamlined, but most importantly, the “hump” of the missile launch platform disappeared. Such changes improve the driving performance of “Prince Vladimir”, as well as increase its noiselessness when moving under water. It is possible that the transformation of the project 955 boats will continue.

The appearance of the first Borea-A is fundamentally different from its predecessors, Yuri Dolgoruky, Alexander Nevsky and Vladimir Monomakh. The first thing that catches the eye is the absence of the so-called hump of a missile launch platform behind the cabin of Prince Vladimir. There are no characteristic ledges in front of the cabin, in which the sonar systems of the first Boreev are presumably installed. In addition, the contours of the bow of the ship became more streamlined. The appearance of the add-in has also changed. At the first Boreev it was beveled: its front part, viewed from the side, narrowed closer to the deck. The “Prince Vladimir” cabin received a traditional profile.

The first modernized nuclear submarine strategic missile cruiser of project 955A (code "Borey-A") "Prince Vladimir" may be transferred to the Russian Navy in late May. About this TASS on 06 May 2020 said a source in the military-industrial complex. "The cruiser is prepared by the Sevmash shipbuilders for transfer. The issue of the date is being decided. This could happen in late May," he said. "Prince Vladimir" - the first ship of the project 955A "Borey-A". He completely passed state tests, having completed the Bulava missile-launch intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in the fall of 2019.

Strategic submarine "Prince Vladimir" transferred to the Russian Navy. This was reported in the press service of the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC). "Today, May 28, at the Sevmash (part of the USC), the signing of the acceptance certificate of the strategic missile submarine cruiser Prince Vladimir was signed, the press service said.

# 5 - Knyaz Oleg

The construction of a fifth Borey-class submarine was expected to begin in late 2014, Admiral Viktor Chirkov said 14 November 2013. “I cannot talk about a specific date … but the start to construction of another Borey will happen within a year,” he said. Russia’s major defence shipyard Sevmash on 27 July 2014 - Navy Day - laid down another Borei class strategic nuclear-powered submarine - Knyaz Oleg.

# 6 - Knyaz Alexander Suvorov

Russia’s Sevmash shipyard was to lay down in 2013 two upgraded Borey class nuclear-powered strategic submarines, capable of carrying 20 ballistic missiles each, Rossiiskaya Gazeta newspaper said on 14 January 2013, citing defense industry sources. The construction of the Alexander Suvorov, the fifth in the series and second of the improved Project 955A (Borey-A) class, was to begin on 28 July 2013, when Russia celebrates Navy Day, while the sixth submarine, the Mikhail Kutuzov, will be laid down in November 2013. The metal cutting works for the hulls of these vessels had been carried out since 2011, the paper said. But the Suvorov, apparently the sixth rather than fifth unit, was not laid down until 26 December 2014

Sevmash confirmed 19 December 2014 that construction of the sixth Borey-class submarine, the Knyaz Suvorov, will start on 26 December 2014. The fourth and fifth subs of the class, the Knyaz Vladimir and the Knyaz Oleg, were currently under construction at the Sevmash shipyard.

In late 2021, the second serial missile carrier of the Borei-A project, Generalissimo Suvorov, was withdrawn from the boathouse at Sevmash (part of the United Shipbuilding Corporation, USC). This was reported to TASS by the press service of PO Sevmash JSC. "Today, on December 25, at Sevmash, a solemn ceremony of withdrawal from the boathouse of the second serial missile carrier of the Borei-A project, Generalissimus Suvorov, took place," the press service noted. The event was attended by representatives of the command of the Navy, authorities and industry.

"The Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy Nikolai Evmenov congratulated the shipbuilders on their next production victory and stressed that the ships of the Borei-A project had already proved their reliability, guarding the country's borders. The construction participants were also congratulated by the Governor of the Arkhangelsk Region Alexander Tsybulsky, Deputy General Director for Military Shipbuilding of USC JSC "Vladimir Korolev and general director of CDB MT Rubin, Igor Vilnit," the press service said.

# 7 - Emperor Alexander III [Mikhail Kutuzov??]

Seventh strategic nuclear submarine type "Northwind" will be named "Emperor Alexander III", corresponding order has been signed, on 12 October, Tass said a source in the Command of the Russian Navy. "Bookmark scheduled for the second half of December this year," - reminded the agency. The "Bookmark" is a solemn procedure, the initial stage of construction vessel.

The submarines of "Borey" should be the basis of naval strategic nuclear forces of Russia in the coming decades. As previously reported, to it was 2020 planned to build eight of these subs, three of them have already been transferred to the Navy. Each boat carries 16 intercontinental ballistic missile "Bulava".

Now the construction of a series of continuing to improve the draft - "Borey-A." Its first representative was the submarine "Prince Vladimir", laid down ["planted"] in 2012. In 2014 two submarines - "Prince Oleg" and "Generalissimo Suvorov" were laid down.

Another nuclear submarine missile project "Borei-A", "Emperor Alexander III", armed with ballistic missile complex "Bulava", was laid down on 18 December 2015 in Severodvinsk.

Imperator Alexander III" is the seventh Project 955 nuclear-powered ship and the fourth ship of the improved Project 955A. The cruiser was laid down on December 18, 2015. The Imperator Alexander III SSBN was withdrawn from the shed on December 29 last year. In accordance with the schedule, in 2023 the ship will pass the necessary stages of completion and testing," said Mikhail Budnichenko, head of Sevmash 21 June 2023.

8 - Prince Pozharsky

The Russian Sevmash shipbuilder commenced on 23 December 2016 production of the eighth 955A Borei-class submarine Knyaz Pozharsky, which will be the last one in the Project 955 series. "Knyaz Pozharsky" is the eighth ship of project 955 "Borey" and the fifth one under construction according to the modernized project 955A "Borey-A". "The 955A Borei series is coming to an end with this submarine. Now the navy is working together with the Rubin [design bureau] on modernization of the project," Bursuk said. The Borei-class nuclear-powered subs are to become the mainstay of the naval component of the Russia's strategic nuclear deterrent. By 2020, the Russian Navy also plans to operate a total of eight Borei-class nuclear-powered ballistic-missile submarines.

The Northern Engineering Enterprise (Sevmash, part of the United Shipbuilding Corporation) has started electrical work on the latest nuclear submarine missile cruiser Knyaz Pozharsky, which is being built according to the modernized project 955A (code Borey-A). This was reported to TASS 21 June 2023 by the general director of the shipyard Mikhail Budnichenko. "The nuclear submarine Knyaz Pozharsky is going through the slipway period, we are starting electrical work," he said during the International Maritime Defense Show (IMDS-2023). According to him, after completion of construction on the slipway, the cruiser will be taken out of the shed and launched for completion and testing.

9 - Dmitry Donskoy

In August 2020, the Russian military will sign a contract with the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) for the construction of two more strategic missile submarine cruisers for the Navy of project 955A (code Borey-A), a source in the military-industrial complex told TASS on 21 February 2020. “It was decided to sign a contract at the Army 2020 forum in August to build two more Borey-A submarine missile carriers for the fleet. Under the terms of the contract, the laying of both ships will take place at Sevmash (part of the USC) in 2021, they will be built within the framework of the current state armament program until 2027, "the source said. The source recalled that the submarines will be the ninth and tenth submarines of the Northwind class.

The new project 955A missile carrier "Dmitry Donskoy" will be launched in 2025, and in 2026 the submarine will be transferred to the Northern Fleet. The new Project 955A (Borey-A) nuclear submarine missile cruiser, Dmitry Donskoy, which is being built at the Sevmash plant, will receive an improved steam turbine plant and become even quieter. This was reported to TASS 21 June 2023 by a source in the military-industrial complex.

“The new Dmitry Donskoy submarine will be distinguished from the previous Boreevs by a number of technical improvements that have been introduced by the developer of project 955A, TsKB MT Rubin. In particular, improvements will be made to the steam turbine plant, as a result, the boat propulsion will become even quieter,” said interlocutor of the agency on the sidelines of the International Maritime Defense Show (IMDS-2023). He also clarified that in terms of its acoustic characteristics, the submarine will approach the multi-purpose submarines of the modernized project 885M (code "Ash-M").

10 Knyaz Potyomkin

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