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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Iraq Survey Group Final Report

New Cruise Missile Projects

After UNSCOM inspectors left in 1998, Iraq continued with one cruise missile project and began another. Both of these modifications were to the HY-2 anti-ship cruise missile. The first project, which was declared by Iraq in its July 1996 Full, Final, and Complete Disclosure (FFCD) as the Al Faw 150/200, was an attempt to extend the range of the HY-2 from about 100 km to 150 km. An attempt to build a 1,000-km range, turbojet-powered cruise missile was a more ambitious second project known as Jinin that began in late 2001.

HY-2 Range Extension

‘Abd-al-Tawab ‘Abdallah Al Mullah Huwaysh, the Minister of Military Industrialization, created the Special Projects Office (SPO)—directly subordinate to himself and with direct links to the President’s Office—because he wanted a few key projects to receive high-level attention and financial support. One such secret project (between MIC, the Iraqi Navy, and the Al Karamah General Company) sought to extend the range of the HY-2 cruise missile to 150 km using cannibalized components from their inventory of surplus C601 and C611 anti-ship cruise missiles and changes to the propulsion system.

  • According to an Iraqi scientist, the first test was conducted in August 1999 at a location in Basrah. Though this land attack cruise missile (LACM) test was declared by Iraq to the UN in the Currently Accurate, Full, and Complete Declaration (CAFCD), Iraq did not disclose that this was part of a range extension project.

Propulsion System

According to source reports, Al Karamah experimented with different engines and propellant modifications to increase the HY-2 range. A different engine (C-611) using higher-energy propellants would be required to reach the range goal for the project.

  • Conflicting reports from engineers involved in the program indicate Iraq used engines from the P-15, C601, and C611 as replacements for the HY-2 engine, and that each attempt was successful.
  • According to several missile officials, Al Karamah changed the fuel used in the HY-2 from TG-02 to higher-energy AZ-11(a blend of 89% DETA and 11% UDMH). The change required adjustments to the engine fuel pumps to optimize the fuel/oxidizer mixture ratios.
  • A flight test of the modified HY-2 achieved a range of 168 km, according to Huwaysh. After that, Al Karamah made engine and tank adjustments to keep the range below 150 km to avoid the attention of the UN.
  • ISG judges it unlikely that all three engine replacements were successful. Changing the fuel and readjusting all of the engines mentioned would probably not result in a range extension to 168 km. A range extension to 150 km is more likely achievable by using the C-611 engine with AZ-11 fuel.

Warhead

Several sources have indicated the intended warhead for the extended-range HY-2 was a HE warhead consisting of 500 kg of TNT. ISG has uncovered no information to suggest this cruise missile would carry a submunition or CBW warhead.

Guidance and Control

Iraq’s extended-range HY-2 program would depend upon the acquisition of navigation and guidance systems that were more sophisticated than the original or readily available components; acquisition of such systems were forbidden by UN sanctions. Iraq began making plans to acquire such systems, but this was not a priority for the program.

  • An engineer in the program indicated that modification and testing of the propulsion system were the first priorities, and navigation and guidance would be addressed nearer the end of the program development cycle.
  • In the event Iraq could not scavenge or adapt guidance systems from other missiles like the C-611, it planned to acquire them from outside sources.

Conclusions

Reporting from several sources consistently indicates that the extended range HY-2 successfully flew to at least 150 km, and possibly 168 km. Although the goal of the program was to provide a greater stand-off capability against ships and to make up for the loss of an air-launched cruise missile capability, the research directly contributed to the longer range Jinin project.

  • The extended-range HY-2 program if during flight tests did not exceed 150 km likely would not have constituted a violation of UN resolutions.
  • Huwaysh commented that Iraq targeted Kuwait with its deployed extended-range HY-2 missiles during OIF.

 



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