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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report

Delivery Systems

Biological Warfare
Key Findings1
Evolution of the Biological Warfare Program5
The Regime Strategy and WMD Timeline5
Evolution of the Biological Warfare Program5
Ambition: The Early Years, 1960-19855
Renewed Ambition and Near-Realization: 1985-19918
The Beginning of the Decline: Opportunity Through Ambiguity and the End of the Game (1991-1996)11
Recovery and Transition 1996-200315
Research and Development18
Building Human Capital19
Research Facilities20
Iraqi BW Agent Research20
Bacillus anthracis ('Agent B')20
Clostridium botulinum (Botulinum toxin, 'Agent A')21
Clostridium perfringens ('Agent G')22
Afl atoxin ('Agent C')22
Wheat Cover Smut ('Agent D')25
Camel Pox27
Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever32
Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis (Enterovirus 70)32
Other R&D Related to BW Development32
Single Cell Protein R&D34
Growth Media R&D34
Drying Process/Carrier/Particle size37
Production Capability38
Break-Out Production Capability Pre-OIF42
Mobile Assets42
Attempts at BW Weaponization47
The Gulf War48
Concealment And Destruction of Biological Weapons49
Iraq's Initial WMD Concealment Effort49
The Destruction of Iraq's BW50
What Remained Hidden and Undeclared 1995-1998?53
Weaponization Related Activities in the Years Following Desert Storm53
Unresolved Issues56
Program Direction56
Research and Development56
IIS Laboratories57
Disposition of Iraq's BW Program Culture Collection57
Agent Production57
Drying of BW Agents58
Bacterial BW Agent Production and Storage58
A. Bulk BW Agents61
B. BW Research and Development Facilities63
C. ISG Investigation of Iraq's Reported Mobile Biological Warfare Agent Production Capability73
D. Trailers Suspected of Being Mobil BW Agent Production Units79



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