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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is composed of two sites: the Main Site and Site 300. The Main Site, also known as the Livermore Site 200, is located in Livermore, California, 40 miles east of San Francisco and 6.4 kilometers (4 miles) from downtown Livermore. It occupies approximately 2.6 square kilometers (one square mile, 821 acres) of relatively flat terrain in the Livermore Valley. The site has about 600 buildings including 260 facilities with hazards greater than those found in office buildings. Eight of the 260 facilities are characterized as non-reactor nuclear and 63 as radiological facilities. Residential subdivisions were recently built adjacent to the site boundary. They are separated from the site by a wide city roadway. Site 300 is approximately 24 kilometers (15 miles) southeast of the Laboratory's Main Site. It occupies approximately 28.6 square kilometers (11 square miles) of rugged foothills that straddle Alameda and San Joaquin Counties.

LLNL was created in 1952 to serve as a second laboratory dedicated to research, development, and maintenance of nuclear weapon designs. Over the years, the mission has been broadened to include strategic defense, energy, the environment, bio- medicine, the economy, and education. Site 300 was established in 1953 as a high explosives test site to support LLNL nuclear weapons development. The mission at Site 300 also includes increasing explosives research, development and testing for conventional weapons as well as other non-explosives research in areas such as lasers and electromagnetic wave behavior. Activities at LLNL include the research, design, and development of nuclear weapons. It also performs assessments and certification of stockpile weapons, testing their safety, security, and reliability. LLNL conducts reasearch and development of plutonium, tritium, and high-explosives.

LLNL is an applied science laboratory and a national security laboratory that is part of the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). It supports the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program of the NNSA Defense Program. ASC oversees the development of computer simulation capabilities to analyze the performance, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons. In addition to its work on nuclear weapons, LLNL pursues major research programs in energy and environment, bioscience and biotechnology, and basic science and advanced technology. Activities at LLNL were managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Oakland Operations Office (OAK). OAK is no longer in operation and its responsibilies were transferred to the NNSA. LLNL is managed by NNSA Livermore Site Office (LSO). LLNL was managed by the University of California from its inception in 1952 through September 2007, before Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC took over management on October 1, 2007. The Laboratory is a government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility. In 2008, LLNL had 7,216 employees with over 3,500 scientists, engineers, and technicians, including more than 1,200 Ph.D. scientists and engineers.

The fiscal year (FY) 1996 total site budget was $1.0 billion. The budget was increased with the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in FY 1997 and 1998. In 2008, LLNL's annual operating budget was $1.6 billion. As a national security laboratory, Livermore's funding comes largely from the NNSA Office of Defense Programs. Funding also comes from NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Proliferation, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Defense. About $1.16 billion was appropriated for FY 2008 by DOE. According to President Bush's FY 2009 budget request for DOE, LLNL would recieve $1.1 billion. The FY 2009 budget request does not include other fund sources, such as the departments of Defense and Homeland Security.

As of 2008, LLNL is part of Complex Transformation, a NNSA program for a smaller, safer, more secure, and less expansive nuclear weapons complex to replace the standing complex that is believed to be too old with too many facilities. NNSA plans to consolidate nuclear materials at five sites by 2012 and reduce the square footage of those sites by 2017. The original date for removing high-security materials from LLNL was 2014, but that date has been moved up to 2012.The mission plans to make LLNL a Center of Excellence for Nuclear Design and Engineering and a Center of Excellence for High Explosive R&D. LLNL has Category I/II quantities of special nuclear materials (SNM), which will be removed by 2012; thus down-grading Superblock buildings 332 and 334. Other plans include reducing by 30% the buildings and structures supported by NNSA. Also, the proposal calls for all weapons account activities at Site 300 to be ceased by 2015.

Nuclear Weapons Stockpile at LLNL for Fiscal Year 2007-2011
Bomb/Warhead Weapon System Mission Military Service
W62 Minuteman III ICBM Surface to Surface Air Force
W87 Minuteman III ICBM Surface to Surface Air Force
B83 B-52 and B-2 Air to Surface Air Force
W80-0 TLAM-N, Attack Submarine Underwater to Surface Navy
W80-1 ALCM/ACM, B-52 Air to Surface Air Force
Data according to Stockpile Stewardship Program Overview - 13 November 2006 (DOE/NA-0014)

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