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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report

 

Undeclared Activities

Several former high-level Regime officials and scientists directly affiliated with Iraq’s military industries have indicated that Iraq intentionally withheld information from the UN regarding its delivery systems programs, to include research into delivery systems with design ranges well in excess of 150 km.

  • According to one former high-ranking government official, Huwaysh restricted the NMD’s access to MIC when the NMD was preparing the 2002 CAFCD. As a result, some MIC work was omitted, which violated UNSCR 1441.
  • Several sources have admitted their direct involvement in the destruction of documents related to delivery systems programs to prevent divulging them to the UN.

This pattern of activity occurred at all levels and indicates a widespread effort to protect certain activities and to deceive the international community. According to numerous sources, Iraq worked on several delivery system projects that were never declared to the UN, violating UNSCR 1441. Some of these projects were designed to achieve ranges beyond 150 km and if developed would have violated UNSCR 687 and 715. Many missile specialists directly involved in these projects have admitted to destroying documents related to these programs to prevent the UN from discovering them, which violates UNSCR 707.

  • Through a series of interviews with former MIC and NMD officials, ISG has discovered that Iraq since 1991 did not disclose the IRFNA production capability at Al Qa’qa’a to the UN. One NMD official claimed that Husayn Kamil had passed an order not to declare this capability to the UN and this order was observed even after Husayn Kamil’s death. Other officials claim that Iraq decided to withhold the IRFNA production capability of Al Qa’qa’a for fear that the UN would destroy the plant, virtually closing Iraq’s extensive munitions industries.
  • Former high-ranking MIC officials and scientists in the Iraqi missile program claim that, between 2000 and 2002, Huwaysh ordered Dr. Muzhir of Al Karamah to design a long-range liquid-propellant missile (see the Long-Range Missile chapter for more information). Huwaysh retained all the hardcopy evidence of this project and later destroyed it to prevent detection by the UN, although ISG has been able to uncover some design drawings for two long-range missile projects—the two- and five-engine clustered engine designs.
  • An engineer associated with the Iraqi missile program claimed that, in early 2001, Huwaysh directed ‘Abd-al-Baqi Rashid Shia’ of the Al Rashid General Company to pursue a long-range solid-propellant missile. The engineer also provided a diagram for a launcher for a long-range solid-propellant missile, that Al Fida’ engineers had been working on. The engineer claimed that research into this missile project ceased upon the arrival of UNMOVIC in late 2002 (see the Long-Range Missile chapter for more information).
  • Much of Iraq’s work on SA-2 conversion projects was never disclosed to the UN, according to officials associated with these projects. MIC officials decided to withhold all information from the UN about the Sa’d project, headed by Al Kindi, in part because it had not yet reached the prototype stage. Ra’ad Isma’il Jamil Al Adhami’s SA-2 conversion efforts were not declared to the UN although the flight tests were manipulated so that the missiles would not exceed 150 km.
  • Iraq withheld information about its efforts to extend the range of its HY-2 cruise missiles. Two individuals within MIC claimed that the 1,000 km Jinin cruise missile project ceased at the end of 2002 before the resumption of UNMOVIC inspections. One source said that the airframes were transferred from Al Karamah where the modifications were being made to a storage warehouse before UNMOVIC arrived for fear of the project being discovered. Iraq’s attempts to extend the range of the HY-2 anti-ship cruise missile to beyond 150 km in a land-attack role were not declared to the UN (see Cruise Missile chapter for more information).
  • A few sources have admitted that at least one Iraqi UAV flew beyond 150 km, and Huwaysh claimed that Iraq had tested UAVs to a range of only 100 km but that the range could easily be increased to 500 km by adding a larger fuel tank. Huwaysh also suggested that the L-29 program was a 100% replacement for the MiG-21 RPV program, implying—but never directly saying—that the mission of the L-29 was to deliver CBW. ISG has no other evidence to support this statement (see the UAV section for more information).
  • A high-level official within the Iraqi missile program claimed that, in an effort to make Iraq’s missile infrastructure less dependent upon foreign suppliers, MIC directed university projects to research ingredients used in solid and liquid propellants. Because of the sensitivity of this research, Iraq never disclosed these efforts to the UN. Former university students and individuals associated with the missile program alleged that this undisclosed research occurred at universities in Baghdad, Mosul, and Basra. Researchers claim their attempts to produce such materials, as Hydroxy Terminated Poly Butadiene (HTPB), Nitronium Perchlorate (NP), Nitroglycerine, and Hydrogen Peroxide at high concentration levels were unsuccessful.

ISG has exploited dozens of contracts that confirm the requests, orders, and deliveries of UN-restricted components and equipment involving facilities associated with Iraq’s missile and UAV programs. Iraq’s use of the Iraqi Intelligence Service, front companies, and false end user certificates indicate Iraq knew these activities violated international sanctions. Iraq also negotiated with other countries for complete missile systems, but there is no evidence any shipments were ever made (see the Procurement chapter for more information).

Graphite

Graphite is well known for its property of withstanding high temperatures and thermal shock, especially in nonoxidizing environments.

For missile applications, the denser it is, the more useful it is as a temperature-resistant material. Graphite densities below about 1,600 kg/m3 (1.6 g/cc) are only useful for nonnuclear or nonrocket application. Densities above 1,700 kg/m3 are useful for missiles and above 1,800 kg/m3 for nuclear applications. Uses of high-density graphite include:

  • High-temperature crucibles.
  • Anodes for electric steelmaking.
  • Nuclear applications (graphite is a moderator).
  • Missile and propulsion application.

Missile applications include the nose tip, jet vanes, and nozzle throat inserts. High-density graphite is used in nose tips because it is temperature resistant and can withstand high dynamic pressure and thermal effects better than lower density graphite. High-density graphite can be used as a liner for the extreme thermal and erosive environment experienced in the throats of solid-propellant motor nozzles where the high temperature environment is made worse by the presence of alumina particles (from propellant combustion) in the exhaust. Graphite inserts are not commonly used in liquid-propellant engines.

High-density graphite is also used in thrust vector control vanes, where aerodynamic surfaces are used to deflect the exhaust gas flow path, thus changing the direction of thrust. Although this method incurs drag losses, it is effective in providing a control mechanism for missiles.

  • Former high-level officials admit MIC procured ballistic missile engineering assistance, gyroscopes, SA-2/Volga missile engines, and SA-2 batteries from companies in Eastern Europe. ISG has recovered contracts and other documents to corroborate these admissions.
    • Huwaysh admitted that Iraq had imported hundreds of SA-2/Volga liquid-propellant engines from companies in Poland—activities that were disclosed to UNMOVIC. ISG has exploited several official documents containing the contractual details (e.g., serial numbers of these engines).
  • Former high-level MIC officials disclosed that Iraq received missile components such as gyroscopes and accelerometers from China.
  • Huwaysh and an Iraqi scientist both asserted that Iraq received assistance and materials for missile propellants from Indian firms, particularly NEC.
  • Several documents have been recovered that include information about Iraqi negotiations with North Korea for missile materials and long-range missile systems, probably including the 1,300-km-range No Dong. There is no evidence to confirm the delivery of any ballistic missile systems.
  • Statements from former high-level Regime officials and documentation indicate Russian entities provided assistance to Iraq’s missile programs. Russian entities exported numerous key pieces of equipment to Iraq through illegal channels and also supplied technical experts. Iraq also negotiated for complete Iskander-E missiles systems, although no missiles were ever purchased or delivered, according to Huwaysh.
  • Captured documents show Iraq’s reliance on FRY assistance to develop a domestic G&C design, manufacture, calibration, and test capability. Iraq also imported guidance instruments from FRY.
  • Former high-level MIC officials provided information about Iraq’s procurement efforts through Ukraine. Iraq received missile and UAV components as well as technical assistance from the Ukraine.

Benefits of Carbon Fiber Filament Winding in Missile Construction

Carbon Fiber Filament Winding is ideal for missile construction because of the superior material properties of carbon fiber and the repeatability and consistency of the filament winding process.

Carbon fiber materials have superior material properties to glass fiber, aluminum, and steel in the areas of specific strength, specific stiffness, and relative density. Carbon fiber composites are five times stronger and five times lighter than 1020 steel with a specific strength (a combined measure of both strength and density) 13 times that of aluminum and 1.4 times that of glass fiber composites. The chart at the end of this section highlights the superior carbon fiber material properties.

The Iraqi missile and UAV programs benefited from Iraq’s defiance of UN sanctions because they were able to obtain material and technical expertise they otherwise could not have developed. Several sources and documentary evidence confirm that Iraq participated in such activities. The measures taken to conceal these activities from the UN are evidence that Iraq was well aware these activities were illegal.

 



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