Federatsiya Perspektivnyy Transportnyy Korabl
The "Federation" project creates an advanced spacecraft, which will deliver people and cargo to the Moon and to orbital stations located in near-earth orbit. The development of the device uses the latest technology and solutions. In particular, the returned device will be made using special composite materials; a reusable docking assembly is provided. The crew of the Federation can number up to four people. In the mode of autonomous flight the ship will be able to stay up to 30 days, while flying in the orbital station - up to one year.
The first flight of the "Federation", according to available information, will not go until 2022. A manned flight and docking with the ISS is planned in 2024.
The Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute imeni Professor NE Zhukovsky (TsAGI) reported in May 2018 the completion of the first stage of the research of the model of the new returned apparatus "Federation". So, it is reported that the tests of the "Federation" took place in the transonic wind tunnel of TsAGI. The aerodynamic characteristics, distribution and pressure pulsations were studied on the executive models of a single returned apparatus and in a composition with a carrier rocket. As a result of the experiments, information was obtained for reliable design of systems and units of the new device in terms of strength, aerodynamics and flight dynamics.
The Federatsiya (PTK Perspektivnyy Transportnyy Korabl - future transport ship) spacecraft being developed by the Energiya Rocket and Space Corporation is designed to deliver humans and cargoes to the near-Earth orbit as well as to the Moon. Its crew will comprise up to four members. In its autonomous flight, the spacecraft will be able to operate up to 30 days and up to a year as part of an orbital station. Russia intends to use heavy Angara-A5V and Angara-A5P carrier rockets for delivering the Federatsiya spacecraft into orbit. Earlier reports said the spacecraft’s first example will weigh 14.4 tonnes, the version for flights to the International Space Station - 19 tonnes, the Moon version - 20.5 tonnes.
By March 2017 RSC RSC "Energia" had started production of the new Russian "Federation" spacecraft, the CEO of the corporation Vladimir Solntsev said. "It is in the active stage of the work, almost all the design documentation had been released, and we currently produce individual components," - he said. Solntcev specified that the first vessel will be directed into a low orbit and will be 80% made of composite materials, and the lander made of aluminum.
"If you take the total of all the materials from which it is made, 80% of it will be a composite. The question is that of what is to be made re-entry vehicle, that is, the capsule in which the astronauts return to Earth. Today we are working with aluminum, which is a new alloy 1570S, which is completely new, it is uprated, which will reduce the ship's weight and provide parry dynamic loads "- Solntsev said.
He noted that before RSC "Energia" the task is not only to make the ship, but also to make it competitive. Solntsev recalled that the first "Federation" should be created by 2021, with the start of flight tests. "Further, we are already laying the next stage - the stage of modernization. I think we will find some sort of compromise on the first ship, he would have focused more on the low orbit, "- he added.
For the estimation of "Federation" into orbit is planned to use heavy carrier rocket "Angara-A5V" and "Angara- A5P". The first launch of unmanned scheduled for 2021, the first manned - at the end of 2023.
"Federation" will fly to the Moon - and this is the fundamental difference between this development of the "Soyuz". "Federation" will equip Earth orbital stations and facilities on the lunar orbit: to deliver astronauts and cargo to ensure rescue crews. The ship can be up to 30 days in free flight, which means that it will be possible for the most complex scientific experiments in conditions of weightlessness.
Vladimir Solntsev, President of RSC "Energia". said "All flight to the Red Planet technology need to work, and the preparation of the lunar mission for this best. We are working with the Americans the opportunity to dock our ships. With Europe and the US are discussing the possibility of establishing a lunar orbital station. Our approaches coincide somewhere and in something different. But I believe that the PCF project with an eye to the agreed Now lunar program is just the most optimal, efficient and logical."
"We have raised the bar very high", - said Mark Serov. "We would like to create an intelligent machine, which allows to implement truly groundbreaking space exploration projects, in which the synergy possibilities between man and machine will give a qualitative change in the practice of space flight. To implement this approach, developers, and in particular our team - the flight test department of the company SP Korolev, it is sometimes necessary to revise the seemingly immutable truth. For example - that the structural elements of the ship can be done not from metal and carbon-fiber composite; that with solid-propulsion can reduce the landing speed to zero."
Using the touch screen on the remote crew and a single multi-channel control knobs, reusable docking assembly of solar cells from gallium arsenide, the latest heat-proof materials - these and many other solutions are innovative not only for domestic but also for the world space. New materials and designs to be used in space "Federation" ships, the new parachute system, soft landing engines. "Federation" will return to lunar orbit with the second cosmic speed. New elements will work in stages on nine unmanned ships.
The main difference between the new ship - it will fly in space several times. 10 flights to low orbit. At least 10 short-term missions to the moon. With long-term lunar mission to dock with the lunar orbital station ship capabilities provide three flights. In the prospective ship, of course, more comfortable and more spacious than the "Soyuz." Free volume for each crew member significantly increased.
Designers were involved in the design: everything is thought out to the smallest detail, to the crew of the ship responsible life in a modern ergonomic standards. For example - the new chair: lodgements for the crew became much easier. Control panel hinged to flight was more space. Flight engineer of the chair could safely reach the locking device, tilt control from the top position to control. All control buttons within reach. Even the toilet cubicle is like the best on airplanes.
A creative competition for choosing the best name for the new manned transport vehicle was announced on August 27, 2015. An obligatory condition for the name is the conformity to the status and the type of the ship. Voting was organized by RSC Energia with the participation of the Federal Space Agency and the United Rocket and Space Corporation and was held in several stages. In total, 5,817 original variants of names were proposed. The work of the organizing committee for the selection of the top 10 variants of PTK names was held from November 3 to December 3, 2015. According to the results of the selection, 10 variants were chosen which were proposed for public voting. According to the results of the public vote held from December 4 to December 23, 2015, in which 35,105 people took part, three finalists were determined: Gagarin - 10,389 votes, Vector - 4,866 votes, Federation - 3,604 votes, Astra "- 1 665 votes," Galaxy "- 1 489 votes," Motherland "- 1 315 votes," World "- 1 261 votes," Zodiac "- 1 199 votes," Star "- 911 votes," Leader " 793 votes. The jury of the competition, chaired by the head of Roskosmos Igor Komarov, determined the winner on January 15, 2016, contrary to the results of the vote. It was announced that the new ship would be called "Federation" (the name was first proposed by Andrei Smokotin from the city ??of Kemerovo). This is a most appropriate name, with the Russian Federation's "Federatsiya" replacing the Soviet Unions Soyuz [= Union].
On 27 May 2017 TASS reported that Roskosmos rescheduled the first launch of the Federatsiya piloted spacecraft from 2021 to 2022. The flight will be from Baikonur on the new Feniks middle-class carrier. Formerly, the first launch was planned for 2021 from the Vostochnyi pad on the Angara class carrier.
"Roskosmos suggests reviewing the plans to launch the Federatsiya crewed spacecraft and to relocate the launch to the Baikonur port. The launch will be made on a new carrier of the middle class, which is being made now under the Feniks project. This project will be implemented in the framework of the Bayterek complex. This would not require major changes to the spacecraft, as the new carrier would be using RD-170M forced engines, and the tests of this complex are planned for 2022," a source at the space sector told TASS.
"Due to the changed carrier for the spacecraft’s launch, the decision is to refuse from work on a piloted version of Angara-A5P carrier. Manned programs will return to the Vostochnyi cosmodrome only in the beginning of construction of the launch complex for the super-heavy carrier after 2025," the source said, stressing the new plans would not affect construction of the Angara launch complex, which is still due by 2021, though the launch now is planned not with a piloted spacecraft, but with unmanned payload.
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