Operations other than war
include those operations conducted during peacetime and conflict
short of war. It is also possible that these type of operations
can be conducted during war as an adjunct to the main effort.
Contingency operations here
normally focus on assisting US, allied, or friendly nation civil
authorities to cope with natural or man-made disasters. Typical
- Humanitarian assistance and
- Arms control/treaty verification.
- Support to domestic civil
Here, contingency operations
are usually time-sensitive military operations characterized by
rapid power projection of combat forces. These operations include--
- Security assistance.
- Humanitarian assistance.
- Strikes and raids.
- Noncombatant evacuation.
- Support to insurgency or counterinsurgency
- Support to domestic civil
In the past, terrorist groups
have attempted to obtain chemical weapons. As the proliferation
of NBC weapons spreads, this possibility increases. Chemical staffs
and units will support counter-terrorist operations by providing
NBC defense training to key individuals. Special forces NBC reconnaissance
detachments can conduct special reconnaissance operations to locate
terrorist NBC storage sites and/or manufacturing facilities. Chemical
units and staffs can provide technical advice and assistance once
terrorists have used NBC weapons.
Chemical units and staffs
operating in areas where there is a high terrorist threat must
take terrorist countermeasures. Soldiers should be trained in
common-sense terrorism countermeasures. FM 100-37, Terrorism
Counteraction, provides guidance on unit countermeasures.
During the Gulf War, chemical
personnel provided security assistance to friendly and allied
nations. This assistance involved training of their military forces
in NBC defense techniques. Both chemical staffs and units can
provide security assistance support. The Security Assistance Training
Program (SATP) has two components - International Military Education
and Training Program (IMETP) and foreign military sale program
(FMSP) training. The objectives of these programs are--
- Develop skills required to
operate and maintain acquired US equipment.
- Develop a foreign country's
expertise in effective management of its defense establishment.
- Foster development of a foreign
country's professional and technical training capability.
- Promote US military rapport
with counterparts in a foreign country.
- Promote a better understanding
of the US, its people, political system, institutions, and way
- Increase the awareness of
international military personnel on the US commitment to human
IMETP is designed to advance
the efficiency, professional performance, and readiness of the
recipient armed forces. This training is normally conducted in
CONUS, but can occur in other countries. The methods of training
vary; formal courses, orientation tours, and on-the-job training
are several methods.
FMSP allows eligible foreign
governments to purchase defense equipment, services, and training
from the US. Training on the maintenance and operation of the
equipment is accomplished by two methods--mobile training teams
(MTT) or field training services (FTS). MTTs are military personnel
on temporary duty to train foreign personnel. The team's size
and composition are based on the request submitted by the host
nation. The objective of the training is to develop an institutional
base with the host nation so that they can then train themselves.
FTS is a long-term MTT that can consist of military or civilian
employees or contract personnel.
These operations provide emergency
assistance to victims of natural or man-made disasters abroad.
Chemical staffs and units provide specialized assistance in chemical-
or nuclear-related disasters. This can include monitoring and
survey, detection and identification of hazards, and decontamination.
In disasters not involving chemical or nuclear hazards, chemical
units can provide general support. This support includes providing
showers, off-the-road water haul, and limited firefighting capability.
Chemical staff personnel can
provide technical expertise to military units involved in counter-drug
operations. The manufacturers of illegal drugs use and produce
many dangerous chemical compounds. Chemical corps personnel can
provide technical advice in the handling and disposal of dangerous
Chemical personnel can provide
advice on the destruction of drug labs and related materials using
flame field expedients or using defoliants to destroy drug crops.
Peacekeeping forces deployed
in countries that possess NBC weapons will require support from
both chemical staffs and units. Chemical staff officers and NCOs
need to be included at all echelons within the military peacekeeping
command. A senior chemical staff officer with a broad range of
expertise needs to be included on the staff of the military peacekeeping
command. This command exerts overall control of the peacekeeping
forces and is normally multinational. The military peacekeeping
force commander exercises operational control of the subordinate
military forces. Under the military peacekeeping command are military
area commands. The military area commands usually consist of a
single nation's military force and operates in a specific geographical
Chemical staffs organic to
the military organizations deployed in a peacekeeping role will
provide NBC staff support to their organizations. If the military
unit does not have a chemical staff, then the organization should
be augmented with a JA or JB team. Ad hoc chemical staffs also
can be formed. Depending on the situation and the NBC threat involved,
chemical units maybe deployed. The organization and type of chemical
support package is dependent on METT-T. At a minimum, a chemical
company team should be deployed to provide the necessary C 2
and logistical support.
Arms control focuses on promoting
strategic military stability. Chemical staff personnel provide
technical assistance on monitoring the proliferation of NBC weapons
and technology. Chemical officers occupy staff positions in agencies
responsible for nuclear and chemical weapons treaty verification.
Chemical units and organizations are involved in the demilitarization
of chemical munitions and associated equipment.
Strikes are attacks
by ground, air, and naval forces to damage or destroy high value
targets or to demonstrate our capability to do so. These operations
involve the swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information,
seize an objective, or destroy targets and end with a planned
withdrawal. The execution of this type of contingency operation
contains many of the missions discussed in Chapters 7,
8, and 9.
This type of operation is
conducted when the situation in a country requires the evacuation
or relocation of US citizens, selected host nation personnel,
and third country nationals. The operation may take place in a
low threat environment or require combat action. Chemical staff
personnel will be involved if the host nation possesses
an NBC capability. Additionally, chemical personnel can provide
expertise on the employment of riot control agents (RCA).
Insurgencies are organized
movements to overthrow a constituted government through the use
of subversion and armed conflict. The National Command Authority
(NCA) may direct US forces to assist either insurgent movements
or host nation governments opposing an insurgency. Chemical staff
personnel can provide expertise on the use of RCA, flame weapons
and commercial chemical threats. As the proliferation of NBC weapons
spreads across the globe, it is possible that forces involved
in insurgent/counterinsurgent operations could see the use of
chemical weapons. Smoke units could provide smoke screens to obscure
friendly activities from hostile forces.
Support to US civil authority
are those activities carried out by the military in support of
Federal and state officials. These activities are limited by the
Posse Comitatus Act. Support provided by chemical units can include
disaster assistance, civil disturbance control, and hazard materials
response. Decontamination units can provide an off-the-road water
haul capability, fire fighting support, and decontamination of
hazardous spills. Chemical units can provide expertise on the
employment of RCA during civil disturbance control operations.
See FM 100-19, Domestic Support Operations for more detail.
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