Iraq Survey Group Final Report
The Jinin [Jenin] Project
In 2001 and 2002, Iraq attempted to convert the HY-2 anti-ship cruise missile into a 1,000-km-range land-attack cruise missile (LACM), which would build on the HY-2 range extension project that had already introduced upgrades—performed by the Al Karamah General Company —to the flight computers, engines, and propellants. A missile with this range would be able to reach targets in Iran and Israel from within Iraq’s borders. The Jinin project was interrupted by OIF before any flight tests occurred.
- According to an engineer in the Iraqi missile program, the Jinin project was conceived in November 2001 and received MIC approval in June 2002. In this time frame a host of other long-range projects involving ballistic missile systems were receiving increased attention. The project officially started on 1 June 2002 and was intended to be a three-to-five-year development project, but it was reportedly canceled in December 2002 after UNMOVIC entered Iraq. However, the original airframes and rocket engines were reassembled and returned to storage about two weeks after UNMOVIC’s arrival for fear of the project being discovered.
- The Al Karamah General Company was assigned overall project responsibility with the DG of Al Karamah (Dr. Muzhir), ultimately responsible for the project. However, Brigadier General Nadhim from Al Karamah was considered to be the project manager and systems engineer.
The initial concept involved modifying an HY-2 by replacing the sustainer propulsion system with a modified helicopter turboshaft engine to sustain cruise flight, which would eliminate the oxidizer tanks and enable a much longer range. The program fell into four distinct phases, according a senior program manager, who felt a flight test could be conducted in three years.
- Phase one would use computer simulations to test concepts for maintaining structural integrity and stability during engine integration and would attempt to convert surplus helicopter turboshaft engines to produce thrust rather than torque.
- Phase two would test and install the engines.
- Phase three would build and flight test a prototype.
- Phase four would work on guidance, navigation, and control.
The Jinin program involved several research, development, and production organizations: Al Quds for airframes and warheads, Al Milad for G&C systems and aerodynamics, Al Fida’ for the launcher, Ibn-Firnas and Iraqi army helicopter workshops for the engine modifications, and Al Karamah for final assembly.
Iraq planned to convert the HY-2 from rocket-powered to turbojet-powered using surplus helicopter engines. Initially, Iraq planned to use Mi-8 “TV-2” helicopter turbines modified to produce thrust rather than torque.
- Propulsion engineers at Ibn-Firnas estimated that the Jinin would require 2,670-Newtons (600 pounds) of thrust, but the TV-2 engine testbed (captured by ISG) was capable of producing only 2,000-Newtons (450 pounds) of thrust. As a result, Ibn-Firnas began studying the conversion of the Mi-17 “TV-3” helicopter engine.
- UNMOVIC inspections commenced before TV-3 testbed demonstrations could be completed, and the testbed was shut down to prevent inadvertent observation by inspectors.
- Both of these engines could fit into the HY-2 airframe without extensive modifications, thus avoiding new aerodynamic problems caused by structural changes. The engine air intake would be located on the bottom of the missile about midway along the body.
Reportedly, Ibn-Firnas engineers believed the modification from turboshaft to turbojet would be difficult because the stators (vanes) could not be removed since they were integral to the engine’s ball bearing assembly. They believed that, although the modifications would be challenging, they could solve the problems with enough time and money. However, reports vary as to the success and extent of the overall engine modification program, and to the status of the design documentation.
- According to a source with excellent access, engineers only reached the modeling phase of development with no tests of an operating engine for Jinin. Additionally, all of the engine modeling work, drawings, and related documents were destroyed at Ibn-Firnas by fire and looting after OIF.
- An engineer with direct access indicated that the design work was intentionally destroyed in February 2003 due to fear of UNMOVIC’s possible discovery of the project. The source believed it could be regenerated within a couple of weeks if UNMOVIC left and the leadership demanded the project continue. This concept is supported by reports of Saddam’s goal for a program reconstitution capability of less than six months.
- An engineer in the Iraqi missile program stated that a modified Mi-8 engine test succeeded, but with lower than expected thrust levels. These lower thrust levels were attributed to the poor condition of the older engine. Iraq expected that using newer Mi-17 engines would alleviate the thrust problem, but that work was interrupted by the arrival of UNMOVIC before testing could begin.
- The same source indicated that the modified Mi-8 engine was moved to Ibn-Firnas for storage. An Mi-8 turboshaft was recovered from the engine static test stand at Ibn-Firnas by US officials in late June 2003. Multiple sources involved in the program indicate the engine was used in the Jinin program. A small diffuser, found in the Ibn-Firnas junk yard and identified by the same source to be from the Mi-8 engine in coalition possession, was mated successfully with the engine exhaust port, adding some credibility to the source’s claim.
The Jinin missile was intended to carry a HE warhead consisting of 500 kg of TNT. ISG has uncovered no information to suggest this missile would carry submunitions or CBW warheads.
Guidance and Control
According to a senior program official in July 2003, the Jinin navigational accuracy would not be an important factor in the first phases of the project. The priority was simply to get a missile to fly 1,000 km with an HE warhead. This approach was not unusual for Iraq—the Al Husayn project had adopted the same attitude, which is why the Al Husayn was so inaccurate, according to the senior program official.
- The program official was initially convinced that the guidance system for the HY-2 could be used for the Jinin project. He also stated that the project had not progressed to the stage of working on the guidance section. The project researchers first wanted to verify the engine would work and could be mounted successfully on the HY-2 airframe. Had these steps been successful, they would have begun work on the guidance and other sections.
- The HY-2’s existing guidance system was not accurate enough and Iraq did not have access to any guidance system that would be sufficiently accurate. The program official indicated that the HY-2 guidance system would eventually be replaced by a GPS acquired from abroad. As an interim solution, Al Milad considered using the guidance system from the R-40 (AA-6) missile, which uses three accelerometers and three gyroscopes. Clearly, Iraq again assumed that sanctions were not an inhibiting factor.
- Another issue, acknowledged by the program official, involved the control and stability of the missile given the internal rearrangement of the sub-system components necessary to accommodate the modified engine (and potential additional fuel tank).
The Jinin project was in the early R&D phase when it was interrupted by the return of UN inspectors, and it was subsequently canceled.Although its inherent payload capability of 500 kg could have been adapted for WMD, there is no evidence of intent for WMD delivery. If the project had continued, it most likely would have violated UN resolutions.
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