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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report


Production of Solid-Propellant Ingredients

Ammonium perchlorate (AP) constitutes the greatest mass of composite solid-propellant, and its availability was crucial to the future of all of Iraq’s major solid-propellant missile programs.Planned production of propellant constituents would have enabled the production of motor quantities larger than known program requirements.

  • Iraq obtained assistance in the expansion of its AP production capabilities from NEC Engineers Pvt Ltd., an Indian Company, according to multiple sources. This facility was located at the former nuclear plant at Al Athir and was designed to produce 180 ton per year. However, this plant was not fully operational prior to OIF and produced only a limited quantity of AP.
  • According to a high-ranking official in the Iraqi missile program, Iraqi universities attempted to revive the Hydroxyl Terminated Poly Butadiene (HTPB), a solid-propellant binder, plant at Al Ma’mun. This plant, purchased from Egypt in 1987, was supposed to supplement existing stockpiles. The source claimed that, although the plant had the necessary equipment, it never had the technology to use the equipment in HTPB production. If Iraq had been able to bring this facility on line, they would have reduced if not eliminated reliance on imported HTPB.
  • Some 60 tons of imported aluminum powder, suitable for use in solid-propellant rocket motors, was discovered during an ISG site exploitation inspection of Al Amin. At the current rate of demand, this would have satisfied the requirement for hundreds of motors. Considerable quantities of other propellant materials had also been imported and were potentially available for use.


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