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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report


Role of the MTCR

Although Iraq is not a signatory of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)—a voluntary agreement among member states whose goal is to control missile proliferation—ISG uncovered substantial evidence that companies in MTCR member states provided missile components and technical assistance—some of these components and assistance may be controlled under the MTCR— to Iraq’s delivery system programs.

  • Sources within the Iraqi missile program disclosed that Iraq had contracts with Russia for flow-forming machines that may have been MTCR controlled, but ISG has been unable to confirm the delivery of such items. Computer numerically-controlled flow-forming machines with more than two axes, which can be coordinated with simultaneously for contouring control—useful for making rocket motor cases, end domes and nozzles—are controlled under Category II of the MTCR annex.
  • Individuals within MIC stated that Iraq received gyroscopes from Russia for use in their missile programs, specifically the Al Samud II. Contractual evidence also exists that corroborates source claims that Al Karamah imported gyroscopes from Russian companies. Coalition forces recovered gyroscopes with Cyrillic letters on them and documents in Russian at both Al Karamah and Al Milad, which suggests that these items were imported from Russia. Russia may have been in breech of the MTCR because gyroscopes, which measure rotation at about one or more axes, are Category II–controlled items if they have a drift rate of less than 0.5 degree per hour.
  • ISG recovered a contract between a Russian entity and Iraq for Russian technical assistance for missile unidentified designs as well as Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment for unidentified missiles. GPS devices, if used to supplement or update the guidance set and increase the accuracy of a ballistic missile, are controlled under Category II of the MTCR annex.

A high-ranking official in the Iraqi missile program alleged that Iraq received AP and aluminum powder from a France firm via the Al ‘Ayan Company. Iraq also received HTPB from an Italian firm via the Al Taqaddum Company, from a Japanese firm via the Al Sharqiyah Company and an unidentified source in the United States via the Indian firm NEC Engineers Private, Ltd. ISG has been unable to corroborate this information with any other source reporting or contracts.


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