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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Pakistan's Peaceful Nuclear Assurances: 1979-1995

`[Pakistan's government has] . . . summarily rejected as false the charge that Pakistan was developing its nuclear program with assistance from or in partnership with Libya or any other country.'--Pakistani Foreign Ministry Spokesman, NY Times, 4/9/79.

`Pakistan has not sought or obtained financial assistance from Libya or any other country for its nuclear program.'--Pakistan Embassy, Pakistan Affairs, 6/16/80.

`Pakistan's nuclear development programme is solely for peaceful purposes and it has no plans to make nuclear weapons.'--Qutubuddian Aziz, Pakistan Embassy in UK, London Sunday Times, 2/1/81.

`I was assured by the ministers, I was assured by the President [Zia] himself that it is not the intention of the Pakistani Government to develop nuclear weapons.'--Under Secretary of State James Buckley, congressional hearing, 6/24/81.

Senator John Glenn. `. . . is it your view that we should go ahead with the arms sale to Pakistan without assurances that they are not in a [nuclear] weapons production mode?'

Under Secretary Buckley. `That assurance was given . . . by the Pakistani government.'--Under Secretary of State James Buckley, congressional hearing, 6/24/81.

`I say that Pakistan's nuclear technology will not be given to any other nation. We will work, we will borrow, and we will beg for this technology. God willing we will never pass it to any other nation.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, interview published in Turkish Hurriyet, 11/25/81.

`You know, Pakistan is engaged and will strive to acquire nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. But Pakistan has neither the capability nor the intention of making an atomic bomb . . . in no circumstances.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, after meeting with President Mitterrand, Reuters, 1/26/82.

`We, too, are engaged in a nuclear programme, with the sole aim of finding a viable alternate to the traditional sources of energy, which are in scarce supply in Pakistan. Despite our repeated assurances, however, there has been an orchestrated campaign to malign us by falsely attributing to our peaceful programme a nonexistent military dimension.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, address at US National Press Club, 12/8/82.

`The Pakistan side reiterated that Pakistan was not interested in the manufacture or acquisition of nuclear weapons. . . . We accept that the President of Pakistan is telling us the truth.'--U.S. official, after meeting between Presidents Zia and Reagan, NY Times, 12/8/82.

`[President Zia] . . . stated very emphatically that it is not the intention of Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons and that it is not doing so.'--Sen. Charles McC. Mathias, Washington Post, 12/8/82.

`. . . I would like to state once again, and with all the emphasis at my command, if I have that, that our on-going nuclear programme has an exclusively peaceful dimension and that Pakistan has neither the means nor, indeed, any desire to manufacture a nuclear device. I thrust [sic] that this distinguished gathering will take note of my assurance, which is given in all sincerity and with a full sense of responsibility.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, address before Foreign Policy Association, 12/9/82.

`In our opinion, there is no such thing as a peaceful [nuclear] device or a nonpeaceful device. It's like a sword. You can cut your throat; you can save yourself. We are planning neither.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, Meet the Press, 12/12/82.

`. . . I hereby certify that I have reliable assurances that Pakistan will not transfer sensitive United States equipment, materials, or technology in violation of agreements entered into under the Arms Export Control Act to any communist country, or to any country that receives arms from a communist country.'--President Ronald Reagan, Presidential Determination 83-4, 1/3/83.

`The Government of Pakistan understands our deep concern over this issue [Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear weapons]. We have made clear that the relationship between our two countries, and the program of military and economic assistance on which it rests, are ultimately inconsistent with Pakistan's development of a nuclear explosives device. President Zia has stated publicly that Pakistan will not manufacture a nuclear explosives device.'--Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Howard Shaffer, congressional testimony, 2/6/84.

`I must make one thing absolutely clear: contrary to the mischievous foreign propaganda, no foreign country has given financial or technical aid to us in this [nuclear] field . . . The `Islamic bomb' is a figment of the Zionist mind . . .': Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistan's top nuclear scientist, interview published 2/10/84.

`Pakistan has stated time and again that it has absolutely no intention of using nuclear technology for military purposes.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, address on 7/10/84.

`Pakistan does not deny that it has a research and development program on uranium enrichment at Kahuta. But it is of a modest scale and is designed entirely for acquiring technology to meet Pakistan's future power generation requirements based on light water reactors . . . Pakistan has no team for designing nuclear weapons . . . Pakistan has never used Turkey as a channel for the import of materials from French or West German companies. Nor has it imported uranium from Libya . . . It was established long ago that Libya was not giving Pakistan any assistance for its nuclear program. Similarly, the allegation of Saudi help is also without foundation. For its non-existent nuclear weapons program Pakistan has neither sought nor has it received assistance from China.'--Information Division, Embassy of Pakistan, July 1984.

`We have repeatedly declared that our nuclear energy program has an exclusively peaceful dimension and that we have no intention of acquiring or manufacturing nuclear weapons . . . The allegation of any nuclear cooperation between Pakistan and China has been rejected by both countries . . .'--Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub Kahn, Islamabad, 7/28/84.

`We are now approaching the end of 1984, but the dread explosion of imaginary Pakistani nuclear device is nowhere in sight. What could be a more convincing proof of the sincerity of Pakistan's repeated assurances that its program is not weapon-oriented?'--Iqbal Butt, Minister of Information, Embassy of Pakistan, Washington Post, 8/30/84.

`I have no fears at all that [American] aid will be stopped. The relationship is based on trust and I have said we are not building a nuclear bomb.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, interview with AP, 8/12/84. (Pakistan Affairs, 9/1/84).

`As we have repeatedly stated, we have assurances from the Pakistani government that its nuclear power program is entirely peaceful in intent and that it does not seek to acquire nuclear explosives of any kind.'--State Department spokesman John Hughes, quoted by AP, 10/25/84.

`We accepted President Zia-Ul-Haq's categorical statement that Pakistan's nuclear program is devoted entirely to power generation.'--US Ambassador at Large Richard Kennedy, 11/2/84, in Pakistan Affairs, 12/1/85.

`US officials say the letter [from President Reagan to President Zia] warned Zia not to process uranium at the controversial Kahuta plant outside Islamabad beyond 5 per cent enrichment . . . Zia's letter [of reply] gave assurances that Pakistan would respect the new marker . . . Other markers previously communicated to Pakistan include not testing a bomb, not reprocessing plutonium . . . not assembling a bomb, and not asking another country to test a device on Pakistan's behalf . . .'--Simon Henderson, London Financial Times, 12/7/84.

`. . . our [nuclear] programme is for our own resources to be generated. It is not for any atomic bomb or any other purpose.'--Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo, interview, 6/14/85.

`The Government of Pakistan and its President have repeatedly declared that Pakistan would not produce nor acquire nuclear weapons, and that our research programme is for purely peaceful purposes.'--Ali Arshad, Embassy of Pakistan in UK, London Times, 9/27/85.

`I take this opportunity to reaffirm Pakistan's policy of developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes only and its irrevocable commitment not to acquire nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. Pakistan has neither the capability nor the desire to develop nuclear weapons.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, Address before UN General Assembly, 10/23/85.

`As for the Kahuta laboratory, it has been clarified time and again at the highest political level that the modest exercise there in uranium enrichment is on a research and development scale. It is solely motivated by a desire to achieve a degree of self-reliance in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, that is, a 3-percent enrichment of uranium.'--Leaflet from Information Division, Embassy of Pakistan, October 1985.

`Let me add here, Mr. Chairman, President Zia has, in fact, given the most unequivocal assurances on the question of a nuclear explosives program. He has stated there will be no such explosives program completed and that he understands
fully the concerns which we have expressed to him and respects those concerns.'--Ambassador Richard Kennedy, congressional testimony on 4/10/86.

`Dr. [Abdul Qadeer Khan] noted that President Zia ul-Haq had made a commitment to the U.S. not to enrich beyond 5 per cent and said `we are keeping to it.'--Simon Henderson, interview with Dr. A.Q. Khan, Financial Times, 7/16/86.

`[Prime Minister Junejo reportedly assures U.S. senators that Pakistan is] . . . abiding by the guidelines' established by the U.S. and specifically that Pakistan is keeping components separate.'--Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7/17/86. [Oberdorfer wrote that Junejo appeared to be referring to Reagan's September 1984 letter asking Pakistan's to limit its uranium enrichment level at 5 percent, Oberdorfer added that `Earlier U.S. messages to Pakistan reportedly included a warning not to assemble components in a way that would create a bomb.']

`The prime minister [Junejo] confirmed that Pakistan pledged in response to a 1984 letter from Reagan not to enrich uranium in its nuclear facilities to a level higher than 5 percent.'--Interview with Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo, Washington Post, 7/18/86.

`Ours is a modest research programme. Its aim is to acquire fuel production capability for the reactors we need to meet our energy requirements. I reiterate here that Pakistan has no intention to produce nuclear weapons. We do not posses the capability and the resources.'--Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo, Foreign Policy Association, 7/21/86.

`[On U.S. concerns about Pakistan's bomb program] This matter has been raised between us and the United States for the last eight years. I have convinced them that we are using nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes.'--President Zia-Ui-Haq, Interview, 8/23/86.

`President Reagan in late 1984 told Pakistani President Mohammed Zia ul-Haq in a top-secret letter that 5 percent would be the highest enrichment level acceptable to the United States.'--Bob Woodward, Washington Post, 11/4/86.

`In an interview with the Post on July 18, [Prime Minister] Junejo confirmed that Pakistan had pledged, in response to a 1984 letter from Reagan, not to enrich uranium in its nuclear facilities to a level higher than 5 percent.'--Washington Post, 11/5/86.

`Pakistan does not have and is not producing highly enriched uranium necessary for a nuclear explosive device . . . the enrichment level has remained well within limits of the research and development program for fuel.'--Pakistani Foreign Secretary Abdul Sattar, Washington Post, 11/5/86.

`Pakistan has renounced for itself the military use of nuclear energy and has used this energy only in pecaeful fields.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, Interview, 1/29/87.

`A Foreign Office spokesman said in Islamabad today that Pakistan's nuclear program is of a peaceful nature and this fact has been proved during the last 6 or 7 years.'--Karachi Domestic Service radio broadcast, 2/11/87.

Senator Sasser. `Have the Pakistanis pledged not to continue illegal purchases of nuclear equipment or technology from the United States?'

Ambassador Richard Kennedy. `Yes sir, they have indicated which this is something which they understand is against the law and we have brought to their attention the law and its proscription.'--Hearing, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, 2/25/87.

`As I so often publicly stated, Pakistan's enrichment research is solely aimed at the development of fuel-grade uranium for our future power reactors. The Government of Pakistan has made it abundantly clear that it has no desire to produce nuclear weapons.'--Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistan's top nuclear scientist, NY Times, 3/2/87.

`The minister in charge for science and technology, Mr. Wasim Sajjad, categorically stated in the National Assembly today that Pakistan does not possess an atomic bomb, has no desire to have a bomb, and it cannot afford to manufacture and atomic bomb.'--Karachi Overseas Service broadcast, 3/5/87.

`No power on Earth can deter us from pursuing our peaceful nuclear program because our conscience is clear and our aim is peaceful.'--Pakistani Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Zain Noorani, AP, 3/9/87.

`. . . we believe in nonproliferation, and our nuclear research is, therefore, devoted entirely to peaceful purposes . . . the president and prime minister of Pakistan have repeatedly expressed their commitment to nonproliferation . . .'--Pakistani Ambassador Jamsheed Marker, Washington Post, 3/1/87.

`We are not producing Atomic weapons nor intend to do so, but we shall continue to develop our nuclear capabilities for peaceful purposes no matter whether any of our friends likes it or not.'--Pakistani Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Zain Noorani, statement, 3/16/87.

`. . . Pakistan has not enriched its uranium above the normal grade level required for peaceful purposes.'--President Zai-Ul-Haq, Time, 3/23/87.

`Pakistan has neither the desire, nor the intention, nor the capacity to develop a nuclear weapon . . . We have the ability to enrich uranium, but only below 5 percent, so it can only be used for power generation.' [The article continued: `Zia said he had made a written commitment to President Reagan that Pakistan would not embarrass the United States and he would not go back on this gentleman's agreement']--Pakistani President Zia-Ul-Haq, Interview in Defense Week, 4/6/87.

President Zia. `We are honorable people, and when President Reagan wrote this [a certification in October 1986 that Pakistan does not possess the bomb], I gave him my assurances. When Prime Minister Junejo visited the United States of America early this, last year, he gave him the same assurances. And we will give him the assurances, with the word, that Pakistan's word is to be honored . . .'

Mr. McLaughin. `. . . is it safe for him [Reagan] to say that . . . by giving you the aid, he is going to, in effect, discourage you from moving on to develop the nuclear bomb?'

President Zia. `According to the American thinking, he is just, and perfect and correct.'

Mr. McLaughlin. `What about Pakistani thinking?'

President Zia. `Exactly the same, because we have no intention of developing a nuclear device.'

Mr. McLaughlin. `How does it follow if he gives you the aid you will be disinclined to develop the bomb?'

President Zia. `Why do you want to have a bomb? To ensure security, to create a deterrent, to have our own defensive means. If we have it otherwise, why should Pakistan indulge in the proliferation, against which Pakistan on principle is opposed to?'

Mr. McLaughlin. [Asks if Pakistan is building the bomb by just producing all the components without assembling them.]

President Zia. `Nonsense. False. Totally false. When Pakistan does not have the intention or the urge and desire to have a nuclear device, why should we have----

Mr. McLaughlin. `Why is this development going on?'

President Zia. `Our effort is only in the technical field, for peaceful purposes. They are just enriching uranium to a particular degree. That's all.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, McLaughlin `One on One,' 6/15/87.

`No agency of the [Pakistan] government placed any order for this steel and no evidence has so far been brought to our knowledge that even any private company in Pakistan is responsible for this order.'--Pakistani foreign office spokesman, commenting about a recent US Customs sting operation, UPI, 7/16/87.

`. . . the Pakistan government has provided assurances both certainly in public as well as in private that it is not enriching [uranium] above 5 percent.'--Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Robert Peck, congressional testimony, 7/22/87.

`Pakistan's verifiable compliance with [its] past commitments is vital to any further United States military assistance.'--Text of S. Res. 266, passed the Senate by unanimous consent on 7/31/87.

`The time has come [for Pakistan] to choose. If it wants to build nuclear weapons, under US law, it cannot have US foreign assistance. It is time for the Government of Pakistan to take concrete action to bring its nuclear program in line with its assurances.'--Sen. Robert Byrd, Congressional Record, 7/31/87.

`[In passing S. Res. 266 Congress was] . . . simply calling upon the Government of Pakistan to make good on promises which it has already extended in the past years.'--Sen. Gordon Humphrey, Congressional Record, 7/31/87.

`[America and Pakistan] . . . share an overriding mutual interest that can best be promoted by Pakistan's decision to comply with this own stated policy for peaceful nuclear development.'--Sen. Bill Bradley, Congressional Record 7/31/87.

`Pakistan must be made to understand that the United States is to keep its commitments.'--Sen. Claiborne Pell, Congressional Record 7/31/87.

`. . . It is essential at a minimum that our allies, and especially the recipients of US economic and military assistance, understand that the United States expects reasonable commitments concerning non-proliferation.'--Sen. Jesse Helms, Congressional Record 7/31/87.

`Mr. Armacost [US Under Secretary of State] also stressed the importance of Pakistan's compliance, with their assurance not to enrich uranium about the five percent level.'--State Department spokesman Charles Redman, press briefing, 8/10/87.

`We are enriching uranium in very small quantities, meant only for peaceful purposes.'--Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Zain Noorani, interview on 8/27/87.

`Pakistan, let me reiterate, is against the spread of nuclear weapons in South Asia.'--Foreign Minister Yaqub Khan, speech in Islamabad, 9/1/87.

`The bogey of `the Islamic bomb' was made up in countries that mean harm to Islam and Pakistan . . . We have neither the intention nor the capability to produce a nuclear weapon . . . Our [nuclear] technology has no military dimension . . . we have stated many times that we do not possess a bomb.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, interview published on 10/3/87 Jordan.

`I have said in that past that we are not manufacturing a bomb. We are using nuclear technology for peaceful purposes . . . [Pakistan and Turkey] are not cooperating on the manufacture of a bomb. The Jewish lobby is probably behind such reports.'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, interview published on 10/4/87 in Turkey.

`We gave [the United States nonproliferation] commitments at an earlier stage and as an elected government I will only go further' [if India gives commitments also]: Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo, interview in Washington Post, 10/13/87.

`We gave [the United States nonproliferation] commitments at an earlier stage and as an elected government I will only go further' [if India gives commitments also]: Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo, interview in Washington Post, 10/13/87.

Ambassador Kennedy. `. . . Pakistan has assured us that they were conducting their [nuclear] program wholly for peaceful purposes . . . they have told us that they are renouncing nuclear explosives of any kind . . . and as to their enrichment facility, they have indicated that it is devoted to producing material at low enrichment levels for peaceful purposes only . . . [and] they have indicated that they would not undertake any testing . . .'

Mr. Solarz. `Have they also given us some assurances that they are not and do no intend to enrich uranium over the five percent level?'

Ambassador Kennedy. `The president [Zia] has stated that publicly . . .'

Mr. Solarz. `I have the impression that position is also being conveyed directly to President Reagan by President Zia.'

Ambassador Kennedy. `The same kind of statement . . .'

Mr. Wolpe. `Are they not continuing to enrich uranium beyond the 5-percent level . . . In blatant violation of their own expressed explicit commitment to President Reagan?'

Ambassador Kennedy. `That may well be, and we are concerned about that, and it is precisely because of that, we are exerting all kinds of pressure on them.'--Ambassador Richard Kennedy, congressional testimony, 10/22/87.

`Pakistan . . . is not for a nuclear device, and I can assure you we will not embarrass the U.S. by suddenly producing one . . . The truth is that we don't have a device and we are not building one . . .'--President Zia-Ul-Haq, interview published in Washington Time, 11/16/87.

`[Pakistan has neither] . . . the capability nor the intention' to produce nuclear weapons: President Zia-Ul-Haq, interview published in Wall Street Journal, 12/1/87.

`In his interview . . . Zain Noorani reiterated that Pakistan's atomic program is totally peaceful and its objective is to make the country self reliant in energy resources by 2000 AD.'--Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Zain Noorani, Islamabad Domestic Service broadcast, 1/9/88.

`I am aware of your abiding interest in and strong commitment to, nuclear non-proliferation. We share these concerns, for Pakistan has unequivocally committed itself to nuclear non-proliferation.'--Letter from Pakistani Ambassador Jamsheed Marker to Sen. John Glenn, 1/20/88.

`The Pakistan government has not modified its position that its uranium enrichment activities are strictly peaceful and that it will not enrich uranium above the 5% level, nor has it given any new assurances with respect to its enrichment activities.'--Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Robert Peck, congressional testimony, 2/17/88.

`In August [1984], President Reagan drafted a letter to Zia warning Pakistan not to cross `the red line' of enriching uranium above 5 percent . . . the President's letter, sent on Sept. 12 . . . [warned] that if Zia crossed the 5 percent `red line,' he would face unspecified `grave consequences.' In November 1984 . . . President Zia gave written assurances to Reagan that the American limit would be respected.'--Hedrick Smith, `A Bomb Ticks in Pakistan,' NY Times Magazine, 3/16/88.

`Perhaps the [US] effort was to stop us from that enrichment program. Having seen that Pakistan has gone and succeeded, the best thing now is to enjoy and relax.' [Zia reportedly also stated that Pakistan does not have a nuclear weapon or a program to build one.]--President Zia-Ul-Haq, interview in Wall Street Journal, 4/26/88.

`Pakistan's commitment to nuclear non-proliferation is firm and unwavering . . . Pakistan does not possess nuclear weapons, nor does it intend to possess them. We have not carried out a nuclear explosion nor do we intend to conduct one. Our nuclear programme is emphatically peaceful in nature. Indeed, we are firm in our resolve to keep our area free from all nuclear weapons.'--Pakistan's UN Ambassador S. Shah Nawaz, address before UN General Assembly, 6/13/88.

`Pakistan's nuclear programs are peaceful and do not represent a threat to any other nation in the region. Pakistan has repeatedly declared, at the highest levels of our government, that we do not possess, and have no intention of developing, a nuclear weapon.'--Letter from Pakistani Ambassador Jamsheed Marker to Sen. John Glenn, 8/4/88.

`We don't want any controversy [with the US] on the nuclear issue . . . We want it clear beyond doubt that we're interested only in energy, not nuclear weapons.'--Opposition leader Benazir Bhutto, Washington Post, 11/19/88, shortly before becoming Prime Minister.

`We believe in a peaceful [nuclear] program for energy purposes and nothing else.'--Opposition leader Benazir Bhutto, interview in Time, 11/28/88.

`I can tell you with confidence that there is no bomb programme in Pakistan . . . There is no bomb programme . . . there is no bomb programme.'--Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, interview in Calcutta Telegraph, 12/14/88.

`We're committed to a peaceful energy program. We don't have any [nuclear] weapons policy . . . Pakistan doesn't have any intention to get a nuclear device or a nuclear weapon.'--Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, interviewed on `McNeil/Lehrer,' 12/16/88.

`Talking to a visiting American [congressional] delegation . . . President Ghulam Ishaq Khan stated categorically that Pakistan's nuclear program was designed purely for peaceful purposes and that Pakistan had no intention to build or acquire nuclear weapons.'--Islamabad Domestic Services broadcast, 1/16/89.

`It is right to say that we are one of the `threshold' states . . . We have deliberately chosen not to take the final step, to build a bomb and test it, because we don't think it is right.'--Pakistani Ambassador Jamsheed Marker, quoted in Washington Times, 2/8/89.

`We manufactured small reactors and built nuclear power plants. However, we have never considered this for military purposes.'--Minister of State for Defense Ghulam Sarwar Cheema, in Istanbul Hurriyet, 5/4/89.

`The Pakistan delegate, Mr. Mirza Javed Chauhan, told the [UN] Disarmament Commission that Pakistan does not possess nuclear weapons, nor does it have any
intention to do so.'--Islamabad Domestic Service broadcast, 5/10/89.

`Speaking for Pakistan, I can declare that we do not possess nor do we intend to make a nuclear device. That is our policy.'--Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, address before Joint Session of US Congress, 6/7/89.

`. . . Bhutto promised during her visit that Pakistan will not produce `weapons-grade uranium' . . . or take the final step to assemble a nuclear device.'--Washington Post, 6/15/89.

`Pakistan has not, nor do we have any intention of putting together or making, a bomb, or taking it to the point where you can put it together.'--Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, New York Times, 7/10/89.

`Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto on Sunday flatly denied speculation that her country is developing nuclear weapons. She said in an interview with a British television network that Pakistan will never possess such weapons in the future.'--Reported by Kyodo News Service, 7/10/89.

`We do have the knowledge but I think there is a difference between knowledge and capability . . . So we do have a knowledge, if confronted with a threat, to use . . . But we do not in the absence of any threat intend to use that knowledge . . . In fact, as matter of policy my government is firmly committed to nonproliferation.'--Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, quoted by AFP, 8/29/89.

`It is true that Pakistan has certain knowledge in the nuclear field but it has no intention of using this knowledge . . . To put it another way, we do not want to convert this knowledge into--shall we say--a nuclear capability at the present time.'--Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, interview in Die Welt, as quoted by Reuters, 10/22/89.

`There was a [nuclear weapons] capability in 1989 when the present Government came to power, and that means we could have moved forward in an unwise direction . . . But we didn't. Instead, we froze the program.'--Pakistani Foreign Secretary Shahryar Khan, NY Times, 2/8/92.

`We kept our part of the bargain but Pakistan let us down by crossing the line in 1990 . . . We had promised Pakistan billions and billions of dollars if that line was not crossed.'--John Malott, interim director of State Department South Asia Bureau, AFP, 5/16/93.

`India is the nuclear delinquent in the region while Pakistan has always been exercising restraint . . . [Pakistan] does not possess a nuclear explosive device and does not intend to make one.'--Pakistani Foreign Minister Assef Ahmed Ali, quoted in AFP, 11/28/93.

`We are a very responsible country, and we do not believe in the proliferation of nuclear weapons.'--Pakistani Foreign Minister Assef Ahmed Ali, quoted in Washington Times, 8/25/94.

`I want to say categorically and finally that Pakistan has not made nuclear weapons . . . Pakistan does not intend to make nuclear weapons.'--Pakistani Foreign Minister Assef Ahmed Ali, quoted in New York Times, 8/25/94.

`We have made a sovereign decision not to produce nuclear weapons.'--Munir Akram, foreign ministry spokesman, Washington Times, 8/25/94.

`We have neither detonated one, nor have we got nuclear weapons . . . being a responsible state and a state committed to nonproliferation, we in Pakistan, through five successive governments have taken a policy decision to follow a peaceful nuclear program.'--Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, interview with David Frost on PBS, 11/18/94.

`. . . Pakistan has not acquired the [nuclear-capable] M-11 or any other missile from China that violates the Missile Technology Control Regime . . .': Press Release, Information Division, Pakistan Embassy, 7/27/95.

Senator Brown. `Did we have an agreement with the Pakistani government that in return for the assistance we provided, that they would not develop nuclear weapons? Was that a condition for our cooperation with them in the late 1980's?'

Assistant Secretary Raphel: `The short answer to that is no. There was no such explicit agreement . . . there was no explicit quid pro quo there.'--Testimony of Assistant Secretary of State Robin Raphel, South Asia subcommittee of Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 9/14/95.




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