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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

CHAPTER SEVEN

OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

The offense is the decisive form of combat. To win battles, friendly forces must move fret, strike hard, and finish rapidly. Under NBC conditions, attacking forces must use NBC defensive principles--avoidance, protection, and decontamination--to preserve combat power; and use smoke to enhance combat power. The offensive framework consists of--

  • A main attack with supporting attacks as required.

  • Reserve operations in support of the attack.

  • A reconnaissance and security operation forward and to the flanks and rear of main and supporting attacks.

  • A continuous deep operation in vital parts of the zone of attack.

  • Rear area operations necessary to maintain offensive momentum.

Chemical units are integrated throughout the battlefield. NBC reconnaissance elements detect contamination along routes of advance and monitor lines of communications. Smoke units provide large area screens to conceal the breaching of obstacles and the disposition and intentions of friendly forces. Decontamination units assist in the regeneration of combat power when contamination avoidance was not possible.

MOVEMENT TO CONTACT

Movement to contact is an operation to gain or reestablish enemy contact. Neither side may clearly have the initiative. Versatility is key when planning and executing a movement to contact. By maintaining versatility, the commander's freedom of action is retained once enemy contact is made. During a movement to contact, protection of the force has first priority. This is achieved by applying the principles of NBC defense and using obscurants for concealment and deception.

Corps and divisions normally organize into a covering force, advance guard, and a main body. The covering force operates at extended distances from the main body and must be self contained. The advanced guard is the security force provided by the main body. It operates forward of the main body to protect it from surprise attack and protects the main body when committed. The main body is the force task-organized and prepared for immediate action upon enemy contact.

CHEMICAL BRIGADE

The chemical brigade provides NBC reconnaissance and smoke assets to the covering force. Since the covering force will be operating well forward of the corps' main body, these assets should be attached to the unit operating as the covering force. The remainder of the brigade should be task-organized based upon METT-T. The command and support relationships of these task-organized chemical units are determined on the ability of the brigade headquarters to provide command and control and to coordinate CSS support. The brigade headquarters should move with the main body and when stationary, sets up near the corps main CP.

CHEMICAL BATTALION

The organization and positioning of the chemical battalions is based upon METT-T and the ability of the chemical brigade to provide C2. If a division is the covering force, a chemical battalion that is NBC reconnaissance and smoke heavy should be attached. The battalion should have CSS support from the COSCOM and provide chemical unit support to the covering force based on METT-T. The chemical battalion CP should be positioned near the division main CP with liaison provided to the division TAC.

Chemical battalions not supporting the covering force are task-organized based on METT-T and are positioned in the main body. Since there is a need for continuous and rapid movement, these battalions should move behind their supported elements. A DS role may be the best to provide the supported unit with rapid and flexible support. A minimal amount of resupply from the COSCOM will be available except for refueling.

CHEMICAL COMPANIES

The priority of support will be to the lead maneuver units with NBC recon and smoke support. Task organization of the chemical companies will be based upon METT-T with consideration given to the ability of the higher headquarters to provide C2and CSS. Decon units should be prepared to conduct operational decon to maintain momentum.

Consider forming chemical company teams to provide more flexible and responsive support. Chemical companies should not be given area support missions, but tasked to support specific units.

CHEMICAL STAFF CONSIDERATIONS

  • Focus NBC defense operations to provide the commander flexibility.

  • Conduct operational decon as necessary.

  • Plan thorough decon after the mission.

  • Select decon sites along the axis of advance.

  • Identify known or suspected areas of contamination.

  • Provide smoke assets to maneuver forces to best support the mission for deliberate smoke.

  • Priority of NBC recon and smoke support to lead maneuver forces based on mission and NBC threat.

  • Balance vulnerability of the force against the need for mass and agility.

HASTY AND DELIBERATE ATTACK

Attacks may be launched from a movement to contact, from a defensive posture, from behind a friendly defending force or during exploitation or pursuit. There are two basic types: deliberate and hasty. The two are distinguished by the extent of preparation. In either case, chemical units will be employed to enhance maneuver and firepower of the attacking force. Additionally protection of the force remains a high priority. NBC reconnaissance units should be employed to avoid contaminated areas. Obscurants are used to degrade enemy target acquisition and conceal movement of friendly forces. Decon is conducted as necessary to generate combat power.

Hasty attacks are not planned in detail. This type of attack is usually initiated by a fragmentary order. Forces will deploy, rapidly maneuver, and attack quickly and violently to gain the initiative. Chemical unit support must be responsive and flexible.

CHEMICAL BRIGADE

The chemical brigade provides NBC reconnaissance and smoke assets to support the corps' scheme of maneuver. Priority of support is given to the corps main effort. The command and support relationships of these task-organized chemical units are determined by the ability of the brigade headquarters to provide command and control and to coordinate CSS support. The brigade headquarters establishes its CP near the corps main TOC.

CHEMICAL BATTALION

The composition of the chemical battalion is based on METT-T. A battalion headquarters will command and control three to seven chemical companies. Normally, a chemical battalion will be allocated to support the division designated as the corps main effort. The command and support relationship between the battalion and the division is based on the chemical brigade's ability to provide command and control and the logistic support available from the corps and division. Other chemical battalions will provide support with priority to the supporting attack and the rear area.

CHEMICAL COMPANIES

The division chemical company should be task-organized based upon METT-T. If there is a high threat of chemical attacks, it is likely that each maneuver brigade would be supported by a decon platoon. The smoke platoon would support the brigade conducting the main effort and the NBC recon platoon could operate in three squads of two vehicles, each supporting a maneuver brigade. The remaining decon platoon would operate in a GS role supporting the units in the division rear. Additionally, this GS decon platoon could reinforce another decon platoon if a significant portion of the force was contaminated.

In the division being supported by a chemical battalion, it is possible to form chemical company teams organized to support specific areas or subordinate commands.

CHEMICAL STAFF CONSIDERATIONS

  • Focus NBC defense operations to provide the commander flexibility and facilitate synchronization.

  • Conduct operational decon as necessary.

  • Plan thorough decon after the mission is completed.

  • Select decon sites throughout the zone.

  • Operate in the lowest possible MOPP level.

  • Identify known or suspected areas of contamination.

  • Focus NBC reconnaissance assets to retain freedom of maneuver.

  • Use smoke to conceal movement of forces in zone and obstacle breaching.

  • Prioritize of NBC recon and smoke support to lead maneuver forces.

  • Balance vulnerability of the force against the need for mass and speed.

  • Identify possible contaminated areas and possible by-pass routes (for example, by-pass to the north).

  • The possibility of enemy NBC attacks increases as the attack progresses.

  • Consider the impact of enemy flame weapons.

EXPLOITATION AND PURSUIT OPERATIONS

Exploitation and pursuit operations begin immediately from the attack. Exploitation is the bold continuation of an attack following initial success. Pursuit is the relentless destruction of fleeing enemy forces who no longer have the capability to resist.

Fleeing enemy forces may use chemical weapons more freely than an enemy executing a well- prepared defense. This will necessitate the employment of NBC reconnaissance units. Obscurants are used to increase survivability. Decon operations are conducted as necessary to regenerate combat power.

CHEMICAL BRIGADE

The brigade will provide chemical units, especially smoke and NBC reconnaissance, to the units conducting the exploitation. These supporting chemical units need to be as mobile and self-sustaining as possible. Since the exploitation force will move continually over long distances, the command and support relationship of this chemical force should be attached or OPCON. The brigade CP should be established where it can best provide command and control of its subordinate elements and coordinate future operations with the corps.

CHEMICAL BATTALION

A chemical battalion that is smoke and NBC recon heavy should be allocated to the division conducting the exploitation. The command and support relationship between this battalion and the division is based on the ability of the brigade to provide C2 and coordinate CSS. The other battalions can operate in support of the other division or have area responsibilities. These battalions should have a mix of smoke, decon, and NBC recon units. Battalions having area responsibilities in the corps rear should be decon heavy.

CHEMICAL COMPANIES

The division chemical company will be task-organized based upon METT-T. If there is a high threat of chemical attacks, it is likely that each maneuver brigade would be supported by a decon platoon. The smoke platoon would support the brigade conducting the main effort and the NBC recon platoon could operate in three sections of two vehicles, each supporting a maneuver brigade. The remaining decon platoon would operate in a GS role supporting the units in the division rear. Additionally, this GS decon platoon could be pushed forward to reinforce another decon platoon if a significant portion of the force was contaminated.

In the division being supported by a chemical battalion, it is possible to form chemical company teams. These company teams are organized to support specific areas or subordinate commands.

CHEMICAL STAFF CONSIDERATIONS

  • Focus NBC defense operations to provide the commander flexibility and speed.

  • Ensure NBC support is agile and flexible.

  • Conduct operational decon only as necessary.

  • Plan thorough decon after the mission.

  • Select decon sites along routes of friendly maneuver to increase the survivability of the decon operations.

  • Operate in the lowest possible MOPP level.

  • Mark and report all identified areas of contamination and control access into those areas.

  • Be prepared to encounter enemy stockpiles of NBC weapons.

  • Be prepared to encounter the effects of destroying enemy NBC weapons stockpiles, facilities, and commercial chemical/nuclear facilities.

  • Consider the increased probability of enemy NBC attacks as he attempts to break contact and regain the initiative.

  • Focus NBC recon assets to retain freedom of maneuver.

  • Provide smoke assets to lead maneuver forces.

  • Priority of NBC recon and smoke support to lead maneuver forces.

  • Balance vulnerability of the force against the need for mass and speed.

  • Ensure chemical units are able to maintain pace with the supported forces.

  • Plan decon sites in coordination with the unit conducting the mission.

OTHER OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

RIVER CROSSING OPERATIONS

River crossings are conducted as part of a division or corps scheme of maneuver. There are two types of river crossings: deliberate and hasty. The size of the river, as well as the enemy and friendly situation, will dictate the crossing technique. Deliberate river crossings require detailed planning and coordination, a buildup of firepower, and centralized command and control. Hasty river crossings use expedient means and are conducted with minimal planning.

River crossing operations present lucrative targets for enemy NBC weapons. Large-area smoke support is necessary to conceal the actual and deception crossing sites. Decon units are prepared to conduct operational decon operations to ensure the momentum of the crossing is not lost. NBC recon units are employed in a contamination avoidance role on the far side to allow the momentum of the operation to continue. Additionally, NBC recon units are prepared to respond to NBC attacks in the crossing areas.

Chemical Brigade

The brigade will provide chemical units to support the crossing operations. These units will be under the control of the crossing force commander. The crossing force may require a mixture of smoke, NBC recon, and decon elements. If this is a corps level operation, the brigade establishes a liaison element at the crossing force headquarters. If this is a division level operation, the brigade allocates a command and control element to assist the division crossing force commander in controlling the supporting chemical units. The brigade CP should be established where it can best provide command and control of its subordinate elements and coordinate future operations with the corps.

Chemical Battalion

The chemical battalions are task-organized to support the crossing area and are prepared to support units on the far side. The battalions can support a specific units or given area support missions. The battalion supporting combat units should be smoke heavy. The battalions given area support missions should have a balanced mix of chemical companies (decon, mech smoke, motor smoke, and recon).

Chemical Companies

Use smoke or smoke heavy teams to support the crossing area. These companies position their headquarters so they can best control operations and communicate with the crossing site headquarters or supporting chemical battalion headquarters.

Decon sites are established near the crossing sites, but not to interfere with crossing operations. The decon sites should be located out of enemy artillery range.

Position NBC recon elements to support the crossing sites and the routes to them. NBC recon elements cross with the lead maneuver force find clear routes around contaminated areas on the far side.

Position smoke elements to support the crossing sites and start smoke prior to any engineer work. Use a haze so as not to interfere with the engineer effort. Smoke units should ensure they are positioned to be resupplied as well as to support the mission. Smoke units will consume large quantities of fog oil and POL. Consider propositioning fog oil near the crossing sites.

Chemical Staff Considerations

  • Focus NBC defense operations to provide the commander flexibility and speed.

  • Reduce vulnerability by dispersing forces and using multiple crossing sites.

  • Conduct operational decon as necessary.

  • Select decon sites to support the crossing sites.

  • Operate in the lowest possible MOPP level.

  • Consider the high probability of enemy NBC attacks.

  • Focus NBC recon assets to retain freedom of maneuver in the crossing area.

  • Prepare to shift NBC recon assets to the far side with the initial assault force.

  • Plan for the use and distribution of smoke pots.

  • Use a smoke haze on the crossing sites.

  • Plan smoke in support of deception operations.

  • Balance vulnerability of the force against the need for mass and speed.

RECONNAISSANCE IN FORCE

A reconnaissance in force is a limited objective operation designed to--

  • Obtain information.

  • Test enemy dispositions, strengths, and reactions.

This operation is usually executed prior to and as part of an attack or during a movement to contact. The objective is to acquire information regarding the enemy's situation and identify or confirm weaknesses in his defense. Corps or smaller units can conduct this operation. The headquarters controlling the operation must have sufficient forces to exploit success or extricate the committed force. The force must be capable of causing the enemy to react strongly and definitely to the attack, thus disclosing his locations, dispositions, strength, planned fires, and planned use of his reserves.

Since this is a limited objective operation, units contaminated will most likely continue to operate contaminated until after the mission. Smoke is employed to obscure friendly maneuver, degrade enemy target acquisition, and support deception operations. NBC recon elements move with the lead maneuver force to assist in finding clear routes if contamination is encountered.

Chemical Brigade

The brigade may provide chemical units to support recon in force operations, dependent on METT-T. The size of the force and the scope of the operation will dictate the level of support that the brigade will provide. The command and support relationship is also dependent on METT-T. The force conducting the operation may require a mixture of smoke, NBC recon, and decon elements. If this is a corps level operation, the brigade establishes a liaison with the force conducting the operation. If this is a division-level operation, the brigade should allocate a command and control element to assist in controlling the supporting chemical units. The brigade CP should be established where it can best provide command and control of its subordinate elements and coordinate future operations with the corps.

Chemical Battalion

The chemical battalion is task-organized to support the operation with a mix of chemical units, but heavy on smoke and NBC recon. The battalion headquarters should collocate near the force headquarters conducting the operation. Maximum flexibility should be given to the force commander in task-organizing supporting assets.

Chemical Companies

If this operation is being conducted by a brigade-size force, the supporting chemical units should be controlled by a chemical company headquarters. It maybe necessary to forma chemical company team or reinforce an existing chemical company (in the case of an ACR performing this mission with its organic chemical company). The supporting chemical company(s) position their headquarters so they can best control their operation(s) and communicate with their higher and supporting unit headquarters.

Chemical Staff Considerations

  • Focus NBC defense operations to provide the commander flexibility and speed.

  • Ensure NBC support is agile and flexible.

  • Conduct operational decon only as necessary.

  • Plan thorough decon after the mission.

  • Operate in the lowest possible MOPP level.

  • Mark and report contamination.

  • Focus NBC recon assets to retain freedom of maneuver.

  • Provide smoke assets to lead maneuver forces.

  • Consider the relative mobility of chemical units and the supported forces.

PASSAGE OF LINES

A passage of lines is an operation in which one force moves through another force either to come into (forward) or to move out of (rearward) contact with the enemy.

A forward passage of lines a unit passes through another that is in contact with the enemy to continue the attack. On receipt of the warning order directing the passage of lines, the incoming unit establishes liaison withthe unit in contact to begin detailed planning. The incoming unit normally collocates its TAC or main CP with the TAC or main CP of the unit in contact. The vulnerability to enemy NBC attacks increases because of the concentration of forces in the passage area. NBC recon elements are positioned at the passage points to assist if the passage lanes become contaminated. The unit in contact is responsible for providing decon support to the incoming unit. Large area smoke support is coordinated between the unit in contact and the incoming unit. After responsibility for the zone of action or sector of defense is transferred, so is the responsibility for all smoke operations.

In a rearward passage of lines a unit affecting a retrograde movement (withdrawal) passes through the sector of a unit occupying a defensive position. The planning and coordination is identical with that of the forward passage. The withdrawing unit must have priority on an adequate number of roads and facilities to allow its rapid movement through the defended area. The vulnerability to enemy NBC attacks increases during the passage operation because of the concentration of forces. NBC recon elements are positioned by the defending unit at the passage points to assist if the passage lanes become contaminated. The defending unit is responsible for providing decon support. Passage of lines during a withdrawal requires decon points identified so as to minimize traffic congestion. Contaminated units may have to decon in assembly areas in the rear if sufficient vehicles are contaminated. Large-area smoke support is coordinated between the defending unit and the rearward moving unit. The defending unit would position and control all smoke units in their defensive sector.

Chemical Brigade

The brigade will provide chemical units to support operations subsequent to the passage (that is, the defense and offensive or retrograde operations). Additional chemical resources could be allocated to support the passage operation based on METT-T (significant NBC threat at the passage area or the need for smoke because of limited cover and concealment in the passage area). These additional chemical elements will be under the control of the unit responsible for the passage. If this is a corps level operation, the brigade establishes a liaison element at the headquarters controlling the passage. If this is a division level operation, the brigade allocates a command and control element to assist. The brigade CP should be established to best provide command and control of its subordinate elements and coordinate future operations with the corps.

Chemical Battalion

The chemical battalions are task-organized to support the divisions subsequent to the passage and are prepared to provide support during the passage of lines. The battalions can be designated to support a specific unit or given area support missions.

Chemical Companies

Organize chemical companies supporting a passage of lines as smoke and NBC recon heavy. Prepare for sustained smoke operations. Position their headquarters to best control operations and communicate with the headquarters controlling the passage and the supporting chemical battalion.

Chemical Staff Considerations

  • Focus NBC defense operations to provide the commander flexibility and synchronization.

  • The stationary unit plans decon support for the moving force.

  • Designate passage points and passage lanes for the contaminated elements.

  • Exchange NBC information between the moving and stationary forces.

  • Operate in the lowest possible MOPP level.

  • Position NBC recon assets to support the passage operation.

  • Conceal movement of forces during the passage.

  • Use smoke to break contact with the enemy.

  • Balance vulnerability against the need for mass and synchronization.

  • Determine alternate routes in case the primary passage lanes become contaminated.

  • Concentration of forces increase the possibility of enemy NBC attacks.

SYNCHRONIZING OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

This section provides an example of how chemical units could be synchronized to support an attack. The XX Corps' mission is to defeat a defending enemy combined arms army (CAA) weakened through previous engagements and occupying a hasty defense. The example will use the offensive framework and is only one example of a concept and should be treated as such. The corps portrayed consists of two armored divisions, two mechanized divisions, a separate armored brigade, an armored cavalry regiment, an aviation brigade, and the associated combat support and combat service support units. A chemical brigade with all the subordinate chemical units for this size force is present and available for employment (Figure 7-l). The Corps. defending enemy CAA has three motorized rifle divisions in the main defensive belt, one motorized rifle division in the second defensive belt, and a tank division in reserve behind the second defensive belt. The enemy has an extensive capability to use chemical weapons and a limited nuclear capability. He has used chemical weapons extensively during both defensive and offensive operations. No nuclear weapons have been used.


THE MISSION

The mission of the corps is to penetrate the defensive belts and allow a follow-on corps to pass through and defeat the CAA by exploitation. The commander's intent is initially to effect a penetration of both defensive belts, contain the defending CAA's forces, then pass the follow-on corps through. This will be followed by continued offensive operations to defeat the entire CAA defense.

THE GENERAL SCHEME OF MANEUVER

The corps will conduct this operation in five phases (Figure 7-2).

Phase 1. Penetrate the first echelon moorized rifle division (MRD) on the left with the 52d Infantry Division (ID) (Mech). Once the first echelon MRD or the left is penetrated, penetrate the center MRD with the 54th ID. The 52d ID is the corps main effort.

Phase 2. Pass the 23d Armored Division through the penetration created by the 52d ID and conduct a feint with the 313th Armored Brigade (Sep) against the MRD on the right. The 23d AD attack is designed to cause the commitment of the enemy's reserve--the tank division. If the enemy does not react with its reserve, the 23d AD will continue to penetrate the second defensive belt and envelop the second echelon MRD. The feint is designed to fix the MRD on the right and prevent it from reacting to the attack on the center MRD.

Phase 3. This phase has two possible branches. The remaining armored division--25th Armored Division (AD) will pass through the 54d ID in the center. If the enemy reserve tank division has counterattacked against the 23d AD, the 25th AD will attack to destroy it and the 23d AD will continue its envelopment of the second echelon MRD.

    Branch 1. If the tank division does not commit, the 25th AD will attack to cover the flank of the 23d AD from a possible counterattack by the tank division. Both armored divisions will then penetrate the left side of the second echelon MRD. The 23d AD will attack to envelop the tank division, while the 25th AD attacks to envelop the second echelon MRD.

    Branch 2. If the tank division only moves to a defensive position on the left side of the second defensive belt to block the penetration of the 23th AD, the 25th AD will attack to penetrate, then envelop the right side of the second defensive belt. The 23th AD will attack to fix the tank division.

Phase 4. The 201st Armored Cavalry Regiment will pass through either penetration depending on the outcome of phase 3. The 201st ACR will attack to sever the combined arms army's (CAA) lines of communication (LOC) and destroy combat support and combat service support units in the CAA's rear area.

Phase 5. Pass the follow-on corps and continue combat operations to destroy the second echelon MRD and defeat the first echelon MRDs.


THE SCHEME OF CHEMICAL SUPPORT

The corps commander's guidance on chemical support is--

  • Provide the forces making the penetration with smoke support to ensure their success.

  • Allocate and position NBC recon systems to facilitate freedom of maneuver.

  • Accept risk in the forward area against chemical strikes. Ensure decon support is available to CSS supporting the attacking divisions. I cannot have and interruption of support to the forward combat units.

  • Because of the flexibility in the plan, we can shift forces from the divisions initial attack to the divisions passing through them.

  • Ensure the follow-on divisions are not delayed by deep chemical attacks and chemical assets to carry out their missions.

Table 7-1 shows the available and committed chemical units supporting the corps for this making the have sufficient operation. The committed chemical units are those already performing support missions or those assigned to the corps subordinate units. The available forces are those that have not been assigned missions for the upcoming operation.


The chemical brigade assisted by the corps chemical staff develop a scheme of support which is approved by the corps commander and executed by the chemical brigade. The approved concept is--

  • Support the corps main effort (52d ID) with a chemical battalion (OPCON) consisting of two mech smoke company, and a motorized smoke company.

  • Support the 54th ID with a mech smoke company and a motorized smoke company (OPCON). Support the 23d AD with a mech smoke company (DS).

  • Support the 25th AD with a motorized smoke company (DS).

  • Support the 313th separate armored brigade (SAB) with a motorized smoke company (DS).

  • The remaining chemical assets will support the corps rear area.

  • The two chemical battalions will have area support missions (Figure 7-3).


THE CORPS MAIN EFFORT

The 52d ID is the corps main effort with the mission to penetrate the first defensive belt and pass the 23rd AD forward to penetrate the second defensive belt. The division has been reinforced with an OPCON chemical battalion consisting of two mech smoke companies, a motorized smoke company, and a smoke/decon company. The division's scheme of maneuver is to attack with the 1st Brigade as the main effort to penetrate the first echelon positions and pass the 3d Brigade through to penetrate the second echelon positions. The 2d Brigade will conduct a supporting attack in the west. A battalion task force will conduct a feint in the east.


The division commander provides the following guidance on the employment of chemical assets--

  • Support the main effort with smoke and NBC recon. I want to minimize the enemy's long-range fires as we breach.

  • I want some smoke support with the task force conducting the feint to deceive the enemy as to the true size of that force. I want them to think that it's a brigade attacking them.

  • My priority of decon is to the FA. I want them to keep up sustained fires throughout this operation.

  • I will accept risk with the supporting attack.

The division chemical officer and supporting chemical battalion commander developed the scheme of support which is approved by the division commander (see Figure 7-5). The division chemical company will be OPCON to the chemical battalion. The chemical support plan for the division is--

  • Support 1st Brigade (main effort) with a reinforced mech smoke company divisional smoke platoon attached, two NBC recon squads, and a decon platoon in DS.

  • Support 2d Brigade (the supporting attack) with a mechanized smoke company, a decon platoon, and one NBC recon squad in DS.

  • Support the 3d Brigade (the reserve) with a motorized smoke company (-) and a decon platoon in DS.

  • Support the task force conducting the feint with a motorized smoke platoon in DS. The division chemical company (-) is in GS with the mission of providing decon support to the division rear.

  • The chemical battalion TOC will position itself near the division main CP.


THE DIVISION MAIN EFFORT

The 1st Brigade is the 52d Mech's main effort with the mission of penetrating the first echelon defensive positions in the first defensive belt. The brigade is task-organized with two tank battalions, mechanized infantry battalion, a combat engineer battalion in DS, a field artillery battalion in DS, along with the typical slice of division troops. The division has given the brigade a chemical company team comprised of four mech smoke platoons, a decon platoon, and two NBC recon squads in DS.

The brigade commander's scheme of maneuver is to use a balanced TF as the support force, an armor-heavy TF as the breaching force, and an armor-heavy TF as the assault force (see Figure 7-6). The brigade commander provides the following guidance on the employment of the chemical company team--

  • I want to protect the breaching force with smoke, but the engineers have to be able to see what they're doing.

  • If the breach gets hit with gas, I want to be able to conduct operational decon fast.

  • The support force needs NBC recon support to quickly find by-passes if they hit contamination as they move forward.

  • I want the enemy in the west to think we're going to breach there, so I want a little smoke over there.

  • I also want smoke support for the assault force.


The brigade chemical officer and the chemical team commander working closely with the brigade S3 develops a chemical support plan (see Figure 7-7). The brigade commander approves the chemical support plan. The chemical support plan for the brigade is to--

  • Designate one smoke platoon to support the support force. After the breach is made, this platoon's priority of support will shift to the assault force

  • Designate two smoke platoons to support the breach force.

  • Position the decon platoon at the chemical company team's CP with a support priority to units in the breach, fire support, support force, and CSS.

  • Both NBC recon squads will provide support initially to the support force. Once the breach is made, one squad will provide support to the assault force, while the other squad will provide support to the breach site.

  • The platoons and squads will receive class I and III support form the task forces they are supporting. The smoke platoons and NBC recon sections will monitor the task force's command net, while the chemical company team will monitor the brigade operations and intelligence (O&I) net. The chemical company team commander will provide situation reports to the chemical battalion commander via MSE or other available communications means every four hours. The decon platoon will monitor the chemical company team's net. The chemical company team commander will drop to the platoon internal nets to monitor, request information, or pass instructions.



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