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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Pakistanís Nuclear Program Chronology

1965 - 1979

The Pakistani nuclear research reactor at Parr, Rawalpindi, began functioning in 1965 with help (via fiscal aid and light-water imports) from the United States. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty was completed in 1968 and garnered the signatures of 189 states. Pakistan refused to sign. Canada supplied Pakistan with a heavy-water reactor, heavy-water as a moderator for the reactor, and a heavy-water production facility for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant in 1972. This aid was terminated in 1976.

India tested a device of up to 15 kilotons and called the test a "peaceful nuclear explosion" in 1974. Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto told a meeting of Pakistan's top scientists of his intention to develop nuclear arms.

In 1974, Pakistan proposed to India the establishment of a nuclear weapons free zone in south Asia. India rejected the proposal. Pakistan proposed to India a joint Indo-Pakistan declaration renouncing the acquisition and manufacture of nuclear weapons in 1978. This proposal was also rejected.

Father of the Pakistani nuclear program, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, founded Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) in 1976 (later, A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories [KRL]) to focus on the indigenous enrichment of uranium and the research and design of an atomic weapon. In 1979, The United States cut off aid to Pakistan under Section 669 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (FAA) after it was learned that Pakistan had secretly begun construction of a uranium enrichment facility.

In 1979, Pakistan proposed to India mutual inspections by India and Pakistan of repective nuclear facilities, the simultaneous adherence to the NPT by both nations, and the simultaneous acceptance of full-scope IAEA safeguards. All three offers were rejected.




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