2006 - Prospective Manned Transport System (PPTS)
Prospective Manned Transport System (PPTS) and the New Manned Transport Vehicle (PTK NP - pilotiruemogo transportnogo korablya novogo pokoleniya) are temporary official names for the projects of the Russian carrier rocket and multipurpose manned partially reusable spaceship that is to replace manned spacecraft of the Soyuz series and automatic cargo ships of the Progress series. Proposals on the concept of the program for the development of manned space flight in Russia were developed by RSC Energia in the second half of 2005 in order to determine technically and economically sound areas of work in this area for the next 25 years. The Corporation has more than 45 years of experience in implementing manned space flight programs in cooperation with dozens and hundreds of enterprises and organizations of the industry. As the main contractor in this field, the company is responsible for the implementation of projects already adopted, for their rational continuation and development.
The first competition for a new Russian spacecraft was announced by the Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) on November 23, 2005. The projects were presented by the enterprises of OAO RSC Energia. S.P. Korolev (Klipper), the State Space Research and Production Space Center named after. MV Khrunichev and OAO NPO Molniya. As a result of the tender, all three projects were sent for revision due to technical and economic unrealizability, and the competition was terminated.
Serious elaboration of the "bearing body" scheme was carried out in RSC Energia on the instructions of Roskosmos within the framework of the topic "Clipper". The potential advantages of the "bearing body" are a greater lateral maneuver when descending from the orbit than the capsule, and also in a slightly smaller level of congestion. However, the "pay" for this is the constructive complexity associated with the need for the presence of aerodynamic control surfaces in addition to the reactive control system, as well as the difficulty of providing braking in the Earth's atmosphere.
The concept of the program for the development of manned cosmonautics was considered and approved on February 14, 2006 at the meeting of the expanded Scientific and Technical Council (NTS), which was held in RSC Energia. Representatives of Roskosmos, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), heads of the leading enterprises and organizations of the industry, profile universities of the country took part in the work of the NTS. The debates at the meeting were made by the academicians of the Russian Academy of Sciences BE Chertok, OM Belotserkovsky, GI Severin, IV Barmin, the head of Roskosmos manned space programs AB Krasnov, the general director of the GSKRK TsSKB-Progress "AN Kirillin, Rector of the MSTU. NE Bauman Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences IB Fedorov, Director of the Institute of Correspondence Member of the RAS LM Zeleny and others.
Speakers noted the urgency of developing a concept for the development of Russia's manned space program for the long term and the need for further joint efforts to form this promising program, based on the requirements of its balance and feasibility, alignment with the development programs for automatic space vehicles and launch vehicles. At the meeting of the STC it was suggested to send materials on the concept to state structures for consideration in the development of the national space program for the period 2006-2030.
The concept was also stated at the scientific and technical conference of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics. KE Tsiolkovsky, held April 25, 2006 in Roskosmos in connection with the 15th anniversary of the Academy.
At the beginning of 2006, Roskosmos held a new competition for the project "... reusable piloted new generation of ships for transport and technical maintenance of the orbital manned space stations, prospective space complexes and other party group". The competition was attended by NPO Molniya with the project MAKS, GKNPTS imeni Khrunichev with the project of manned transport ship (RTS) and RKK "Energy" with its project "Klipper".
"Evil tongues" argued that the competition was specially designed for the Klipper project. Everybody expected his victory in the contest, but during the competition, there were tensions between the leadership of RSC Energia and Roskosmos and there was a rapprochement between Roskosmos and the State Space Research and Space Center Khrunichev.
Roscosmos unexpectedly changed the terms of the competition, introducing an additional requirement for competitive proposals "to ensure the independent solution of the tasks of delivering crews to the Moon and return them to Earth, and in the future - the use of a modification of the ship in the composition of the Martian manned expeditions." As a result, the primacy passed to a wingless project of the PTC State Space Research and Space Center Khrunichev.
By this time the line for the R&D "Klipper" disappeared. At the same time, the European Space Agency (ESA) intervened in the event, promising $30 million for "joint development of a new manned ship". The situation became so scandalous that Roskosmos stopped the contest, declaring it invalid. All projects were rejected, and in support of this solution with reference to the MAKS project was only one: the carrier aircraft of foreign- production.
In the meantime, the GKNPTS imeni Khrunichev (formed by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of June 7 1993 on the basis of the largest enterprises of the rocket and space industry in Russia - Khrunichev Plant and KB "Salyut") was engaged in essentially a deep modification of the old kind Soyuz, which, being new in the composition of the equipment and onboard systems, was actually a continuation of the ideology of forty years ago. The apparatus was a compromise between great ambitions, and real financial limits.
For the first time information was publicly published in the journal "Polet" N5 / 2006. The scheme of the return device is based on the constructive scheme of the return device 11F74 of the transport vehicle 11F72, which has undergone full-scale tests and confirmed the high reliability and safety. Its hypersonic the aerodynamic quality is 0.4. On this basis, with minimal modifications, can be created light (14500kg.) and heavy (up to 24000kg) modifications for the decision. To put them into orbit it was supposed with the help of LV "Angara-3P" and "Angara-5" respectively. In total, there were studies of 7 modifications, including the basic configuration.
On January 18, 2006, the Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) announced a closed competition for the creation of a reusable manned spacecraft of a new generation for transport and maintenance of orbiting manned space stations, advanced manned space complexes and other objects near-earth orbital grouping". The competitive commission was supposed to announce its results in early February. to participate in the competition Roscosmos filed the applications of the three leading domestic enterprises of the rocket and space industry - the Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, the State Space Research and Production Center. M.V. Khrunichev and the Scientific and Production Association "Molniya". Now, briefly about the projects submitted to the commission.
- Klipper prospective universal spacecraft created in RSC Energia has a reusable capsule, a total length of more than 10 meters, a starting mass of up to 14.5 tons. He will be able to deliver 6 crew members and 700 kilograms of cargo into orbit. The new ship will be able to work on a wide range of programs: from the ISS to flights to Mars and the Moon. In comparison with the ship "Soyuz" that is currently operating, the newcomer will be more comfortable and roomy. The developers say that he absorbed all the best that is created in the field of building spacecraft in our country. "Clipper" consists of a large and comfortable crew compartment, instrument and unit compartments. Another important difference from its predecessors is the emergency rescue system. With the help of its engines, the crew can be rescued at any stage of the flight by instant detachment from the rocket. Also, "Clipper" will be able to change the trajectory during the landing, which will allow him to land where necessary, for example in Russia, and not in Kazakhstan.
- The multi-purpose aerospace system (MAKS), developed in the NGO Molniya, is a two-stage air launch complex consisting of the An-225 Mriya carrier aircraft designed by the ANPK them. OK. Antonova (Ukraine, Kiev), where an orbital aircraft is installed in a manned or unmanned version or a cargo container with an external fuel tank filled with cryogenic fuel components. The system is based on conventional airfields of the 1st class, equipped with the fueling components necessary for MAKS, the ground technical and landing complex, and fits mainly into the existing facilities of the ground control complex for space systems. MAKS basic elements are made in a reusable version, except for the external fuel tank and the launch unit.
- GKNPTS imeni M.V.Khrunichev presented a comprehensive program for participation in the contest using the experience accumulated by the center of the creation of the return transport supply ship. This is a single ready-made ship-carrier system-launch complex.
The results of the contest were supposed to be announced on February 3, 2006. However, on this day, the Roskosmos press service distributed the following message: "Having examined the materials submitted by the tender participants, the Tender Committee concluded that none of the applications satisfies the requirements of the tender documentation in full part of the technical and economic feasibility of the project in a timely manner and safety of flights". On 25 July 2006 the three contestants for the development of a new manned spacecraft received an official notification with the signature of the chairman of the tender commission for rejecting all three applications (competitive offers) as non-conforming to the condition (TK) of the competition. As a result of rejection of all submitted applications, the tender was declared invalid. Among the technical reasons for the rejection of applications in the part of the launch vehicle, it is said:
- RKK Energia and Khrunichev offered non-existent LV, the creation of which by means of a deep modification of existing LV will require large expenditures;
- NPO "Molniya" had technical issues. The contestants did not take into account the presented requirements in full: use only domestic launch means (OAO NPO Molniya uses a Ukrainian carrier aircraft)
Among the organizational reasons are financial issues, including the excess of the cost of all proposed projects over the amount of 500 million rubles pledged in the FKP to develop a new manned spacecraft. In general, the manner and technology of holding a competition of this scale and significance for the industry and the country as a whole, with such an inglorious result, testified to the lack of professionalism and organizational incompetence as the leadership of the Federal Space Agency of Russia in particular, and the worthlessness of the entire organization as a state institution as a whole.
The competition for a new manned spacecraft, started in early 2009, ended embarrassing: the organizers came to the conclusion that the conditions were not clearly formulated. In other words, they did not really understand what they wanted. And in the same year they announced a new competition.
RSC Energia in April 2009 won a tender for the development of a draft design for a prospective Russian manned spacecraft. The new manned spacecraft "Rus", which is being developed by RSC Energia specialists, would be reusable and able to make manned flights to the moon, the head of the RSC Energia scientific and technical design center, Igor Khamits, reported to journalists.
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