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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report

Iraq's Chemical Warfare Program

Iraq's Chemical Warfare Program
Key Findings1
Evolution of the Chemical Warfare Program5
Regime Strategy and WMD Timeline5
The Early Years, 1960-1980: A Slow Start5
The Chemical Corps and Al-Hasan Ibn-al-Haytham Research Foundation5
Full Capability, 1981-1991: Ambition6
Foundation of the Al Muthanna State Establishment6
Agent Production Begins and Al Muthanna State Establishment Takes Shape6
Early Weaponization: Simple Solutions8
CW-A Permanent and Pivotal Strategic Weapon9
The Decline, 1991-19969
Destroying Iraqi Weapons9
Recovery and Transition, 1996-200312
Miscalculation, 2002-200313
Command and Control14
Preamble: Muddling Through After the Gulf War14
Iraq Could Maintain CW Competence With Relative Ease15
Infrastructure-Research and Development16
Creation of the Iraqi Industrial Committee17
The Power of the IIC17
The IIC's Master Plan for Self-Reliance: The List of 1,000 Chemicals18
Dual-Use Chemicals on the List of 1,000 Chemicals18
Thionyl Chloride19
Chemicals From the List Move Toward Production22
Infrastructure-Production Capability23
State of Chemical Industry at OIF-Limited Break-Out Capability24
Suspect Munitions Activities29
Disposition of CW Munitions Post-199129
The 1991 Decision To Destroy Undeclared Weapons31
Iraq Unilateral Weapons Destruction in 199131
Destruction of Chemical Munitions, Bulk Agent, and Precursors31
Chemical Munitions-Searching Military Depots and Caches33
Investigating Ammunition Supply Points33
Investigating Captured Enemy Ammunition Points (CEA Consolidation Points)35
A. IIS Undeclared Research on Poisons and Toxins for Assassination43
B. Al Muthanna Chemical Weapons Complex61
C. The Iraqi Industrial Committee85
D. Tariq Company's Activities89
E. Al-Abud Network93
F. Detailed Preliminary Assessment of Chemical Weapons Findings97
G. Chemical Warfare and the Defense of Baghdad107
H. Summary of Key Findings at Captured Enemy Ammunition Consolidation Points113
I. Review of 24 Iraqi Ammunition Supply Points123



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