Operations in rear areas differ
from operations in forward combat areas. At the corps level, the
corps rear CP in coordination with corps G3, positions units in
the rear area. Units will be positioned based upon the corps mission,
concept of the operation, commander's intent, and their mission.
Because of the size of the corps rear area, the rear CP executes
rear operations through subordinate rear area operations centers
(RAOCs). A RAOC is responsible for an area that normally coincides
with a corps support group's designated area. FM 90-13, Rear
Battle provides information concerning rear operations.
Rear area security operations
ensure freedom of maneuver and continuity of operations. Once
units are positioned in the rear they are designated by the responsible
RAOC as either bases (unit or multi-unit positions with definite
perimeters) or base clusters (grouping of bases based on mission
and/or security requirements lacking a defined perimeter). The
RAOC also designates a commander for each base and base cluster.
The RAOC has OPCON for rear operations. Normal unit mission guidance
and prioritization remains a chain of command responsibility.
For example, mission taskings for a chemical battalion operating
within a RAOC area of responsibility are assigned by the corps
chemical brigade, not the RAOC.
BASE AND BASE CLUSTER SELF-DEFENSE
Each base and base cluster
develops a defense plan designed to detect, defeat, and minimize
the effects of level I and limited level II threat attacks to
include chemical attacks. These defense plans are consolidated
by the RAOC. Each separate base and base cluster will establish
an operations center capable of maintaining 24-hour communications
with the respective RAOC. Chemical units may be tasked to act
as a response force for bases or base clusters under attack.
Movements in the rear area
are often critical to the success of close, deep, and rear operations.
Movement planning and control ensures that the freedom of maneuver
is not impeded by friendly forces. Movement planning and control
is often coordinated with host nation authorities.
The corps G3 is responsible
for planning all tactical movements through or within the corps
rear area. The corps rear CP assists in the planning and control
of these movements. At all levels, tactical movements are planned
by the operations officers. Chemical units conducting tactical
movements coordinate with the appropriate CP.
CSS cells designate the main
supply routes (MSRs) to forward positioned units. For example,
division designates the primary and alternate MSRs from their
rear area to the subordinate brigades. The CSS cells establish
priorities for nontactical movement along the MSRs. Chemical units
use the MSRs for their nontactical movement. Movement along the
MSRs in the forward combat areas is usually more secure than movement
along other routes.
COMMUNICATIONS ZONE (COMMZ)
Each mature theater army area
command (TAACOM) has an enhanced theater army chemical battalion
HHD with two decontamination companies and one NBC reconnaissance
company. A JB NBCE team is attached to the TAACOM and each area
support group (ASG) to provide NBC staff support. Each theater
defense brigade is also supported by a JB team. The chemical battalion
can coordinate support operations through the use of area or task
assignments. Depending on METT-T, the companies may be task organized
to form chemical company teams.
Area support is provided by
designating subordinate elements to support all organizations
in an area. If possible, the designated areas should coincide
with the areas of responsibility of the ASGs, for example, assign
a decontamination company to provide decon support to all units
in the 23d ASG's area (Figure 9-1).
Allocate workload to chemical
units by assigning tasks to specific units, for example, assign
a decontamination company to operate four fixed decontamination
sites (Figure 9-2).
Units requiring immediate
chemical support (decontamination or NBC reconnaissance) would
pass their requirements through the base or base cluster to the
supporting ASG. The ASG would task the supporting chemical unit.
For routine chemical support (not as a result of a NBC attack),
the ASG would send the requirement to the TAACOM who processes
the request through the chain of command to the chemical unit.
CORPS AND DIVISION REAR
Depending on the corps mission
and the NBC threat to the rear area, chemical units will be allocated
to support units in the corps rear area. The allocation of a chemical
battalion HHD to provide command and control of chemical support
in the corps rear area is dependent on the number of chemical
companies committed to rear area support. The chemical units supporting
the rear area would be in general support (GS). However, their
workload is also designated, like the TAACOM chemical assets,
through area or task assignments. Requests for immediate chemical
support flow through the corps rear CP to the chemical brigade.
The chemical brigade TOC then directs the mission or tasking to
the appropriate chemical unit. Routine chemical support requests
go to the corps chemical section. The corps chemical section analyzes
the requirement. The corps G3 assigns a priority to the requirement.
The prioritized requirement is passed to the chemical brigade
TOC. The chemical brigade staff determines the allocation of support
necessary to provide the support and issues instructions to the
appropriate subordinate unit.
If a chemical battalion HHD
is not providing command and control in the rear area, the chemical
brigade does. If beyond the chemical brigade's ability, place
these chemical assets in direct support of the corps support groups.
The chemical battalion with
command and control of the corps rear area has a challenging mission.
The battalion staff must analyze the assigned missions/tasks and
develop a feasible support plan. The battalion may place the subordinate
chemical units in general support and provide mission or task
assignments or place the subordinate elements in a direct support
role. The area of responsibility, the threat, and the ability
to communicate will dictate which technique to use. The battalion,
depending on METT-T, may task organize the subordinate companies
to form chemical company teams.
Chemical battalions supporting
divisions must plan and execute chemical support operations in
the division rear area. Units requiring immediate chemical support
will request it through their higher headquarters, usually one
of the division's major subordinate commands (DISCOM, DIVARTY,
aviation brigade, or separate battalions) to the division chemical
section. The division chemical section analyzes the requirement
and makes a recommendation to the division G3. The G3 assigns
the mission/task to the chemical battalion for execution. Routine
support requests are passed to the division chemical section.
The chemical section will analyze and coordinate with G3 Plans
to determine future requirements. Based on recommendations by
the division chemical officer, the division commander issues guidance.
The battalion commander executes the commander's guidance and
the division chemical section provides staff supervision.
The chemical companies may
support rear operations in the TAACOM, corps, or division
rear areas. Decontamination may be more complex involving CSS
vehicles, supplies, and materials. It may be necessary to conduct
limited terrain or fixed site decontamination. Host nation support
may be required.
Chemical Staff Considerations
- Conduct an NBC IPB to determine
the NBC threat to the rear area.
- Conduct a vulnerability analysis
and provide recommendations to lessen vulnerability.
- Clarify NBCWRS chain and chemical
support request channels.
- Identify decon sites to support
all rear operations.
- Plan and coordinate NBC recon
effort with the PMO to avoid duplication.
- Identify and request host
- Understand the host nation NBCWRS.
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